APPENDIX 1

List and description of 156 characters and states used in our phylogenetic analyses. Ordered characters are indicated with an asterisk (*).

1. Upper incisor number

(0) five incisors present

(1) four incisors present (I5 lost)

2. Diastema between I4 and I5

(0) absent

(1) present

3. I5 morphology

(0) I5 similar in morphology to I1-4

(1) I5 pointed and strongly canine-like

(2) I5 premolar like,

4. *Degree of development of lingual shelf on P3

(0) no shelf

(1) small/weakly developed shelf

(2) well-developed lingual shelf

(3) well-developed lingual shelf that extends to the buccal side of P3,

5. *P3 major cusp development

(0) P3 major cusp laterally compressed

(1) P3 major cusp laterally enlarged but not conical

(2) P3 major cusp large and conical, but P3 is narrower than M1

(3) P3 Major cusp large and conical, and P3 is wider than M1,

6. *Stylar crest on M1

(0)stylar crest present on StD connects to metastylar tip

(1) StD is a conical cusp not connected to the stylar crest running to the metastylar tip

(2) StD is a conical cusp and no stylar crest present,

7. *Anterior cingulum of M1

(0) no anterior cingulum

(1) small anterior cingulum lingual to anterior tip of tooth, no connection to talon

(2) anterior cingulum enlarged and connects to talon as small shelf,

8. *Anterior cingulum of M3

(0) no anterior cingulum

(1) small anterior cingulum lingual to anterior tip of tooth

(2) small anterior cingulum connected to protocone shelf by a small shelf

(3) large anterior cingulum expanded further up to the protocone,

9. *Direction of preparacrista of M1

(0) preparacrista anterobuccally orientated to connect to anteriorly positioned StB.

(1) preparacrista buccally orientated (perpendicular to tooth row) then posterobuccally orientated

(2) preparacrista posterobuccally orientated to connect to posteriorly located StB

(3) preparacrista posterobuccally orientated to connect to StB and then reconnects with postparacrista posteriorly,

10. *Posterior cingulum of M3

(0) absent

(1) present

(2) present and wide,

11. *Morphology of the centrocrista on M1 and M2

(0) postparacrista and premetacrista contact each other, forming a complete centrocrista that connects the paracone and metacone (more lingually).

(1) postparacrista and premetacrista contact each other, forming a complete centrocrista that connects the paracone and metacone (more buccally)

(2) postparacrista does not connect to the premetacrista and ends at the base of StB, premetacrista ends at base of StD ,

12. *Morphology of centrocrista on M3

(0) postparacrista and premetacrista contact each other, forming a complete centrocrista that connects the paracone and metacone (more lingually).

(1) postparacrista and premetacrista contact each other, forming a complete centrocrista that connects the paracone and metacone (more buccally)

(2) postparacrista does not connect to the premetacrista and ends at the base of StB, premetacrista ends at base of StD ,

13. *Lobation of i3

(0) i3 is unicuspid

(1) i3 posterior cusp present but small

(2) I3 posterior cusp present and large,

14. Length of p3

(0) p3 longer or equal in length to p2

(1) p3 shorter than p2 ,

15. Presence of preentocristid

(0) present

(1) absent,

16. Direction of preentocristid of m1-3

(0) anteroposterior

(1) oblique,

17. Cusp within the hypoflexid region, between the talonid and trigonid on the buccal side

(0) no median buccal cusp present

(1) median buccal cusp present ,

18. Distinction between lower molar crowns and roots

(0) crown distinct from roots

(1) crown and root indistinct (other than for limit of enamel)

19. Hypoconulid posterior to entoconid

(0) hypoconulid positioned posterobuccal to the entoconid

(1) hypoconulid positioned almost directly posterior to the entoconid ,

20. *Size of talonid on m4

(0) entoconid and hypoconid large, talonid relatively wide, crests clearly identifiable.

(1) entoconid and hypoconid smaller than in state 0, talonid smaller

(2) further reduction of entoconid and hypoconid, talonid very small, crest poorly defined,

21. Snout length and premaxilla size

(0) premaxilla taller than it is long; maxilla-nasal contact longer than premaxilla-nasal contact (usually correlated with a relatively short snout)

(1) premaxilla longer than it is tall; premaxilla-nasal contact longer than maxilla-nasal contact (usually correlated with a relatively elongate snout) ,

22. Width of nasals

(0) broad nasals

(1) slender nasals, not markedly expanded posteriorly ,

23. *Position of nasal-frontal suture/maximum posterior extension of nasals

(0) posterior to the anterior rim of the orbit when viewed laterally

(1) nasals terminate just anterior to the orbit when viewed laterally (associated with a wide maxilla-frontal suture)

(0) nasals terminate well anterior to the anterior margin of the orbit,

24. Infraorbital canal length

(0) long infraorbital canal (longer than half the molar row).

