TABLE 1. Measurements of the upper dentition of phenacodontids from the middle Clarkforkian (Cf2) Buckman Hollow local fauna, southwestern Wyoming.

 

Taxon

Specimen Number

P3L

P3W

P4L

P4W

M1L

M1W

M2L

M2W

M3L

M3W

Phenacodus vortmani

USNM 16693

7.9

7.3

 

UCMP 173516

8.6

 

USNM 21286 (R, except M3)

8.6

8.0

9.0

9.0

10.1

8.7

12.1

8.7

10.0

 

USNM 16691 (L)

8.4

7.5

8.5

8.5

9.0

8.3

9.0

11.5

 

USNM 16691 (R)

8.3

7.8

8.1

8.5

9.1

9.9

8.0

10.2

 

USNM 406166

7.8

9.5

9.4

12.0

9.3

11.6

7.8

9.6

 

USNM 20651

8.8

8.7

11.5

 

USNM 16694

7.4

10.4

 

USNM 20639

8.2

10.6

 

USNM 406160

7.3

9.1

 

USNM 406161

8.8

12.5

Phenacodus intermedius

USNM 406156

9.6

8.3

 

UCMP 170704

10.2

9.3

9.8

11.3

 

USNM 409474

11.0

11.8

 

USNM 20649

9.9

10.9

11.0

14.0

Ectocion sp., cf. E. major

UCMP 173496

10.3

12.2

Ectocion osbornianus

USNM 406151

5.7

 

USNM 20736 (L)

5.8

5.5

6.0

7.6

6.1

8.5

6.1

8.9

4.9

7.4

 

USNM 20736 (R)

5.9

5.4

6.2

7.2

8.5

8.4

4.9

7.2

 

USNM 406154

6.5

8.8

 

 

TABLE 2. Measurements of the lower dentition of phenacodontids from the middle Clarkforkian (Cf2) Buckman Hollow local fauna, southwestern Wyoming.

 

Taxon

Specimen Number

p3L

p3W

p4L

p4L

m1L

m1W

m2L

m2W

m3L

m3W

Phenacodus vortmani

USNM 406161

8.4

4.9

 

USNM 20642

9.2

5.9

 

USNM 20653

9.7

7.3

 

USNM 20643

9.6

6.4

9.0

7.2

 

UCMP 173495

9.0

7.3

 

USNM 20654

9.0

7.9

9.9

8.2

 

USNM 20638

9.4

8.7

9.5

7.8

10.0

6.7

 

USNM 20650

9.5

7.9

9.8

8.0

7.4

 

USNM 21286

9.3

9.4

 

USNM 20637

10.8

7.7

 

USNM 409469

10.4

6.9

Phenacodus intermedius

USNM 21287

12.0

7.7

12.6

10.0

12.5

11.4

13.2

12.7

 

USNM 20644

11.8

7.9

12.1

9.8

 

UCMP 170704

12.3

10.7

12.1

11.3

11.8

8.8

Ectocion osbornianus

USNM 20736 (R)

5.6

3.5

6.6

4.2

6.6

5.2

6.4

5.4

6.3

4.5

 

USNM 20736 (L)

5.5

3.4

6.8

4.2

7.1

5.2

6.8

5.4

7.1

4.5

 

USNM 16695

6.1

4.6

 

USNM 20645

7.4

5.1

6.8

5.8

7.0

6.7

 

USNM 20646

7.4

5.4

 

UCMP 173493

6.7

5.9

 

USNM 20648

6.7

5.3

6.6

5.7

 

UCMP 173401

4.8

6.9

5.1

4.4

 

USNM 20640

7.0

5.3

7.0

5.7

8.2

5.3

 

USNM 406146

8.1

4.7

 

TABLE 3. Descriptive summary statistics of the upper dentition of phenacodontids from Buckman Hollow and other Clarkforkian and other earliest Wasatchian assemblages from the Western Interior of North America. Comparative data from Thewissen (1990), Burger (2012), and Rose et al. (2012).

