TABLE 1. Temporal and geographic record of the Family Plotopteridae.

Genus and species Formation and location Age Source
Plotopterum joaquinensis

Pyramid Hill Sand M., Jewett Sand F., California

Late Oligocene
(24-25 Ma)

Howard (1969), Scheirer and Magoon (2007)

Plotopterum sp.

Yamanouchi M., Akeyo F., Japan

Early Miocene
(16-17 Ma)

Olson and Hasegawa (1985), Sasao et al. (2011)

Tonsala hildegardae

Pysht F., Washington

Early Oligocene

Olson (1980), Goedert and Cornish (2002)

T. buchanani

Pysht F., Washington

Makah F., Washington

Early Oligocene

 

Late Eocene
(ca. 34-35.3 Ma)
to early Oligocene

Goedert and Cornish (2002), Dyke et al. (2011)

Tonsala? sp.

Yamaga F., Japan

Early Oligocene
(ca. 30-32 Ma)

Ozaki and Hamasaki (1991), Olson and Hasegawa (1996)

Stemec suntokum

Sooke F., British Columbia

Late Oligocene

 

(24.1-24.8 Ma)

Prothero et al. (2008), this study

Copepteryx hexeris

Ainoshima F. (~Yamaga F.), Japan

Yamaga F., Japan

Asagai F., Japan

Early Oligocene

 

Early Oligocene
(ca. 30-32 Ma)

 

Early Oligocene

Ozaki and Hamasaki (1991), Okada (1992), Olson and Hasegawa (1996), Kurita (2004)

C. titan

Ainoshima F. (~Yamaga F.), Japan

Early Oligocene

Olson and Hasegawa (1996)

Hokkaidornis abashiriensis

Tokoro F., Japan

Late Oligocene

 

(24-29 Ma)

Sakurai et al. (2008)

Phocavis maritimus

Keasey F., Oregon

Late Eocene

 

(ca. 33.8 Ma)

Goedert (1988), Goedert and Cornish (2002)

 

 

 

TABLE 2. Proportional dimensions of coracoids among the Plotopteridae and modern waterbirds.

Taxa Source Length of head1 to total length (%) Width of sternal articulation to total length (%)
Plotopteridae
Stemec suntokum RBCM.EH
2014.032.0001.001
23.3 18.0
Copepteryx hexeris Hasegawa et al. (1979) 23.5 23.0
Tonsala(?) sp. Hasegawa et al. (1979) 21.5 21.0
Sulidae
Sula sula RBCM 23425 29.3 46.0
Anhingidae
Anhinga anhinga UWBM 40957 23.6 26.0
A. melanogaster UWBM 62930 24.7 24.0
Stem cormorants
Oligocorax sp. Mayr (2015) 25.3 27.0
Nambashag billerooensis Worthy (2011) 25.6 23.9
Phalacrocoracidae
Phalacrocorax harrisi Shufeldt (1915) 16.4 31.0
NHMUK 1973.1.13 13.45 30.0
NHMUK 1902.1.9.12 15.35 32.0
Phalacrocorax penicillatus RBCM 15002 25.7 24.0
RBCM 12071 25.6 25.0
P. pelagicus RBCM 23169 25.5 30.0
P. auritus RBCM 11279 24.3 28.0
Spheniscidae
Eudyptula minor UWBM 57505 30.0 29.0
Spheniscus magellanicus Livezey and Zusi (2006) 22.9 29.0
Spheniscus humboldti UWBM 57504 28.7 32.0
Pygoscelis antarctica UWBM 38043 34.9 34.0