(1) short infraorbital canal (shorter or equal to half the molar row).,

25. Jugal-maxilla contact

(0) jugal invades the maxilla and extends onto the facial region of the skull (not bifid)

(1) maxilla invades the zygomatic arch so that the jugal has two thin wings around the posterior maxillary flange (bifid),

26. *Lacrimal orbital rim

(0) lacrimal crest absent

(1) partially developed lacrimal crest

(2) fully developed lacrimal crest,

27. *Antorbital fossa

(0) antorbital fossa absent

(1) weak or partial fossa development

(2) very deep antorbital fossa,

28. *Orbitosphenoid

(0) orbitosphenoid identifiable in lateral view as a large ossification

(1) orbitosphenoid identifiable in lateral view as a small ossification

(2) orbitosphenoid is very small or absent and not obvious in lateral view,

29. Alisphenoid

(0) alisphenoid-parietal contact

(1) squamosal-frontal contact ,

30. *Sphenorbital fissure and foramen rotundum

(0) sphenorbital fissure slightly larger than foramen rotundum. Both canals are tube-like in shape, especially the foramen rotundum

(1) sphenorbital fissure is enlarged and more widely open, and there is a reduction in the length of the tube leading to the foramen rotundum

(2) sphenorbital fissure is further enlarged and open, and there is no tube leading to the foramen rotundum, which instead appears,

31. Presence of Accessory fenestrae

(0) absent

(1) present,

32. Presence of dividing septa in maxillopalatine fenestrae

(0) septum present in maxillopalatine fenestrae

(1) septum absent in maxillopalatine fenestrae,

33. Postglenoid foramen

(0) foramen bound by squamosal or squamosal and alisphenoid

(1) foramen bounded medially by the petrosal,

34. Morphology of the primary foramen ovale

(0) primary foramen ovale is between alisphenoid and petrosal

(1) primary foramen ovale is entirely within the alisphenoid,

35. *Morphology of the secondary foramen ovale

(0) secondary foramen ovale absent

(1) secondary foramen ovale defined by a complete strut or bridge formed by the alisphenoid, but the primary foramen ovale is still visible

(2) secondary foramen ovale present, and extensive ossification of the alisphenoid means that the primary foramen ovale is no longer visible in intact skulls,

36. *Morphology of the ectotympanic

(0) thin

(1) somewhat thickened

(2) further thickened

(3) heavily thickened,

37. *Degree of inflation of the alisphenoid tympanic process

(0) alisphenoid tympanic process small, lateral and medial walls open.

(1) alisphenoid tympanic process largely open but medial wall enclosed greater than in state 0, and hypotympanic sinus is also enlarged relative to state 0

(2) alisphenoid tympanic process and hypotympanic sinus further enlarged.relative to state 1; hypotympanic sinus walled posteriorly by the alisphenoid

(3) alisphenoid tympanic process and hypotympanic sinus greatly hypertrophied,

38. Alisphenoid tympanic process shape

(0) flattened

(1) ventrally rounded, anterior boundary rounded does not extend as far as the transverse foramen or foramen ovale

(2) ventrally rounded, anterior boundary pointed and extends as far as the transverse foramen

(3) ventrally angular, anterior boundary pointed and terminates anterior to the transverse foramen,

39. *Morphology of the rostral tympanic process of the petrosal

(0)rostral tympanic process of the petrosal absent or very small

(1) rostral tympanic process of the petrosal forms a distinct projecting process that partially walls the posteromedial margin of the hypotympanic sinus .

(2) rostral tympanic process of the petrosal further enlarged, forming elongate crestlike process that extends the length of the promontorium and forms posteromedial wall of the hypotympanic sinus; medial margin of petrosal overlaps basioccipital.