 

Taxon

Sedimentary Basin

 

P3L

P3W

P4L

P4W

M1L

M1W

M2L

M2W

M3L

M3W

Phenacodus vortmani

Buckman Hollow

n

3

5

4

4

5

4

4

4

7

7

   

Mean

8.2

8.0

8.1

8.9

9.1

10.1

8.9

11.7

8.0

10.4

   

SD

0.2

0.6

0.3

0.5

0.2

1.6

0.3

0.3

0.6

1.1

   

SE

0.1

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.8

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

   

Minimum

7.9

7.3

7.8

8.5

8.8

8.3

8.7

11.5

7.3

9.1

   

Maximum

8.4

8.6

8.5

9.5

9.4

12.0

9.3

12.1

8.8

12.5

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf 2

n

     

1

2

2

2

2

4

4

   

Mean

     

9.6

9.4

11.2

9.8

10.5

9.5

8.9

   

SD

         

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.1

0.7

   

SE

         

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.4

   

Minimum

       

9.0

10.9

9.5

10.4

8.6

7.7

   

Maximum

       

9.8

11.4

10.0

10.6

10.3

9.6

                         

Phenacodus intermedius

Buckman Hollow

n

2

2

3

3

   

1

1

   
   

Mean

9.9

8.8

10.2

11.3

   

11.0

14.0

   
   

SD

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.5

           
   

SE

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.3

           
   

Minimum

9.6

8.3

9.8

10.9

           
   

Maximum

10.2

9.3

11.0

11.8

           
                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

12

14

21

24

20

22

29

29

38

40

   

Mean

10.7

9.9

10.7

11.5

12.3

13.9

13.2

14.3

11.7

11.0

   

SD

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.9

0.9

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.9

1.0

   

SE

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

   

Minimum

9.5

8.9

9.2

9.0

10.7

11.8

10.9

12.4

10.2

8.8

   

Maximum

12.1

11.4

11.6

13.1

14.5

16.3

16.1

15.7

14.0

14.2

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Wa0

n

1

1

1

1

           
   

Mean

8.0

8.4

8.3

9.2

           
   

SD

                   
   

SE

                   
   

Minimum

                   
   

Maximum

                   
                         

Ectocion sp., cf. E. major

Buckman Hollow

n

           

1

1

   
   

Mean

           

10.3

12.2

   
   

SD

                   
   

SE

                   
   

Minimum

                   
   

Maximum

                   
                         

Ectocion osbornianus

Buckman Hollow

n

2

3

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

3

   

Mean

5.9

5.5

6.0

6.9

6.7

8.5

6.1

8.7

5.4

7.8

   

SD

0.1

0.1

 

1.0

0.8

0.0

 

0.4

0.9

0.9

   

SE

0.1

0.1

 

0.7

0.5

0.0

 

0.3

0.5

0.5

   

Minimum

5.8

5.4

 

6.2

6.1

8.5

 

8.4

4.9

7.2

   

Maximum

5.9

5.7

 

7.6

7.2

8.5

 

8.9

6.5

8.8

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

45

46

53

54

85

88

96

108

63

66

   

Mean

6.2

6.2

6.6

7.8

7.2

8.7

7.6

8.9

6.2

7.0

   

SD

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

5.2

4.9

5.8

5.6

6.4

7.3

6.2

7.7

5.2

5.6

   

Maximum

6.7

6.9

7.2

8.8

8.0

10.0

8.9

10.1

7.5

8.0

                         

Ectocion parvus

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

2

2

2

2

4

4

8

7

5

5

   

Mean

5.2

5.1

5.6

6.6

5.7

7.4

6.3

7.3

5.2

6.1

   

SD

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.5

   

SE

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.2

   

Minimum

5.0

5.0

5.5

6.3

5.6

7.3

5.7

6.7

4.4

5.5

   

Maximum

5.4

5.3

5.7

6.8

6.2

7.4

7.0

7.8

5.8

6.6

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Wa0

n

2

2

3

4

7

7

15

15

9

9

   

Mean

4.7

4.7

5.4

6.5

5.6

6.8

5.6

7.2

4.9

6.2

   

SD

0.3

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.5

0.8

0.8

   

SE

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.3

   

Minimum

4.6

4.3

5.2

6.0

5.3

6.1

4.9

6.4

4.1

4.9

   

Maximum

4.9

5.1

5.5

6.9

6.0

7.5

6.2

7.9

6.6

7.2

                         
 

Piceance Creek

n

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

4

   

Mean

5.4

4.9

5.4

6.1

5.8

7.5

5.6

7.5

4.9

7.0

   

SD

               

0.1

0.1

   

SE

               

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

               

4.9

6.8

   

Maximum

               

5.2

7.1

TABLE 4. Descriptive summary statistics of the lower dentition of phenacodontids from Buckman Hollow and other Clarkforkian and other earliest Wasatchian assemblages from the Western Interior of North America. Comparative data from Thewissen (1990), Burger (2012), and Rose et al. (2012).

