FIGURE 1. Structural and sedimentological units of Iran (Nabavi, 1976).

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FIGURE 2. Location of studied area.

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FIGURE 3. Geological map of studied area.

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FIGURE 4. 4.1: The studied series with the thicknesses and sample locations. 4.2: Upper contact with the Cenozoic Qum Formation. 4.3: Lower conctat with the Devonian-Carboniferous Ilanqareh Formation.

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FIGURE 5. Proposed correlation between the international and Tethyan scales of the Permian system (according to Leven, 1967, 1975, 1981, 1992, 1997; Henderson et al., 2012; Davydov et al., 2013; and D. Vachard (unpublished data)). Abbreviations: e = early l/m = late/middle.

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FIGURE 6. Foraminiferal distribution of the Ruteh Formation in Maku section (NW Iran).

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FIGURE 7. Classes and families of foraminifers described in this study (classification after Vachard et al., 2010 and Hance et al., 2011).

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FIGURE 8. 1-4. Eotuberitina reitlingerae Miklukho-Maklay, 1958. 1. P18-5. Murgabian. 2. P17-34. Murgabian. 3. P10-33. Murgabian. 4. P23-17. Murgabian. 5-6, 11. Deckerella sp. 5. P41-17. Latest Midian. 6. Longitudinal section. P41-11. Latest Midian. 11. Initial stage similar to Palaeotextularia, with Hemigordiellina regularis (Lipina, 1949). P41-56. Latest Midian. 7-8. Cribrogenerina sp. 1. 7. Subaxial section with Okimuraites plana (Okimura and Ishii, 1981) (B; bottom left and top right). P21-50. Murgabian. 8. Oblique section with Neodiscus milliloides Miklukho-Maklay, 1953 (bottom, left). P20-30. Murgabian. 9, 12. Cribrogenerina sp. 2. 9. Subaxial section. P52-1. Djulfian. 12. Subaxial section. P50-33. Djulfian. 10, 13. Climacammina sp. 1. 10. Subtransverse section. P52-13. Djulfian. 13. Longitudinal section. P50-35. Djulfian. 14-15. Climacammina sp. 2. 14. Subaxial section. P34-36. Midian. 15. Oblique section. P34-17. Midian. 16. Labioglobivalvulina cf. baudi Gaillot and Vachard, 2007. Subaxial section. P3-40. Murgabian. 17, 19. Globivalvulina bulloides (Brady, 1876). 17. Axial section. P1-3. Murgabian. 19. Axial section (top left) with G. graeca (bottom). P2-2. Murgabian. 18, 20. Globivalvulina ex gr. bulloides (Brady, 1876). 18. Axial section. P1-20. Murgabian. 20. Transverse section. P1-27. Murgabian. 21-22. Globivalvulina cyprica Reichel, 1946. 21. Axial section. P17-31. Murgabian. 22. Transverse section. P17-16. Murgabian. 19, 23-26. Globivalvulina graeca Reichel, 1946. 19. Axial section (bottom) with G. bulloides (top left). P2-2. Murgabian. 23. Axial section. P17-11. Murgabian. 24. Transverse section. P22. Murgabian. 25. Transverse section. P17-29. Murgabian. 26. Transverse section. P6-38. Murgabian.

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FIGURE 9. 1-2. Earlandia ex gr. elegans (Rauzer-Chernousova and Reitlinger in Rauzer-Chernousova and Fursenko, 1937). 1. Longitudinal section (top left) with Geinitzina sp. (top left) and Hemigordiellina regularis (Lipina, 1949) (bottom and top, left). P17-11. Murgabian. 2. Longitudinal section. P17-13. Murgabian. 1, 4. Earlandia ex gr. minor (Rauzer-Chernousova, 1948). 1. Oblique section (bottom left). P17-11. Murgabian. 4. Longitudinal section. P31-30. Murgabian. 3. Endothyra ? sp. Axial section. P8-5. Murgabian. 5. Endothyra cf. miassica Malakhova, 1965. Transverse section (top, left) with Globivalvulina graeca Reichel, 1946 (top right) and Nankinella ex gr. minor Sheng, 1955 (bottom left). P10-64. Murgabian. 6. Neoendothyra sp.. Axial section. P25-1. Murgabian. 7, 11-14. Globivalvulina graeca Reichel, 1946. 7. Subaxial section. P1-18. Murgabian. 11. Subaxial section. P1-29. Murgabian. 12. Subtransverse section. P1-14. Murgabian. 13. Subaxial section with 3 specimens of Hemigordiellina regularis (Lipina, 1949). P6-6. Murgabian. 14. Axial section. P16-41. Murgabian. 8. Septoglobivalvulina distensa (Wang in Zhao et al., 1981). Two sections. P5-2. Murgabian. 9. Globivalvulina ex gr. bulloides (Brady, 1876). Axial section. P1-15. Murgabian. 10. Paraglobivalvulina cf. mira Reitlinger, 1965. Axial section. P25-24. Murgabian. 15-17. Globivalvulina vonderschmitti Reichel, 1946. 15. Transverse section with Globivalvulina bulloides. P34-35. Midian. 16. Transverse section with a Nankinella ? sp. (top right). P11-8. Murgabian. 17. Subaxial section with Globivalvulina ex gr. bulloides (top left); transitional taxon to Paradagmarita (top, centre) and Labioglobivalvulina cf. baudi (top right). P22-9. Murgabian.