(3) ventral margin of the rostral tympanic process of the petrosal extends laterally and slightly dorsally, resulting in the formation of a distinct hypotympanic sinus within the rostral tympanic process itself

(4) dorsal extention of the ventral margin of the rostral tympanic process relative to state 3, resulting in lateral wall to the hypotympanic sinus within the process ,

40. Epitympanic recess

(0) poorly defined and shallow

(1) wider and deeper than the plesiomorphic state but still relatively poorly defined

(2) deep sinus with enclosing walls that is well distinguished from remainder of auditory cavity

(3) wide and deep sinus that extends posterolaterally,

41. Squamosal epitympanic sinus

(1) absent

(2) present, poorly defined

(3) wide with high posterior wall

(4) deep and round,

42. Supraoccipital shape

(0) supraoccipital about as tall as it is wide

(1) supraoccipital taller than it is wide ,

43. Postorbital processes

(0) absent or indistinct

(1) present,

44. Left and right parietal suture

(0) median suture present

(1) partially or completely co-ossified suture,

45. *Sagittal crest

(0) no sagittal crest

(1) sagittal crest small, not extending to frontals

(0) sagittal crest large and extending to frontals,

46. Interparietal

(0) absent

(1) present,

47. Lambdoid sesamoids

(0) absent

(1) present,

48. *Number of mental foramen

(0) one mental foramen

(1) two mental foramina

(2) three or more mental foramina,

49. Shape of I1

(0) styliform or chisellike

(1) mesiodistally expanded and flat-crowned,

50. Upper canine alveolus

(0) occupies premaxillary-maxillary suture

(1) entirely contained within maxillary,

51. *Relative height of P2 and P3

(0) P2 taller than P3

(1) P2 and P3 subequal in height

(2) P3 taller than P2,

52. Posterior crest of P3

(0) well-developed posterior cutting edge

(1) lacking posterior cutting edge,

53. *Relative height of p2 and p3

(0) p2 taller than p3

(1) p2 and p3 subequal in height

(2) p3 taller than p2,

54. Hypoconulid notch

(0) present in anterior cingulum of m2-4

(1) absent,

55. *Relative position of hypoconid to protoconid on m3

(0) buccally salient to protoconid

(1) subequal to protoconid

(2) lingual to salient protoconid,

56. Posterior cingulid

(0) absent

(1) present,

57. Shape of narial flange of premaxilla

(0) no distinct process

(1) wing-like narial processes present,

58. Position of lacrimal foramen

(0) within lacrimal

(1) within lacrimal-maxillary suture,

59. Supraoccipital contribution to foramen magnum

(0) contributes to superior margin of foramen magnum

(1) exoccipitals contact each other medially, excluding the supraoccipital from the foramen magnum ,

