TABLE 1. Macrofossil records of Atherospermataceae and Monimiaceae.

 

Fossil

Organ

Age

Provenance

References

ATHEROSPERMATACEAE

Laurelites jamesrossii Poole and Francis

wood

Campanian

James Ross Island

Poole and Francis, 1999

Protoatherospermoxylon spp.

wood

Late Cretaceous

Cape Province, S.Africa

Mädel, 1960; Müller-Stoll and Mädel, 1962

Atherospermoxylon bulboradiatum Poole and Gottwald

wood

Paleocene

Seymour Island

Poole and Gottwald, 2001

Atherospermophyllum guinazui (Berry), comb. nov.

leaves

Early and middle Eocene

Patagonia, Argentina

Berry, 1935, 1938; this paper

Laurelia-like wood

wood

Paleocene-Eocene

Seymour Island

Poole and Gottwald, 2001

Atherospermataceous wood

wood

Late Eocene

Germany

Gottwald, 1992

Laurelioxylon intermedium Nishida

wood

"Tertiary"

Chile

Nishida, 1984

Atherospermoxylon aegyptiacum (Schenk) R. Kräusel

wood

Early Oligocene

Egypt

Kräusel, 1939

Laurelites doroteaensis Nishida, H. Nishida and Nasa

wood

Oligocene-Miocene

Patagonia, Chile and Argentina

Nishida et al., 1988; Pujana 2009

Laurelia otagoensis Conran, Bannister and D.E. Lee

leaves with cuticle, fruits

Early Miocene

New Zealand

Conran et al., 2013

Atherosperma moschatum Labill.

leaves

Pliocene-Pleistocene

Tasmania

Hill and MacPhail, 1985

         

MONIMIACEAE

       

Hedycaryoxylon hortonioides Mädel

wood

Late Cretaceous

Cape Province, S.Africa

Mädel, 1960; Müller-Stoll and Mädel, 1962

Hedycaryoxylon tambourissoides Poole and Gottwald

wood

Campanian

James Ross Island

Süss, 1960; Poole and Gottwald, 2001

Monimiophyllum antarcticum Zastawniak

leaves

?Late Paleocene

King George Island

Birkenmajer and Zastawniak, 1989

Monimiophyllum callidentatum sp. nov.

leaf

Early Eocene

Patagonia, Argentina

This paper

Flacourtioxylon (Monimiaxylon) gifaense

wood

Late Eocene

Libya

Louvet, 1974

Xymaloxylon (Monimiaxylon) zeltenense

wood

Early Oligocene

Libya

Louvet, 1974

Monimiaceous wood

wood

Early Oligocene

Oman

Privé-Gill et al., 1993

 

TABLE 2. Extant Atherospermataceae species scored.

 

Species

Range

Atherosperma moschatum Labill.

NSW, Tas, Vic

Daphnandra apatela Schodde

NSW, Qld

Daphnandra micrantha (Tul.) Benth.

NSW

Daphnandra repandula (F.Muell) F. Muell.

NSW, Qld

Doryphora aromatica (F.M.Bailey) L.S. Sm.

Qld

Doryphora sassafras Endl.

NSW, Qld, Vic

Dryadodaphne novoguineensis (Perk.) A.C. Sm.

New Guinea

Dryadodaphne trachyphloia Schodde

Qld

Laurelia novae-zelandiae A. Cunn.

New Zealand

Laurelia sempervirens (Ruiz and Pav.) Tul.

S Chile

Laureliopsis philippiana (Looser) Schodde

S Chile and Argentina

Nemuaron vieillardii (Baill.) Baill.

New Caledonia

 

Abbreviations: NSW- New South Wales, Tas- Tasmania, Vic- Victoria, Qld- Queensland, Australia.

 

 

TABLE 3. Extant Monimiaceae species scored.

 

Species

Range

Austromatthaea elegans L.B. Sm.

Qld

Decarydendron ranomafanensis Lorence and Razafim.

Madagascar

Ephippiandra madagascariensis (Danguy) Lorence

Madagascar

Grazielanthus arkeocarpus Peixoto and Per.-Moura

SE Brazil

Hedycarya angustifolia A. Cunn.

Qld, Tas

Hedycarya arborea J.R. Forst. and G. Forst.

New Zealand

Hedycarya cupulata Baill.

New Caledonia

Hedycarya loxocarya (Benth.) W.D. Francis

Qld

Hennecartia omphalandra Poiss.

S Brazil, NE Argentina, Paraguay

Hortonia floribunda Wight ex Arn.

Sri Lanka

Kairoa suberosa Philipson

New Guinea

Kibara coriacea (Blume) Hook. f. and A. Thomps.

Malaysia

Kibara macrophylla (A. Cunn.) Benth.

NSW

Kibara moluccana Boerl. ex Perk.

New Guinea, Moluccas

Kibaropsis caledonica (Guillaumin) J. Jeremie

New Caledonia

Levieria acuminata Perk.

New Guinea, Qld

Macropeplus ligustrinus (Tul.) Perk.

SE Brazil

Macrotorus utriculatus Perk.

SE Brazil

Matthaea sancta Blume

Malaysia, Indonesia

Mollinedia ovata Ruiz and Pav.

