APPENDIX 1

Leaf Character Definitions

Unless defined separately below, terminology for leaf scoring (Appendix 3, Appendix 5) followed Ellis et al. (2009).

Midvein thickened at base: qualitative feature. The midvein is considered basally thickened if the midvein in the basal third of the leaf, especially near the insertion point of the petiole, is noticeably thicker than the midvein in the middle and apical portion of the leaf. (Appendix 2, Character 9; Appendix 4, Character 7)

Ratio of midvein w:2° w: the width of the midvein divided by the width of a secondary vein. The width of the secondary vein is measured proximal to the midvein and perpendicular to the secondary vein course (Appendix 2, Character 11; Appendix 4, Character 8).

Basal secondaries acute: This is a measure of acuteness to the midvein of the basalmost pair of secondary veins is, relative to the superjacent pair of secondary veins. The measurement is the difference between the angle of the basalmost pair of secondary veins to the midvein, and the angle of the second pair of secondary veins to the midvein. When the angle measured is equal to zero, the basal secondary veins are not acute, and increasing angle measurements indicate increasing acuteness (Appendix 2, Character 12; Appendix 4, Character 10).

Proximity of secondary loop to margin: Measured as a percentage. The distance from the outermost point of a secondary vein (typically secondary veins in the medial portion of the blade are measured) divided by the total distance between the midvein and the margin, then multiplied by 100. Both lengths are measured along the same line, which is perpendicular to the midvein (Appendix 2, Character 13; Appendix 4, Character 12).

Secondary loop shape: Qualitative feature. The secondary loop shape is scored 'even' if the superjacent and subjacent secondary veins in a secondary loop maintain a nearly constant distance from each other, until they loop near the blade margin. The secondary loop shape is scored 'cone' if the loop width decreases noticeably from the midvein to the blade margin (Appendix 2, Character 14; Appendix 4, Character 13).

Ratio of 2° loop h:w: The maximum height of a secondary loop (measured from the intersection of a secondary with the midvein, to the apex of the secondary loop) divided by the maximum intercostal width of the secondary loop (measured between the intersection of the superjacent secondary vein and the midvein, to where a perpendicular line intersects the subjacent secondary) (Appendix 2, Character 15; Appendix 4, Character 14).

Tooth size: Measured as a percentage. Tooth size is the distance between the tooth sinus and the tooth apex, divided by the total distance of the tooth apex from the midvein, then multiplied by 100. Both lengths are measured along a single line, which is perpendicular to the midvein. The points at which the tooth apex and sinus occur are projected perpendicularly to this single line, and the length between these projected points is measured to calculate the percentage (Appendix 2, Character 24; Appendix 4, Character 22).

APPENDIX 2

Characters used to score the fossil Atherospermophyllum guinazui comb. nov. and living Atherospermataceae, and explanation of coding. The character numbers given in this Appendix correspond to the first column in the scoring matrix (Appendix 3, below).

Character#

Character name

Coding

1 laminar length:width ratio Range
2 leaf length range (mm)
3 petiole swollen 0=no, 1=yes
4 base shape convex 0=no, 1=yes
5 apex shape straight 0=no, 1=yes
6 apex shape convex 0=no, 1=yes
7 apex shape acuminate 0=no, 1=yes
8 apex angle obtuse 0=no, 1=yes
9 midvein thickened at base 0=no, 1=yes
10 ratio of midvein w:2° w Range
11 secondary attachment to midvein 0=excurrent, 1=decurrent
12 basal secondaries acute max. angle (degrees)
13 proximity of secondary loop to margin range (%)
14 secondary loop shape 0=even, 1=cone
15 ratio of 2° loop h:w Number
16 number of 2° loops Number
17 intersecondaries present 0=no, 1=yes
18 exterior tertiary loops 0=weak, 1=strong
19 exterior tertiary loop size/spacing 0=irregular, 1=regular
20 margin type 0=entire, 1=toothed
21 teeth per cm Number
22 number of tooth orders Number
23 second order teeth compound 0=no, 1=yes
24 tooth size range (%)
25 teeth occur in basal quarter of blade 0=no, 1=yes
26 principal vein branches from outermost tertiary 0=no, 1=yes
27 tooth accessory veins 0=none, 1=conjunctal
28 tooth shape cc/st 0=no, 1=yes
29 tooth shape cc/rt 0=no, 1=yes
30 tooth shape cc/fl 0=no, 1=yes

 

 APPENDIX 3

Atherospermataceae Character Matrix

Character data for the fossil Atherospermophyllum guinazui comb. nov. and living Atherospermataceae. Scores for living species are bold where they match or fully capture the fossil species' score or range.