60. Shape of I2-4

(0) rhomboidal crowns

(1) mesiodistally expanded and flat-crowned,

61. Shape of upper canine

(0) single-rooted unicuspid upper canine

(1) accessory cusps are present on either side of the major cusp of C1,

62. Lower molar crown height

(0) lower molars are as high on the buccal side as they are on the lingual side

(1) lower molar height is significantly higher on buccal side than lingual side,

63. Position of the metacone

(0) metacone is directly posterior to the paracone

(1) metacone is shifted lingually in relation to the paracone,

64. Size of I3

(0) I2-4 are the same size

(1) I3 is larger than I2 and I4,

65. Lingual cusp presence on lower incisors

(0) present

(1) absent,

66. Diastema between i3 and canine

(0) no diastema

(1) diastema present,

67. Shape of lower canine

(0) single-rooted unicuspid lower canine

(1) accessory cusps are present on either side of the major cusp of c1,

68. Size of upper or lower canine

(0) large, raised above premolars

(1) small, about as high as premolars,

69. *Diastema between C1 and P1

(0) no diastema

(1) short, less than the length of P1

(0) long, more than the length of P1,

70. *Length of P1

(0) P1 is shorter than P2

(1) P1 is as long as P2

(2) P1 is longer than P2,

71. Anterior cusp of P1 and/or P2

(0) tall distinct cusp

(1) small remnant or no cusp,

72. *Diastema between P1 and P2

(0) no diastema

(1) short, less than the length of p1

(2) long, more than the length of p1,

73. Morphology of the central cusp of P1 and P2

(0) central cusp is not inflated

(1) central cusp is inflated widening the tooth anteriorly,

74. *Relative length of P2 and P3

(0) P3 almost twice as long as P2

(1) P2 shorter than P3

(2) P2 and P3 subequal length

(3) P2 longer than P3

(4) P2 twice as long as P3,

75. *Diastema between canine and p1

(0) no diastemata

(1) short, less than the length of p1

(2) long, more than the length of p1,

76. Length of p1

(0) p1 is shorter than either p2 or p3

(1) p1 is as long as p2 or p3,

77. Anterior cusp of p1

(0) tall distinct cusp

(1) none or small remnant,

78. Anterior cusp of p2

(0) tall distinct cusp

(1) none or small remnant,

79. *Diastema between p1 and p2

(0) no diastemata

(1) short, less than the length of p1

(2) long, more than the length of p1,

80. *Relative length of p2 and p3

(0) p3 almost twice as long as p2

(1) p2 shorter than p3

(2) p2 and p3 subequal length

(3) p2 longer than P3,

81. Anterior cusp of p3

(0) tall distinct cusp

(1) none or small remnant,

82. p3 major cusp development

(0) p3 major cusp laterally compressed

(1) p3 major cusp very large,

83. Reclining of p3

(0) the anterior and posterior roots of p3 are level

(1) the anterior root of p3 is more exposed than the posterior root, reclining p3 toward m1,

84. *Size of StA on M1

(0) StA is large, with a long crest running anteroposteriorly

(1) StA is small, with a short or no crest running anteroposteriorly

(2) StA remnant or no StA,

85. Morphology of StB/StC on M1

(0) no StC or B

(1) StB and StC are distinct cusps

(2) StB and StC are fused and oval in shape connected by a stylar crest but clearly identifiable as separate cusp

(3) StB and StC are fused and oval in shape connected by a stylar crest but difficult to clearly identify each cusp,

86. *Relative size of StB and StC on M1

(0) StB larger than StC

(1) StB subequal to StC

(2) StC larger than StB,

87. Connection of StB and StD on M1

(0) StB/C and StD are connected by a series of crests

(1) StB/C and StD are not connected by any crests,

88. *Posterior cingulum of M1

(0) absent

(1) present

(2) present and wide,

89. *Termination of postprotocrista on M1

(0) postprotocrista ends on anterior flank of metacone

(1) postprotocrista ends on lingual flank of metacone

(2) postprotocrista ends on posterolingual flank of metacone

(3) postprotocrista joins with the posterior cingulum and ends posteriorly to the midpoint of the postmetacrista

(4) postprotocrista joins with the posterior cingulum and ends at the lingual flank of the metastylar tip,

90. *Position of metaconule on M1

(0) metaconule is directly positioned at the base of the metacone

(1) a small shelf is between the base of the metacone and the metaconule

(2) a larger shelf is between the base of the metacone and the metaconule,

91. StD1 on M1

(0) present

(1) absent,

92. *StE on M1

(0) StE present as a distinct cusp

(1) remnant of StE as a stylar crest or small cusp

(2) no StE (no stylar crest),

93. *Anterior cingulum of M2

(0) no anterior cingulum

(1) small anterior cingulum lingual to anterior tip of tooth

(2) small anterior cingulum connected to protocone shelf by a small shelf

(3) large anterior cingulum expanded further up to the protocone,

94. *Size of StA on M2

(0) StA is large, with a long crest running anteroposteriorly

(1) StA is small, with a short or no crest running anteroposteriorly

(2) no StA,

95. Morphology of StB on M2

(0) StB is oval with a stylar crest running through it

(1) StB is conical with no stylar crest connection,

96. Connection of StB and StD on M2

(0) StB and StD are connected by a series of crests

(1) StB and StD are not connected by any crests,

97. *Direction of preparacrista of M2

(0) preparacrista terminates at base of StB (no crest connection).

(1) preparacrista terminates at the tip StB.

(2) preparacrista connects to StB with a weak connection to StA

(3) preparacrista connects to parastylar tip/StA,

98. *Stylar crest on M2

(0) stylar crest present on StD connects to metastylar tip

(1) StD is a conical cusp not connected to the stylar crest running to the metastylar tip

(2) StD is a conical cusp and no stylar crest present,

99. *Posterior cingulum of M2

(0) absent

(1) present

(2) present and wide,

100. *Termination of postprotocrista on M2

(0) postprotocrista ends on anterior flank of metacone

(1) postprotocrista ends on lingual flank of metacone

(2) postprotocrista ends on posterolingual flank of metacone

(3) postprotocrista joins with the posterior cingulum and ends posteriorly to the midpoint of the postmetacrista

(4) postprotocrista joins with the posterior cingulum and ends at the lingual flank of the metastylar tip,

