Appendix 5. Digital reconstruction of the quadrate of Pachyrhachis problematicus. Animation sequence showing extraction of region of interest, rotation of region of interest, removal of elements other than quadrate, removal of crushing of the quadrate, and rotation of restored quadrate. Removal of crushing was accomplished by alignment of the cephalic condyle long axis with the sagittal axis of the skull and alignment of the mandibular condyle orthogonal to the manidibular long axis. A crack apparently due to extensional forces was eliminated by a slight anterior rotation of the distal portion of the quadrate. Note the lack of suprastapedial process and the presence of a stylohyal process on the distal medial shaft.