 
 

Atherospermophyllum guinazui

Laurelia novae-zelandiae

Laureliopsis philippiana

Laurelia sempervirens

Atherosperma moschatum

Nemuaron vieillardii

Dryadodaphne novoguineensis

Dryadodaphne trachyphloia

1

2.17-3.29

1.9-2

1.62-3.3

2.7-3.5

2.8-3

1.9-3

2.9-3

2.6-3.7

2

50-122

35-76

52-109

53-114

62-80

41-71

74-97

48-170

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

0,1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

5

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

0

6

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

7

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

8

0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

9

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

10

2.75-6.43

1.88-4.24

1.74-3.04

3.04-5.42

2.23-3.69

3.25-6.21

5.35-5.83

2.12-5.56

11

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

12

18

5

10

10

6

12

18

12

13

4-24

18-32

24-27

10-28

9-13

17-20

17-27

14-26

14

0,1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

1.47-4.33

2.50-4.33

3.60-5.40

4.00-5.33

3.50-5.00

2.00-4.50

1.86-3.20

2.00-2.88

16

8-16

10-13

12-15

10-16

10-14

11-15

11-17

12-16

17

0,1

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

18

0,1

0

1

1

n/a

n/a

0 (?)

1

19

0,1

0

1

1

n/a

n/a

0

0

20

1

1

1

1

0,1

1

1

1

21

2-6

3-5

2-4

2-4

1-3

2-6

1-3

1-3

22

1,2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

23

n/a,1

1

1

1

1

1

n/a

n/a

24

3.63-11.93

6.43-10.34

5.27-14.87

5.78-7.08

7.35-16.13

6.72-7.48

4.19-6.07

2.59-5.73

25

1

1

0,1

0,1

0,1

0,1

0,1

0

26

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

27

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

28

0,1

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

29

0,1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

30

0,1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

                 
 

Number of matches

7

11

11

9

7

10

9

 

Characters scored

27

27

27

27

27

27

27

 

% similarity

25.93

40.74

40.74

33.33

25.93

37.04

33.33

Appendix 3 (continued).

 
 

Daphnandra micrantha

Daphnandra repandula

Daphnandra apatela

Doryphora aromatica

Doryphora sassafras

 

1

2.7-3

3-3.7

2.66-4.4

2.2-3.1

2.5-3.92

 

2

65-156

88-159

70-123

58-139

36-124

 

3

1

0

0,1

1

1

 

4

1

1

0,1

0

0

 

5

1

1

0,1

1

0

 

6

0

0

0

0

0,1

 

7

1

1

1

1

1

 

8

0

0

0

0

0

 

9

0

1

1

0

1

 

10

2-3.32

2.19-4.17

2.18-4.22

2.36-3.94

3.12-4.4

no matches

11

1

1

0,1

1

0,1

 

12

12

10

13

8

19

 

13

11-24

8-17

16-25

18-27

12-18

no matches

14

1

1

1

0

0

no matches

15

2.38-3.40

2.41-4.14

2.38-4.56

1.80-1.88

1.63-2.43

no matches

16

8-14

9-13

8-12

9-15

8-15

no matches

17

0

0

0,1

1

1

 

18

0

1

1

0

1

no matches

19

0

0

0

0

0

 

20

1

1

1

1

1

 

21

2-4

2-5

2-6

1-3

1-3

 

22

2

2

2

1

1,2

 

23

0

0

1

n/a

n/a,0

 

24

6.58-8.5

2.11-3.4

4.65-12.82

4.82-5.89

5.13-11.99

no matches

25

1

1

1

0,1

0,1

 

26

1

1

1

1

1

 

27

1

1

1

1

1

 

28

1

1

0,1

0

1

 

29

1

1

1

1

1

no matches

30

0

0

0

0

0

no matches

             
 

9

9

15

9

12

 
 

27

27

27

27

27

 
 

33.33

33.33

55.56

33.33

44.44

 

 

 

APPENDIX 4

Characters used to score the fossil Monimiophyllum callidentatum sp. nov. and living Atherospermataceae, and explanation of coding. The character numbers given in this Appendix correspond to the first column in the scoring matrix (Appendix 5, below).