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FIGURE 10. 1?, 2, 3?, 4, 5?, 6, 15, 18?. Globivalvulina cyprica Reichel, 1946. 1. Subtransverse section. P23. Murgabian. 2. Axial section. P22-34. Murgabian 3. Transverse section. P3-20. Murgabian. 4. Transverse section. P3-3. Murgabian. 5. Subtransverse section. P2-17. Murgabian. 6. Transverse section. P25-14. Murgabian. 15. Subtransverse section with Hemigordiellina sp. (top, right). P3. Murgabian. 18? Transverse section. P14-35. Murgabian. 7, 12. Globivalvulina ex gr. bulloides (Brady, 1876). 7. Axial section. P32-31. Midian. 12. Axial section. P1-7. Murgabian. 8-10. Globivalvulina graeca Reichel, 1946. 8. Transverse section. P16-23. Murgabian. 9. Transverse section. P16-34. Murgabian. 10. Axial section. P7-6. Murgabian. 11, 24. Paraglobivalvulina mira Reitlinger, 1965. 11. Axial section. Detail of a well preserved juvenarium surrounded by the fragments of the broken last chamber. P50-18. Djulfian. 24. Broken axial? section. P50-29. Djulfian. 13-14, 22. Globivalvulina vonderschmitti Reichel, 1946. 13. Axial section. P10-53. Murgabian. 14. Axial section. P20-31. Murgabian. 21. Transverse section. P34-19. Midian. 14. Septoglobivalvulina distensa (Wang in Zhao et al., 1981). Transverse section. P22. Murgabian. 16. Rectoseptellina aff. nitida (Lin, Li and Sun, 1990). Axial section. P54-18. Djulfian. 17. Paradagmarita ? sp. Oblique subaxial section. P50-10. Djulfian. 19-21. Globivalvulina ? sp. (Transitional from Globivalvulina to Paradagmarita). 19. Oblique section showing a last triangular chamber. P22. Murgabian. 20. Subaxial section. P22. Murgabian. 21. Subaxial section. P22. Murgabian. 23. Charliella ? sp. 1. Subtransverse section. P16-40. Murgabian.

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FIGURE 11. 1-2, 5. Sphaerulina sp. 1. 1. Subtransverse section. P2. Murgabian. 2. Axial section. P11-21. Murgabian 5. Axial section. P11-30. Murgabian. 3-4. Globivalvulina graeca Reichel, 1946. 3. Subaxial section (right) with Globivalvulina bulloides (left). P1-6. Murgabian. 4. Transverse section (bottom right) and subaxial section (top left). P22. Murgabian. 6-7, 10-11. Sphaerulina cf. zisongzhengensis Sheng, 1963. 6. Subaxial section. P11-21. Murgabian 7. Subtransverse section. P11-4. Murgabian. 10. Subtransverse section. P11-19. Murgabian 11. Subtransverse section. P1-25. Murgabian. 8. Nankinella sp. 2. Subaxial section with different stages of neosparitization. P6-61. Murgabian. 9. Sphaerulina sp. 3. Transverse section entirely microsparitized. P27-51. Murgabian.