101. *Position of metaconule on M2

(0) metaconule is directly positioned at the base of the metacone

(1) a small shelf is between the base of the metacone and the metaconule

(2) a larger shelf is between the base of the metacone and the metaconule,

102. *StC on M2

(0) present as tall cusp

(1) small remnant present

(2) absent,

103. StD1 on M2

(0) present

(1) absent,

104. *StE on M2

(0) StE present as a distinct cusp

(1) remnant of StE as a stylar crest

(2) no StE (no stylar crest),

105. *Size of StA on M3

(0) StA is large, with a long crest running anteroposteriorly

(1) StA is small, with a short or no crest running anteroposteriorly

(2) no St,

106. Morphology of StB on M3

(0) StB is oval with a stylar crest running through it

(1) StB is conical with no stylar crest connection (except by wear),

107. Connection of StB and StD on M3

(0) StB and StD are connected by a series of crests

(1) StB and StD are not connected by any crests,

108. *Direction of preparacrista of M3

(0) preparacrista terminates at base of StB (no crest connection).

(1) preparacrista terminates at the tip StB.

(2) preparacrista connects a crest linking StA and StB

(3) preparacrista connects to parastylar tip/StA,

109. *Stylar crest on M3

(0) stylar crest present on StD connects to metastylar tip

(1) StD is a conical cusp not connected to the stylar crest running to the metastylar tip

(2) StD is a conical cusp and no stylar crest present,

110. *Termination of postprotocrista/posthypocrista on M3

(0) postprotocrista ends on anterior flank of metacone

(1) postprotocrista ends on lingual flank of metacone

(2) postprotocrista ends on posterolingual flank of metacone

(3) postprotocrista joins with the posterior cingulum and ends posteriorly to the midpoint of the postmetacrista

(4) postprotocrista joins with the posterior cingulum and ends at the lingual flank of the metastylar tip,

111. *Position of metaconule on M3

(0) metaconule is directly positioned at the base of the metacone

(1) a small shelf is between the base of the metacone and the metaconule

(2) a larger shelf is between the base of the metacone and the metaconule,

112. *StC on M3

(0) present as tall cusp

(1) small remnant present

(2) absent,

113. StD1 on M3

(0) present

(1) absent,

114. *StE on M3

(0) StE present as a distinct cusp

(1) remnant of StE as a stylar crest

(2) no StE (no stylar crest),

115. *Anterior cingulum of M4

(0) no anterior cingulum

(1) small anterior cingulum lingual to anterior tip of tooth

(2) small anterior cingulum connected to protocone shelf by a small shelf

(3) large anterior cingulum expanded further up to the protocone,

116. *StB on M4

(0) no StB

(1) small StB

(2) Large StB,

117. Connection of StA and StB on M4

(0) no connection

(1) crest connecting the two cusps,

118. Direction of preparacrista of M4

(0) preparacrista terminates StA

(1) preparacrista terminates at the anterior flank of StB,

119. Postparacrista of M4

(0) postparacrista straight

(1) postparacrista curves as a small centrocrista and ends just after the centrocrista,

120. *Termination of postprotocrista on M4

(0) postprotocrista ends anterior to the most posterior end of the postparacrista

(1) postprotocrista ends level with the most posterior end of the postparacrista

(2) postprotocrista ends posterior to the most posterior end of the postparacrista ,

121. *Metacone on M4

(0) absent

(1) small metacone raise above the postparacrista

(2) large metacone expands the length of the tooth,

122. StC/D on M4

(0) absent

(1) present,

123. Presence of protocone on M4

(0) present

(1) absent,

124. Anterior cingulid on m1

(0) absent or small remnant

(1) present,

125. Hypoflexid on m1

(0) absent

(1) present,

126. *Shape of trigonid on m1

(0) paraconid-metaconid distance is longer than metaconid-protoconid distance

(1) paraconid-metaconid distance is as long as metaconid-protoconid distance

(0) paraconid-metaconid distance is shorter than metaconid-protoconid distance

(1) paraconid highly reduced or absent,

127. Position of paraconid on m1

(0) paraconid anterior to metaconid

(1) paraconid anterobuccal to metaconid,

128. Shape of unworn entoconid on m1-3

(0) oval

(1) triangular (wider posteriorly than anteriorly)

(2) conical,

129. *Cristid obliqua termination on m1

(0) cristid obliqua terminates buccal to level with the protocone

(1) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the protocone to the midpoint to the tooth width