 

 

Character

Coding

1

laminar L:W ratio

number

2

leaf L

range (mm)

3

petiole swollen

0=no, 1=yes

4

base shape convex

0=no, 1=yes

5

base angle acute

0=no, 1=yes

6

apex angle acute

0=no, 1=yes

7

midvein thickened at base

0=no, 1=yes

8

ratio of midvein w:2° w

range (%)

9

secondary attachment to midvein

0=excurrent, 1=decurrent

10

basal secondaries acute

max angle (degrees)

11

secondary loop strength

0=weak, 1=strong

12

proximity of secondary loop to margin

range (%)

13

secondary loop shape

0=even, 1=cone

14

ratio of 2° loop h:w

number

15

number of 2° loops

number

16

intersecondaries present

0=no, 1=yes

17

exterior tertiary loops

0=weak, 1=strong

18

exterior tertiary loop size/spacing

0=irregular, 1=regular

19

margin type

0=entire, 1=toothed

20

teeth per cm

number

21

number of tooth orders

number

22

tooth size

range (%)

23

teeth occur in basal quarter of blade

0=no, 1=yes

24

tooth accessory veins

0=none, 1=conjunctal

25

tooth shape cc/fl

0=no, 1=yes

 

APPENDIX 5

Monimiaceae Character Matrix

Character data for living Monimiaceae and the single fossil of Monimiophyllum callidentatum, sp. nov. Scores for living species are bold where they match or fully capture the fossil species score or range.

 
 

Monimiophyllum callidentatum

Kibara coriacea

Wilkiea rigidifolia

Kibara moluccana

Wilkiea angustifolia

Kairoa suberosa

Wilkiea hugeliana

Kibara macrophylla

Wilkiea austroqueenslandica

1

4.56

2.31-2.42

2.88-3.4

2.53-3.17

2.25-4.12

2.86-3.28

2.98-3.82

2.83-3

2.97-3.43

2

73

155-226

161-221

205-323

70-142

177-280

49-119

63-201

86-137

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

7

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

8

2.32-3.04

1.90-2.20

2.29-3.76

2.44-3.46

2.75-3.83

2.88-3.90

2.20-3.00

1.85-3.62

2.16-4.45

9

0

1

0

1

1

1

0,1

1

0,1

10

25-30

11

23

21

25

27

45

22

10

11

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

12

8-13

19-24

7-14

16-18

15-21

8-13

16-33

11-20

16

13

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

14

1.43-1.6

1.64-2.89

1.7-2.06

1.25-1.32

1.14-1.23

1.32-1.43

1.07-1.89

1.33-1.59

1.55-2

15

19

9-11

15

14

9-12

15-24

9-14

12-14

14-20

16

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

17

0

0

1

1

1

0

0,1

1

1

18

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

19

1

0,1

0,1

0

1

1

1

0,1

1

20

5-9

1-2

2-3

n/a

1-2

1-2

2-5

1-2

1-2

21

1

2

1

n/a

1

1

1,2

2

2

22

5.03-7.14

1.64-2.17

1.98-3.41

n/a

2.13-5.38

4.16-6.92

3.31-8.35

3.11-5.98

3.58-6.86

23

1

0,1

0,1

n/a

1

1

0,1

1

0

24

0

1

0

n/a

1

0

1

1

1

25

1

1

1

n/a

1

0

1

0

1

                   
 

Number of matches

10

14

6

11

17

19

13

11

 

Characters scored

25

25

19

25

25

25

25

25

 

% similarity

40.00

56.00

31.58

44.00

68.00

76.00

52.00

44

Appendix 5 (continued).