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FIGURE 12. 1-6. Dagmarita aff. elegans Sosnina in Sosnina and Nikitina, 1977. 1. Axial section. P14-37. Murgabian. 2. Oblique section. P18-6. Murgabian. 3. Oblique section. P25-7. Murgabian. 4. Oblique section. P10-61. Murgabian. 5. Axial section. P2. Murgabian. 6. Subaxial section. P6-60. Murgabian. 7-8. Dagmarita ? sharezaensis Mohtat-Aghai and Vachard, 2003. 7. Subaxial section. P40-56. Midian. 8. Axial section. P40-28. Late Midian. 9. Dagmarita altilis Wang in Zhao et al., 1981. Axial section. P41-78. Latest Midian. 10-11, 12?. Sphaerulina sp. 1. 10. Transverse section. P18-20. Murgabian. 11. Subtransverse section. P14-54. Murgabian. 12. Subaxial section with developed chomata. P14-3. Murgabian. 13-15. Sphaerulina cf. zisongzhengensis Sheng, 1963. 13. Subtransverse section. P32-1. Midian. 14. Detail of a transverse section showing the typical recrystallization of the wall. P32-20. Midian 15. Subaxial section. P11-8. Murgabian. 16-17, 18? Sphaerulina sp. 3. 16. Subtransverse section. P1-26. Murgabian. 17. Subaxial section. P6-47. Midian. 18? Oblique section. P16-52. Murgabian.

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FIGURE 13. 1-4. Nankinella ex gr. minor Sheng, 1955.1. Subtransverse section. P10-6. Murgabian. 2. Oblique tranverse. P19-13. Murgabian. 3. Subaxial section. P17-34. Murgabian. 4. Subaxial section. P17-29. Murgabian. 5?-6, 8. Nankinella sp. 2. 5. Transverse oblique recrystallized section. P23-17. Murgabian. 6. Completely microsparitized section. P34-1. Midian. 8. Partially recrystallized axial section. P17-6. Murgabian. 7. Nankinella sp. 3. Axial section. P6-1. Murgabian. 9-12. Grovesella ? ciryi Ebrahim Nejad and Vachard n. sp. 9. Paratype. Subaxial section. P17-30. Murgabian. 10. Holotype. Axial section. P10-8. Murgabian. 11. Paratype. Subaxial section. P22-11. Murgabian. 12. Paratype. Subaxial section with very enveloping last whorl. P34-16. Midian. 13-16. Grovesella sp. 13. Small axial section. P1-21. Murgabian. 14. Axial section. P14-24. Murgabian. 15. Subaxial section. P14-8. Murgabian. 16. Transverse section. P6-24. Murgabian. 7-22. Schubertella sp. 17. Transverse section. P22-19. Murgabian. 18. Axial section. P14-14. Murgabian. 19. Axial section. P2. Murgabian. 20. Axial section. P14-41. Murgabian. 21. Axial section. P2-21. Murgabian. 22. Axial section. P3-29. Murgabian. 23. Dunbarula aff. pusilla Skinner, 1969. Subaxial section. P30-12. Earliest Midian. 24. Chusenella sp. Subaxial section showing the septal folding. P41-54. Latest Midian.

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FIGURE 14. 1-2, 6, 8. Chusenella spp. 1. Subaxial section. P34-22. Midian. 2. Detail of the keriotheca. P41-25. Latest Midian. 6. Oblique section with the axial filling. P40-1. Latest Midian. 8. Oblique section with septal folding and axial filling. P40-60. Latest Midian. 3, 5, 7, 9. Neoschwagerina simplex Ozawa, 1927 emend. Sheng, 1963. 3. Subaxial section showing the parachomata and the transverse septula of first order. P21-51. Murgabian. 5. Fragment of transverse section showing the wall microstructure and the absence or rarity of axial septula. P3. Murgabian. 7. Oblique section. P3-13. Murgabian. 9. Oblique transverse section. P3-35. Murgabian. 4, 6. Sumatrina annae Volz, 1904. 4. Subaxial section. P30-56. Earliest Midian. 6. Axial section of a young specimen. P30-54. Earliest Midian.