 

Taxon

 Assemblage    p3L  p3W  p4L  p4W  m1L  m1W  m2L  m2W  m3L  m3W

Phenacodus vortmani

Buckman Hollow

n

1

1

3

3

5

5

4

3

4

4

   

Mean

8.4

4.9

9.5

6.5

9.2

7.8

9.6

8.0

10.2

7.2

   

SD

   

0.3

0.7

0.2

0.6

0.3

0.2

0.6

0.5

   

SE

   

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.2

   

Minimum

   

9.2

5.9

9.0

7.2

9.3

7.8

9.4

6.7

   

Maximum

   

9.7

7.3

9.5

8.7

9.9

8.2

10.8

7.7

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

3

3

6

6

4

3

5

7

7

7

   

Mean

8.5

5.6

9.5

6.5

9.6

7.7

9.7

8.1

9.8

6.9

   

SD

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.8

0.6

   

SE

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.2

   

Minimum

8.1

5.4

9.1

5.7

9.0

7.2

9.5

7.7

8.5

6.3

   

Maximum

8.8

5.7

9.8

7.1

10.0

7.9

10.0

8.4

11.0

7.6

                         

Phenacodus intermedius

Buckman Hollow

n

1

1

2

2

3

3

2

2

1

1

   

Mean

12.0

7.7

12.2

9.0

12.3

10.6

12.7

12.0

11.8

8.8

   

SD

   

0.6

1.5

0.2

0.8

0.78

1.0

   
   

SE

   

0.4

1.1

0.1

0.5

0.56

0.7

   
   

Minimum

   

11.8

7.9

12.1

10.0

12.1

11.3

   
   

Maximum

   

12.6

10.0

12.5

11.4

13.2

12.7

   
                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

18

22

33

34

44

40

44

47

41

41

   

Mean

10.9

6.9

11.9

8.6

12.4

10.3

12.8

11.3

13.1

9.8

   

SD

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.6

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

10.2

5.4

10.2

7.5

11.1

9.3

11.2

9.6

11.4

8.4

   

Maximum

12.1

8.1

13.5

10.1

14.0

11.6

14.3

12.9

15.2

10.7

                         
 

Bighorn Basin (Wa0)

n

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

   

Mean

9.0

5.6

9.7

6.4

10.6

8.6

10.4

9.4

10.4

8.0

   

SD

0.2

0.4

0.9

0.4

0.1

     

0.7

0.6

   

SE

0.2

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.1

     

0.5

0.5

   

Minimum

8.8

5.3

9.1

6.2

10.5

     

9.9

7.5

   

Maximum

9.1

5.8

10.3

6.7

10.7

     

10.9

8.4

                         

Ectocion osbornianus

Buckman Hollow

n

2

2

4

4

6

7

7

7

4

5

   

Mean

5.6

3.4

6.7

4.5

6.9

5.3

6.8

5.7

7.4

4.7

   

SD

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.5

0.9

0.4

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.5

0.2

   

Minimum

5.5

3.4

6.1

4.2

6.6

4.8

6.4

5.4

6.3

4.4

   

Maximum

5.6

3.5

7.4

5.1

7.4

5.9

7.0

6.7

8.2

5.3

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

49

52

98

103

173

181

178

187

91

105

   

Mean

6.6

3.7

6.7

4.7

6.6

5.2

6.7

5.6

7.2

4.8

   

SD

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.3

   

SE

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

   

Minimum

5.7

3.0

5.8

4.1

5.8

4.5

5.6

4.5

6.3

4.1

   

Maximum

7.3

4.3

7.7

5.8

7.5

6.4

7.6

6.6

8.2

6.1

                         

Ectocion parvus

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

3

4

14

14

11

9

10

14

6

8

   

Mean

5.8

3.1

5.8

3.8

5.5

4.4

5.5

4.6

5.9

3.8

   

SD

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

   

SE

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

   

Minimum

5.5

2.8

5.1

3.4

5.2

3.8

4.6

4.2

5.1

3.4

   

Maximum

6.0

3.2

6.3

4.2

5.9

4.8

5.9

5.2

6.2

4.3

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Wa0

n

8

8

15

15

19

18

26

27

19

18

   

Mean

5.5

3.0

5.7

3.8

5.5

4.4

5.7

4.6

5.9

3.8

   

SD

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.3

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

4.9

2.6

4.8

2.7

5.1

4.0

3.8

4.2

5.5

3.4

   

Maximum

5.9

3.3

6.1

4.3

6.2

4.9

6.7

5.3

6.6

4.6

                         
 

Piceance Creek

n

   

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

3

   

Mean

   

5.6

3.4

5.4

4.1

6.2

4.9

6.6

4.3

   

SD

               

0.2

0.3

   

SE

               

0.1

0.2

   

Minimum

               

6.4

4.0

   

Maximum

               

6.7

4.6

 