Ecuador

Mollinedia schottiana (Spreng.) Perk.

Brazil

Mollinedia widgrenii A. DC.

Brazil

Monimia ovalifolia Thouars

Réunion, Mascarenes

Monimia rotundifolia Thouars

Réunion, Mascarenes

Palmeria foremanii Whiffin

NSW, Qld

Palmeria scandens F. Muell.

NSW, Qld

Peumus boldus Molina

Chile

Steganthera australiana C.T. White

New Guinea

Steganthera cooperorum Whiffin

Qld

Steganthera hirsuta Perk.

Qld, New Guinea

Steganthera laxiflora (Benth.) Whiffin and Foreman

Qld

Steganthera macooraia (F.M. Bailey) P.K. Endress

Qld

Tambourissa elliptica A. DC.

Réunion, Mascarenes

Tambourissa ficus (Tul.) A. DC.

Mauritius, Mascarenes

Tambourissa leptophylla (Tul.) A. DC.

Mayotte, Comoros

Tambourissa longicarpa Lorence

Madagascar

Tambourissa purpurea (Tul.) A. DC.

Mauritius, Mascarenes

Tambourissa tau Lorence

Mauritius, Mascarenes

Wilkiea angustifolia (F.M. Bailey) Perk.

Qld

Wilkiea austroqueenslandica Domin

NSW, Qld

Wilkiea hugeliana (Tul.) A. DC.

NSW, Qld

Tetrasynandra pubescens Perk.

Qld

Wilkiea rigidifolia (A.C. Sm.) Whiffin and Foreman

Qld, New Guinea

Wilkiea smithii Whiffin

Qld

Wilkiea sp. "Palmerston"

Qld

Xymalos monospora (Harv.) Baill.

Bioko, Cameroon

 

Abbreviations: NSW- New South Wales, Tas- Tasmania, Vic- Victoria, Qld- Queensland, Australia.

 

TABLE 4. Percent character similarity of extant Atherospermataceae to Atherospermophyllum guinazui, comb. nov.

Taxon  %Similarity 
 Genus  
Daphnandra 63
Doryphora 56
Laurelia 56
Dryadodaphne 48
Laureliopsis 41
Atherosperma 33
Nemuaron 26
   
Species  
Daphnandra apatela 56
Doryphora sassafras 44
Laureliopsis philippiana 41
Laurelia sempervirens 41
Dryadodaphne novoguineensis 37
Atherosperma moschatum 33
Dryadodaphne trachyphloia 33
Daphnandra micrantha 33
Daphnandra repandula 33
Doryphora aromatica 33
Laurelia novae-zelandiae 26
Nemuaron vieillardii 22

Notes: Generic scores are a compilation of the constituent species scores. All taxa scored have toothed leaf-margins.

 

TABLE 5. Percent character similarity of extant Monimiaceae to Monimiophyllum callidentatum, sp. nov.

 

Taxon

%Similarity

Genus

 

Wilkiea^

76

Mollinedia^

76

Kibara^

68

Kairoa*

68

Hedycarya^

68

Tambourissa^

68

Palmeria

68

Steganthera^

64

Austromatthaea*

60

Decarydendron

58

Hortonia

58

Macropeplus^

56

Peumus

53

Hennecartia*

52

Levieria*

52

Kibaropsis

47

Xymalos^

44

Monimia

42

Grazielanthus*

40

Macrotorus*

32

Ephippiandra*

32

Matthaea

26

 

Species

 

Wilkiea hugeliana*

76

Kairoa suberosa*

68

Tambourissa purpurea

63

Palmeria foremanii

63

Austromatthaea elegans*

60

Decarydendron ranomafanensis

58

Hortonia floribunda

58

Wilkiea rigidifolia*

56

Macropeplus ligustrinus*

56

Steganthera australiana*

56

Hedycarya cupulata*

56

Wilkiea smithii

53

Peumus boldus

53

Kibara macrophylla*

52

Mollinedia schottiana*

52

Mollinedia widgrenii*

52

Hennecartia omphalandra*

52

Tetrasynandra pubescens*

52

Levieria acuminata*

52

Hedycarya angustifolia*

52

Hedycarya arborea*

52

Tambourissa longicarpa*

48

Steganthera cooperorum

47

Steganthera hirsuta

47

Kibaropsis caledonica

47

Tambourissa elliptica

47

Tambourissa tau

47

Tambourissa leptophylla

47

Wilkiea angustifolia*

44

Xymalos monospora*

44

Wilkiea austroqueenslandica

44

Steganthera macooraia

42

Palmeria scandens

42

Monimia rotundifolia

42

Monimia ovalifolia

42

Matthaea heterophylla

42

Kibara coriacea*

40

Grazielanthus arkeocarpus*

40

Steganthera laxiflora*

40

Hedycarya loxocarya*

40

Wilkiea sp. "Palmerston"

37

Kibara moluccana

32

Tambourissa ficus

32

Macrotorus utriculatus*

32

Ephippiandra madagascariensis*

32

Mollinedia ovata*

28

Matthaea sancta

26

Notes: Generic scores are a compilation of the constituent species scores.

*Genus or species with toothed leaves.

^Genus in which some species are toothed.