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FIGURE 15. 1-2, 5, 7? Pseudovermiporella sodalica Elliott, 1958. 1. Typical specimen. P22. Murgabian. 2. Typical thick wall. P8-42. Murgabian. 7? Thick-walled specimen with the proloculus (centre, right). P27-7. Murgabian. 3-4, 6, 8-10, 13-14. Pseudovermiporella nipponica (Endo in Endo and Kanuma, 1954). 3. Longitudinal to tangential section. P22. Murgabian. 4. Juvenarium with the proloculus. P27-42. Murgabian. 8. Group of tubules. P27-37. Murgabian. 9. Two transverse sections. P16-42. Murgabian. 10. Longitudinal section. P22. Murgabian. 13. A juvenarium (centre) and various adult sections. P6. Early Murghabian. 14. Longitudinal section (centre) with Labioglobivalvulina cf. baudi (bottom right). P17-28. Murgabian. 11-12. Pseudovermiporella longipora (Praturlon, 1963). 11. Detail of the wall. P17-30. Murgabian. 12. Longitudinal section with Eotuberitina reitlingerae (Figure 8.2). P17-14. Murgabian.

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FIGURE 16. 1-2, 3?, 4?, 5?, 6?, 19? Okimuraites plana (Okimura and Ishii, 1981). 1 Two typical specimens (left and right) with Hemigordiellina ? sp. (centre). P39-50. Midian. 2. Two axial sections (top) with Hemigordiellina regularis (bottom). P31-12. Murgabian. 3? Subaxial section (right) with Syzrania n. sp.? (left). P32-7. Midian. 4? Subaxial section. P32-22. Midian. 5? Subaxial section. P30-4. Midian. 6? Axial section. P18-13. Murgabian. 19? Transverse section. P27-18. Murgabian. 7-13. Hemigordiellina regularis (Lipina, 1949). Seven random sections. 7. P6-23. Murgabian. 8. P6-11. Murgabian. 9. P8-44. Murgabian. 10. P10-3. Murgabian. 11. P21-35. Murgabian. 12. P22-7. Murgabian. 13. P41-26. Midian. 14-17. Hemigordiellina ? sp. 2. 14. Oblique section. P34-7. Midian. 15. Axial section. P32-33. Midian. 16. Oblique section. P32-33. Midian. 17. Subaxial section. P10-31. Murgabian. 18. Agathammina parvula (Lin, 1978). Three longitudinal sections. 18. P21-36. Murgabian. 20-21. Agathammina cf. rosella Pronina, 1988b. 20. P8-47. Murgabian. 21. P27-3. Murgabian. 22-25. Agathammina cf. subfusiformis Okimura and Ishii, 1981. Four subaxial sections. 22. P41-74. Latest Midian. 23. P41-8. Latest Midian. 24. P38-7. Midian. 25. P39-36. Midian. 26-27. Agathammina pusilla (Geinitz in Geinitz and Gutbier, 1848) emend. Wolanska, 1959. Two axial sections. 26. P41-47. Midian. 27. P34-33. Midian.

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FIGURE 17. 1. Hemigordiellina ? sp. 3. Axial section. P31-17. Midian. 2-3, 21. Hemigordiellina ? pulchrissima Ebrahim Nejad and Vachard n. sp. Three axial sections. Midian. 2. Paratype. P39-23. 3. Paratype. P39-57. 21. Holotype. P39-45. 4, 6?, 7-11, 20? Glomomidiella nestellorum Vachard, Rettori, Angiolini and Checconi, 2008. 4. Axial section transitional to Neodiscus. P30-19. Midian. 6. Transverse section showing the pseudosepta. P30-20. Earliest Midian. 7-11. Various sections (7. P30-11; 8. P30-3; 9. P30-13; 10. P30-3; 11. P30-5). 20. P30-10. Midian. 16-17. Glomomidiella cf. gigantea (Lin, 1984). 16. P37-25. Murgabian. 17. P31-14. Midian. 5. Agathammina cf. subfusiformis Okimura and Ishii, 1981. Longitudinal section. P39-53. Midian. 12-13, 19. Neodiscus milliloides Miklukho-Maklay, 1953. Four axial sections. 12. P38-24. Midian. 13. P37-13. Midian. 19. P21-9. Murgabian. 14-15, 18. Glomomidiella ? cf. specialisaeformis (Lin, Li and Sun, 1990). 14. P39-38. Midian. 15. P47-24. Djulfian.18. P47. Djulfian. 22. P47-12. Djulfian. 22-24. Glomomidiella cf. problema (Lin, 1978). 22. Two specimens. P47-24. 23. P40-13. Late Midian. 24. P44-20. Djulfian.