 

Wilkiea smithii

Wilkiea sp. "Palmerston"

Mollinedia schottiana

Mollinedia widgrenii

Grazielanthus arkeocarpus

Mollinedia ovata

Macropeplus ligustrinus

Macrotorus utriculatus

Hennecartia omphalandra

1

2.26-3.36

2.71-2.94

2.13-2.71

1.36-3.5

2.29-2.86

1.85

2-2.03

2.7-2.78

3.62-4.24

2

61-121

103-114

38-143

53-182

20-32

135-157

36-81

178-186

76-106

3

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

4

1

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

1

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

7

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

8

3.75-4.40

2.14-2.55

1.88-2.06

2.27-2.52

1.50-3.14

1.71-2.70

2.55-3.44

2.37-3.00

1.92-3.50

9

1

1

0

0

0

1

0,1

0

1

10

46

25

17

18

6

9

14

16

11

11

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

12

12-16

18-23

12-17

9-13

18-23

9-14

12-18

18-21

17-25

13

0

0

0,1

1

1

1

0

0,1

1

14

1.18-1.71

1.36-1.5

1.57-1.75

1.76-3.06

1.6-2.33

1.8-2.15

1.60-1.96

1.66-1.91

1.25-1.44

15

16-18

10-12

7-12

8-10

7-10

8

9-13

8-9

16-18

16

1

1

0-7

0 (?)

1

1

0

1

0

17

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

18

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

19

0

0

1

0,1

1

0,1

0,1

1

1

20

n/a

n/a

1-3

1-3

5-10

0-2

1-3

1

2-4

21

n/a

n/a

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

22

n/a

n/a

2.84-6.00

3.34-7.73

2.36-5.23

1.32-4.08

4.93-11.31

3.29-6.73

5.94-8.69

23

n/a

n/a

0,1

0

0

0

0

0

1

24

n/a

n/a

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

25

n/a

n/a

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

                   
 

10

7

13

13

10

7

14

8

13

 

19

19

25

25

25

25

25

25

25

 

52.63

36.84

52.00

52.00

40.00

28.00

56.00

32.00

52.00

 Appendix 5 (continued).

 
 

Tetrasynandra pubescens

Steganthera laxiflora

Steganthera australiana

Steganthera macooraia

Steganthera cooperorum

Steganthera hirsuta

Matthaea sancta

Matthaea heterophylla

Austromatthaea elegans

1

2.93-4.21

2.2-2.33

3.33-3.4

2.75-3.07

3.23-5.1

2.14-2.35

2.77-2.96

3.75-4.08

3.46-5.03

2

59-167

105-112

130-136

83-110

51-126

77-310

80-119

30-53

83-176

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

5

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

6

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

7

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

8

1.56-2.10

2.06-2.58

2.06-2.65

3.33-3.48

2.22-3.15

1.73-2.14

2.00-2.11

2.5-4.16

1.89-2.59

9

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

10

14

10

11

9

16

10

12

21

0

11

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

12

13-26

13-25

15-25

13-17

8-16

8-15

10-17

10-12

8-18

13

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

14

1.29-1.83

1.48-2.56

1.18-1.5

1.75-1.86

1.39-1.57

1.17-1.52

1.27-1.71

1.13-1.4

1.27-1.63

15

8-9

6-7

11-14

12-14

8-13

10-12

9-11

12-13

14-17

16

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

17

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

18

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

0

19

1

0,1

0,1

0

0

0

0

0

1

20

3-7

1-2

1-2

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

2-3

21

2

1

1

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

1,2

22

3.89-7.45

2.42-5.64

2.92-8.76

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

3.68-6.81

23

1

0

0

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

1

24

1

1

1

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

0

25

1

1

1

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

n/a

0

                   
 

13

10

14

8

9

9

5

8

15

 

25

25

25

19

19

19

19

19

25

 

52.00

40.00

56.00

42.11

47.37

47.37

26.32

42.11

60.00

 Appendix 5 (continued).

 
 

