TABLE 1. Listing of fauna from the Drimolen Makondo macromammalian assemblage. NISP, number of individual specimens; MNI, minimum number of individuals.

Taxon NISP MNI
Order Primates    
  Family Cercopithecidae    
    Subfamily Colobinae    
      Cercopithecoides sp. 2 2
  Cercopithecidae indet. 13 1
           
Order Carnivora    
  Family Canidae    
    Vulpes chama 14 1
  Family Felidae    
    Dinofelis sp. 3 1
  Family Hyaenidae    
    Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula 7 1
           
Order Artiodactyla    
  Family Bovidae    
    Tribe Alcelaphini    
      Alcelaphin indet. 2 1
    Tribe Antilopini    
      Antilopin indet. 1 1
    Tribe Hippotragini    
      Hippotragus sp. 9 1
  Bovidae indet. 133 1
  Family Suidae    
    Metridiochoerus sp. 1 1
           
Order Perissodactyla    
  Family Equidae    
    cf. Eurygnathohippus cornelianus  1  1
Total       186 12

TABLE 2. Linear measurements (in mm) of Cercopithecoides sp. teeth. LL = labiolingual, BL = buccolingual, MD = mesiodistal. Boldface indicates article specimens.

Specimen Side I1 LL I1 MD I2 LL I2 MD C1 LL C1 MD C1 LL C1 MD P3 BL P3 MD P4 BL P4 MD
DNM 1 Left             5.61 4.55 5.25 7.66 6.75 7.08
DN 861 Right                 5.19   6.85 7.47
DN 889 Right                     5.49 7.57
DNM 95 Right 5.54 7.66 5.24 6.34 6.79 7.99            

TABLE 3. Measurements (in mm) of the DNM Vulpes chama dentition and other small-bodied modern and fossil canid mandibular teeth. µ, mean; σ, standard deviation. Measurement definitions after Hartstone-Rose et al., 2013. Cf. Materials and Methods for measurement abbreviations. Boldface indicates article specimens.

  Vulpes chama Vulpes chama Vulpes skinneri Canidae indet. Vulpes chama Vulpes macrotis Vulpes pallida Vulpes velox Vulpes vulpes Vulpes zerda Vulpes pattisoni Vulpes pulcher
  DNM 471-3 DNM 471-4 U.W. 88-812a DN 981b (N = 32)a (N = 4)a (N = 3)a (N = 9)a (N = 9)a (N = 10)a (N = 1)a (N = 2)c
          µ σ µ σ µ σ µ σ µ σ µ σ µ σ µ σ
p4 L 6.53 6.71 6.68   6.76 0.59 7.59 0.42 5.62 0.50 7.27 0.64 9.28 0.98 5.11 0.34     7.90 0.50
p4 W 2.83 2.81 3.12   3.16 0.41 3.17 0.34 2.49 0.23 3.21 0.26 4.04 0.48 2.19 0.30     3.20 0.00
m1 L 10.12 10.33 10.26 12.90 10.70 0.77 10.43 0.81 8.74 0.56 11.49 0.65 14.37 1.50 7.40 0.86     13.05 0.95
m1 Tri L 6.30 6.22 6.33   7.07 0.66 7.48 0.57 5.45 0.76 8.27 0.27 9.62 1.00 5.01 0.40        
m1 W 4.40 6.65 4.88 4.90 4.86 0.51 4.51 0.42 4.00 0.38 4.78 0.35 5.84 0.50 3.47 0.21     4.80 0.20
m2 L 6.36   6.47   5.79 0.61 4.54 0.25 4.91 0.26 4.92 0.51 6.34 0.42 4.71 0.99 6.96   6.55 0.55
m2 W 4.27   5.22   4.59 0.55 3.74 0.28 3.18 0.41 4.19 0.37 5.00 0.37 3.52 0.27 5.28   4.70  
Sub m1 H 14.65   14.92   16.40 1.29 13.94 1.82 12.54 1.46 15.93 1.51 20.79 1.53 10.82 0.54        
Sub m1 W 6.18   5.41   5.27 0.48 5.79 1.46 3.73 0.14 5.67 0.50 6.82 0.73 3.65 0.21        
Cor-Ang     30.50   28.03 1.41 25.66 0.79 22.79 2.70 30.01 2.08 37.89 2.25 20.53 0.94        
Con-Ang 13.63 13.82 14.42   12.70 1.07 12.01 0.93 10.57 0.51 14.33 1.51 16.69 1.11 9.47 0.44        
Con W 9.28 9.44 10.62   10.20 0.78 10.04 0.43 9.06 1.07 11.40 0.57 14.47 1.20 7.80 0.62        
Con DV 3.78 3.85 3.79   3.79 0.45 3.83 0.71 3.39 0.28 4.13 0.63 5.46 0.86 2.89 0.32        
                                         
a From Hartstone-Rose et al., 2013; b from O'Regan and Menter, 2009; c Ewer, 1956.                

TABLE 4. Measurements (in mm) of the Drimolen Makondo Dinofelis sp. and comparative metrics of Felidae distal limb elements. Cf. Materials and Methods for measurement abbreviations. Boldface indicates article specimens.