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FIGURE 18. 1. Hemigordiellina ? pulchrissima Ebrahim Nejad and Vachard n. sp. Paratype (top) with Okimuraites plana (Okimura and Ishii, 1981) (bottom). P39-71. Midian. 2-4. Glomomidiella cf. problema (Lin, 1978). 2. P9-50. Murgabian. 3. with Hemigordiellina ? sp. (bottom) P9-38. Murgabian. 4. P34 32. Midian. 5. Glomomidiella ? sp. 5. P44-26. Djulfian. 6. Neodiscus milliloides Miklukho-Maklay, 1953. P9-18. Murgabian. 7, 15-16. Crassiglomella cf. guangxiensis (Lin, 1978) emend. Gaillot and Vachard, 2007. 7. P10-1. Murgabian. 15. P16- 44. Murgabian. 16. P41-45. Latest Midian. 8-10, 12. Glomomidiella cf. problema (Lin, 1978). 8. P7-22. Murgabian. 9. P16 39. Murgabian. 10. P10-15. Murgabian. 12. P10-24. Murgabian. 11, 13-14, 17-18. Glomomidiella cf. gigantea (Lin, 1984). 11. P37-22. Midian. 13. P31-3. Midian. 14. P30-10. Earliest Midian. 17. P44-24. Djulfian. 18. P37-23. Midian.

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FIGURE 19. 1-3. Syzrania n. sp.? 1. P32-14. Midian. 3. With Globivalvulina and Hemigordiellina. P32-31. Midian. 4-5. Rectostipulina quadrata Jenny-Deshusses, 1985. 4. P50-35. Djulfian. 5. P47-6. Djulfian. 6. Protonodosaria cf. sagitta (Miklukho-Maklay, 1954). P9-11. Murgabian. 7-10, 29. Nodosinelloides spp. 7. P25-15. Murgabian. 8. P34-40. Midian. 9. P1-23. Murgabian. 10. P51-19. Djulfian. 29. P41-25. Latest Midian. 11. Langella perforata (Lange, 1925). Axial section. P56-9. Djulfian. 12, 19-22, 27, 31. Geinitzina sp. 12. P39-9. Midian. 19. P1-23. Murgabian. 20. P6-9. Murgabian. 21. P20-8. Murgabian. 22. P27-50. Murgabian. 27. P50-31. Djulfian. 31. P54-22. Djulfian. 13, 26. Pachyphloia ex gr. ovata Lange, 1925. 13. Frontal axial section. P54-5. Djulfian. 26. Sagittal axial section. P10-21. Murgabian. 14, 28. Pseudotristix sp. 14. Axial section. P41-24. Latest Midian. 28. subtransverse section with Hemigordiellina regularis. P47-43. Early Djulfian. 15. Pseudolangella ? sp. Oblique section. P8-51. Murgabian. 16. Lingulina cf. imaginaria Pronina, 1999. P3. Early Murgabian. 17. Pachyphloia cf. iranica Bozorgnia, 1973. P41-46. Latest Midian. 18. Pseudolangella sp. P9-46. Murgabian. 23-24, 30, 32-33. Frondicularia sp. 23. P8-18. Murgabian. 24. P9-23. Murgabian. 30. P50-32. Djulfian. 32. P41-34. Latest Midian. 33. P39-52. Midian. 25. Colaniella aff. minuta Okimura, 1988. P41-37. Djulfian. 34. Robuloides lens Reichel, 1946. Axial section. P50-15. Djulfian. 35, 39-41, 43. Frondina permica Sellier de Civrieux and Dessauvagie, 1965. 35. P54-25. Djulfian. 39. P37-19. Midian. 40. P49-5. Djulfian. 41. P49-8. Djulfian. 43. P50-23. Djulfian. 36-38. Ichthyofrondina palmata (Wang, 1974). 36. P34-25. Midian. 37. P34-34. Midian. 38. P34-41. Midian. 42. P49-14. Djulfian.

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FIGURE 20. Attempt of palaeogeographical correlations between the terranes separated by the Tethys ocean during the Permian (after Vachard, 1980; 1996; Vachard and Montenat, 1981, 1996; and D. Vachard (unpublished data)).

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FIGURE 21. Proposed palaeomap of the Tethyan regions from western Europe to central Asia (according to Théry et al., 2007 modified; and D. Vachard (unpublished data)).

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