(2) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the midpoint of the tooth width,

130. Posthypocristid direction on m1

(0)oblique to the tooth row axis

(1) perpendicular to the tooth row axis ,

131. Connection of posthypocristid on m1

(0) posthypocristid connects to hypoconulid

(1) posthypocristid connects to base of entoconid when the tooth is unworn, but as the tooth wears down, a crest connects the tip of the entoconid to the posthypocristid.,

132. Size of hypoconulid on m1

(0) large distinct cusp

(1) small cusp,

133. *Shape of trigonid on m2

(0) paraconid-metaconid distance is longer than metaconid-protoconid distance

(1) paraconid-metaconid distance is as long as metaconid-protoconid distance

(2) paraconid-metaconid distance is shorter than metaconid-protoconid distance

(3) paraconid highly reduced or absent,

134. *Cristid obliqua termination on m2

(0) cristid obliqua terminates buccal to the protocone

(1) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the protocone about midpoint to the tooth width

(2) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the midpoint of the tooth width,

135. Posthypocristid direction on m2

(0) oblique to the tooth row axis

(1) perpendicular to the tooth row axis ,

136. Connection of posthypocristid on m2

(0) posthypocristid connects to hypoconulid

(1) posthypocristid connects to entoconid,

137. *Size of hypoconulid on m2

(0) large distinct cusp

(1) small cusp

(2) hypoconulid absent,

138. *Shape of trigonid on m3

(0) paraconid-metaconid distance is longer than metaconid-protoconid distance

(1) paraconid-metaconid distance is as longer as metaconid-protoconid distance

(2) paraconid-metaconid distance is shorter than metaconid-protoconid distance

(3) paraconid highly reduced or absent,

139. *Cristid obliqua termination on m3

(0) cristid obliqua terminates buccal to the protocone

(1) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the protocone about midpoint to the tooth width

(2) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the midpoint of the tooth width,

140. Posthypocristid direction on m3

(0) oblique to the tooth row axis

(1) perpendicular to the tooth row axis ,

141. Connection of posthypocristid on m3

(0) posthypocristid connects to hypoconulid

(1) posthypocristid connects to entoconid,

142. *Size of hypoconulid on m3

(0) large distinct cusp

(1) small cusp

(2) hypoconulid absent,

143. *Shape of trigonid on m4

(0) paraconid-metaconid distance is longer than metaconid-protoconid distance

(1) paraconid-metaconid distance is as longer as metaconid-protoconid distance

(2) paraconid-metaconid distance is shorter than metaconid-protoconid distance

(3) paraconid highly reduced or absent,

144. Preentocristid on m4

(0) present

(1) absent,

145. Preentocristid orientation on m4

(0) anteroposterior

(1) oblique,

146. Postentocristid on m4

(0) absent

(1) present,

147. Postentocristid orientation on m4

(0) anteroposterior

(1) oblique,

148. Cristid obliqua termination on m4

(0) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the protocone about midpoint to the tooth width

(1) cristid obliqua terminates lingual to the midpoint of the tooth width,

149. *Posthypocristid direction on m4

(0) oblique to the tooth row axis

(1) perpendicular to the tooth row axis

(2) anteriorly orientated,

150. *Size of entoconid

(0) large distinct cusp

(1) small cusp

(2) entoconid absent,

151. *Size of hypoconulid on m4

(0) large distinct cusp

(1) small cusp

(2) hypoconulid absent,

152. Buccal shelf on m4

(0) buccal shelf end at buccal side of hypoconid

(1) buccal shelf buccally reduced (hypoconid more buccal than shelf),

153. Presence of P3

(0) present

(1) absent,

154. Presence of p3

(0) present

(1) absent,

155. Presence of palatine fenestrae

(0) absent

(1) present,

156. Presence of maxillary fenestrae

(0) absent

(1) present,

APPENDIX 2

Nexus-formatted character matrix for the 42 taxa included in our phylogenetic analyses. Outgroup taxa were Djarthia murgonensis, Barinya wangala, Mutpuracinus archibaldi, Dasyurus hallucatus, Dasyuroides byrnei, Phascogale tapoatafa, Antechinus stuartii, Sminthopsis macroura. ? = missing data; - = inapplicable (text file for download).

 

APPENDIX 3

Topology enforced in our molecular scaffold analysis (based on Krajewski et al., 2007; Westerman et al., 2008, 2012):

appendix