Specimen Taxon Side Element TL PW PH SW SH DW DH
DNM 2 Dinofelis sp. Left MT II 83.2 14.2 23.1 12.0 10.6 18.0 17.4
DN 12 Dinofelis aff. piveteaui Left MT II 76.7 12.7   11.2 11.6 16.6 15.7
KB 5339 A Megantereon cultridens Left MT II 71.5 11.2 19.6 8.9 9.3 14.2 14.4
KB 5339 B Megantereon cultridens Left MT V 69.8 14.4 14.6 7.8 8.1 13.1  
KB 5539 C Megantereon cultridens Left MT IV 80.1 15.9 18.5 10.9 10.7 14.5 13.8
SK 1848 Dinofelis barlowi Right MT IV   15.1 17.6 10.2 10.6    
DN 2092 Dinofelis aff. piveteaui Left Calcaneus 75.5            
DN 2149c Dinofelis aff. piveteaui Right Calcaneus 84.0            
DNM 54 Dinofelis sp. Left Calcaneus 90.8            
UCMP 88783 a Dinofelis barlowi   Calcaneus 78.0            
UCMP 88784 a Dinofelis barlowi   Calcaneus 81.9            
KNM-ER 722Q a Dinofelis aff. piveteaui   Calcaneus 71.0            
(BPI) M 16201 a Dinofelis darti   Calcaneus 84.9            
KNM-LT 23696 a Dinofelis sp.   Calcaneus 83.4            
KNM-LT 23932 a Dinofelis sp.   Calcaneus 81.3            
Extant (N = 20) b Panthera leo   Calcaneus 103.2            
Extant (N = 14) b Panthera pardus   Calcaneus 64.3            
                     
a From Werdelin and Lewis, 2001, b from Lewis, 1995.

TABLE 5. Measurements (in mm) of the Drimolen Makondo Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula and comparative Hyaenidae distal limb elements. Cf. Materials and Methods for measurement abbreviations. Boldface indicates article specimens.

Specimen Taxon Element TL PW PH SW SH DW DH VL VW
DNM 3-4 Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula Fourth Metatarsal   9.8 19.5            
Extant a Crocuta crocuta (N = 2) Fourth Metatarsal 88.9 9.9 15.4 9.0 8.3 10.8      
Extant a Parahyaena brunnea (N = 1) Fourth Metatarsal 84.7 8.8 14.0 9.0 8.3        
Extant a Hyaena hyaena (N = 1) Fourth Metatarsal 88.4 8.3 14.2 6.2 6.3 8.7      
                       
IVPP V18567.1 b Chasmaporthetes gangriensis Second Metatarsal >80.0     9.5   13.0      
                       
DNM 3-3 Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula Proximal Phalanx 35.3 13.9 12.0 7.7 7.3 11.4 8.0    
DNM 3-5 Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula Proximal Phalanx 35.4 13.0 11.2 7.2 6.6 10.4 8.0    
TRO 1671 a Chasmaporthetes ossifragus Proximal Phalanx 37.6 17.1 18.0 12.5 9.5 14.6      
UF 27377 a Chasmaporthetes ossifragus Proximal Phalanx 38.6 12.4 13.4 7.0 8.5 11.3      
IVPP V18567.2 b Chasmaporthetes gangriensis Proximal Phalanx 34.4 12.6   7.4   10.8      
DN 2033 c Hyaenidae sp. Proximal Phalanx           11.7 8.5    
DN 562 c Hyaenidae sp. Proximal Phalanx 29.3 11.4 9.8 7.6 6.7 9.4 6.4    
SKX 28181 Hyaenidae sp. Proximal Phalanx 29.7 13.3 10.9 8.6 7.3 10.9 7.3    
SKX 29031 d Hyaenidae sp. Proximal Phalanx 29.9 13.4 12.0 9.1 8.2 11.5 8.3    
SKX 27170 d Hyaenidae sp. Proximal Phalanx 29.9 13.5 12.0 9.0 8.2 11.4 8.3    
Extant a Crocuta crocuta (N = 3) Proximal Phalanx 27.4 9.8 9.8 6.2 6.5 9.1      
Extant a Parahyaenabrunnea (N = 1) Proximal Phalanx 25.2 8.7 8.7 4.4 5.7 7.7      
Extant a Hyaenahyaena (N = 1) Proximal Phalanx 24.7 9.2 7.7 5.6 6.3 7.9      
                       
DNM 3-1 Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula Intermediate Phalanx   11.0 8.2            
DNM 3-2 Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula Intermediate Phalanx 22.4 11.9 9.0 7.5 5.3 11.6 7.6    
IVPP V18567.3 b Chasmaporthetes gangriensis Intermediate Phalanx 24.8 11.3   8.1   11.9      
SKX 36942 d Parahyaena brunnea Intermediate Phalanx 28.3 10.7 9.8 7.4 6.1   7.1    
                       
DNM 3-6 Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula Distal Phalanx 19.2 8.7 13.4     5.3   10.7 7.3
DNM 3-7 Chasmaporthetes ?nitidula Distal Phalanx 20.7 10.3 14.5     5.9   10.8 7.8
                       
a From Berta, 1981; b from Tseng et al., 2013; c from O'Regan and Menter, 2009; d from Turner, 1993.