TABLE 5. Chart comparing current faunal lists for Clarkforkian faunas of southwestern Wyoming and northern Colorado. Solid circles indicate taxa referred to a fauna based on figured or published voucher specimens; open circles indicate taxa known only from faunal lists. Primary references for each locality are as follows: 1) Buckman Hollow – Gazin 1942, 1956; Dorr and Gingerich, 1980; Rose 1981, Gingerich 1976, Thewissen 1990; this paper; 2) Piceance Creek Clarkforkian composite – Patterson, 1933, 1934, 1937, 1939; Patterson and West, 1973; Kihm, 1984; Lucas, 1998; Burger and Honey, 2008; Burger, 2012; 3) Great Divide Basin – Anemone and Dirks, 2009; 4) Big Multi Quarry – Wilf et al., 1998; Dawson and Beard, 1996; Chester and Beard, 2012; 5) Togwotee Pass or lower variegated sequence Cf composite fauna in Purdy Basin – McKenna, 1980; Rose, 1981.

 
    Buckman Hollow Piceance Creek Clarkforkian composite Great Divide Basin Big Multi Purdy Basin Cf

Multituberculata

           

Eucosmodontidae

Neoliotomus conventus

Microcosmodontidae

Microcosmodon conus

Neoplagiaulacidae

Parectypodus sp.

Neoplagiaulacidae

Ectypodus sp.

Ptilodontidae

Prochetodon sp.

Marsupialia

           

Didelphidae

Peradectes sp.

Arctostylopida

           

Arctostylopidae

Arctostylops steini

"Condylarthra"

           

Arctocyonidae

Anacodon nexus

Arctocyonidae

Lambertocyon ischyrus

 

Arctocyonidae

Chriacus sp.

Oxyclaenidae

Thryptacodon sp.

Phenacodontidae

Ectocion osbornianus

Phenacodontidae

Ectocion parvus

Phenacodontidae

Ectocion major

cf

Phenacodontidae

Phenacodus intermedius

Phenacodontidae

Phenacodus vortmani

Apheliscidae

Haplomylus simpsoni

Apheliscidae

Apheliscus nitidus

Apheliscidae

Aletodon sp.

Creodonta

           

Oxyaenidae

Oxyaena transiens

Oxyaenidae

Oxyaena platypus

Oxyaenidae

Dipsalidictis krausei

Hyaenodontidae

cf. Prolimnocyon atavus

Hyaenodontidae

?Dipsalodon matthewi

Hyaenodontidae

Dipsalodon n. sp.

Dinocerata

           

Prodinoceratidae

Probathyopsis harrisorum

Mesonychia

           

Mesonychidae

Dissacus navajovius

Palaeanodonta

           

Epoicotheriidae

Palaeanodon cf. parvulus

 

Cimolesta

           

Barylambdidae

Barylambda faberi

Coryphodontidae

Coryphodon

Cyriacotheriidae

Cyriacotherium psamminum

Titanoideidae

Titanoides primaevus

 

Pantolesta

           

Pantolestidae

Palaeosinopa sp.

Proteutheria

           

Palaeoryctidae

Palaeoryctes cf. punctatus

Carnivora

           

Viverravidae

Protictis proteus

Viverravidae

Viverravus sp.

?

Viverravidae

Didymictis sp.

Dermoptera

           
 

Planetetherium sp.

Primates

           

Microsyopidae

Arctodontomys sp.

Microsyopidae

Arctodontomys simplicidens

Plesiadapidae

Chiromyoides caesor

Plesiadapidae

Plesiadapis dubius

Plesiadapidae

Plesiadapis cookei

Plesiadapidae

cf. Plesiadapis

Paromomyidae

Phenacolemur cf. pagei

Paromomyidae

Phenacolemur cf. simonsi

Paromomyidae

cf. Ignacius sp.

Carpolestidae

Carpolestes nigridens

Micromomyidae

Dryomomys dulcifer

Micromomyidae

Tinimomys tribos

Lipotyphla

           

Erinaceidae

Diacocherus minutus

Erinaceidae

Leipsanolestes

Nyctitheriidae

Ceutholestes sp.

Nyctitheriidae

Limaconyssus sp.

Nyctitheriidae

Wyonycteris sp.

Nyctitheriidae

Plagioctenodon sp.

Rodentia

           

Ischyromyidae

Paramys adamus

Ischyromyidae

P. cf. P. atavus

Ischyromyidae

P. cf. P. excavatus

Alagomyidae

Alagomys russelli

Taeniodonta

           

Stylinodontidae

Ectoganus gliriformis

Tillodonta

           

Esthonychidae

Azygonyx xenicus