Levieria acuminata

Hedycarya loxocarya

Hedycarya cupulata

Hedycarya angustifolia

Kibaropsis caledonica

Hedycarya arborea

Tambourissa purpurea

Tambourissa elliptica

Tambourissa ficus

1

3.43-3.58

2.59-3.34

2.47-3.42

2.38-3.47

2.71-4.52

2.53-2.9

2.5-2.61

1.29-2

2.24-2.98

2

72-136

88-147

65-116

19-118

113-233

43-84

35-99

52-145

83-176

3

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

4

0

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

5

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

6

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

7

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

8

2.33-3.16

1.53-4.52

2.79-5.30

2.48-4.75

4.31-5.85

3.69-4.76

2.27-4.14

3.28-4.83

2.37-3.57

9

1

0

0

0,1

0,1

0

0

1

1

10

12

20

20

23

0

8

16

14

11

11

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

0

12

8-15

13-18

13-27

15-21

9-14

15-22

8-17

9-14

11-17

13

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

0,1

14

1.55-2.4

1.47-2.06

1.36-1.73

1.3-1.5

1.6-2

1.5-2

1.47-1.83

1.6-2.15

1.5-2.67

15

6-8

8-10

9-12

8-12

14-18

10-15

4-11

10-19

10-14

16

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

17

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

18

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

19

1

0,1

0,1

1

0

1

0

0

0

20

1-2

1

1-2

1-4

n/a

1-3

n/a

n/a

n/a

21

1

1

1

2

n/a

2

n/a

n/a

n/a

22

3.65-8.57

5.29-10.8

5.47-10.5

2.23-12.1

n/a

6.03-7.86

n/a

n/a

n/a

23

0

0

0

0

n/a

0

n/a

n/a

n/a

24

0

1

0?

1

n/a

1

n/a

n/a

n/a

25

0

0

0

1

n/a

0

n/a

n/a

n/a

                   
 

13

10

14

13

9

13

12

9

6

 

25

25

25

25

19

25

19

19

19

 

52.00

40.00

56.00

52.00

47.37

52.00

63.16

47.37

31.58

Appendix 5 (continued). 

 
 

Tambourissa tau

Ephippiandra madagascariensis

Tambourissa leptophylla

Tambourissa longicarpa

Decarydendron ranomafanensis

Xymalos monospora

Hortonia floribunda

Palmeria foremanii

Palmeria scandens

1

3.17-3.87

1.55-1.88

1.5-1.87

1.39-3.1

1.89-2.16

2.12-2.61

1.5-3.11

2.67-2.93

1.81-3.31

2

165-298

34-120

60-230

71-325

36-82

55-141

39-109

44-104

102-123

3

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0,1

4

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

5

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0,1

6

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0,1

7

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

8

2.61-4.49

2.50-2.67

2.71-4.67

1.76-4.16

2.40-3.33

2.61-4.17

1.79-2.46

1.78-4.76

2.00-2.61

9

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

10

13

13

16

13

13

23

14

15

12

11

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

0,1

12

12-18

15-30

10-21

16-26

9-15

12-17

12-18

15-18

18-25

13

1

1

0,1

0,1

0

0

0,1

0

0

14

1.73-2.24

1.7-3.27

1.38-2.13

1.65-2.65

1.5-2.33

1.29-1.72

1.14-1.76

1.29-1.36

1.23-2.21

15

8-15

6-8

9-13

6-15

7-13

8-12

4-6

9-14

10-14

16

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

0

1

17

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

18

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0,1

19

0

1

0

1

0

0,1

0

0

0

20

n/a

1-3

n/a

1-2

n/a

1

n/a

n/a

n/a

21

n/a

2

n/a

1

n/a

1

n/a

n/a

n/a

22

n/a

6.09-11.32

n/a

8.87-14.42

n/a

4.88-6.52

n/a

n/a

n/a

23

n/a

0,1

n/a

0

n/a

0

n/a

n/a

n/a

24

n/a

1

n/a

1

n/a

1

n/a

n/a

n/a

25

n/a

0

n/a

0

n/a

0

n/a

n/a

n/a

                   
 

9

8

9

12

11

11

11

12

8

 

19

25

19

25

19

25

19

19

19

 

47.37

32.00

47.37

48.00

57.89

44.00

57.89

63.16

42.11

Appendix 5 (continued).

 
 

Monimia rotundifolia

Monimia ovalifolia

Peumus boldus

1

1.35-1.52

1.23-1.61

1.71-2.32

2

47-146

61-163

24-65

3

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

5

0

0

1

6

0

0

1

7

1

1

1

8

1.78-2.61

2.20-2.57

2.06-2.42

9

0

0

0

10

5

5

22

11

0

0

0

12

15-20

13-18

12-23

13

0

0

0,1

14

2.04-3.13

2.18-4.27

1.38-2.2

15

8-10

9-11

6-11

16

0

0

1

17

1

1

0

18

0

0

0

19

0

0

0

20

n/a

n/a

n/a

21

n/a

n/a

n/a

22

n/a

n/a

n/a

23

n/a

n/a

n/a

24

n/a

n/a

n/a

25

n/a

n/a

n/a

       
 

8

8

10

 

19

19

19

 

42.11

42.11

52.63