TABLE 1. Extant bovid species in the previously established reference sample for Elliptical Fourier Function Analysis (Brophy, 2011).

Tribe Species
Alcelaphini Connochaetes taurinus
  Connochaetes gnou
  Alcelaphus buselaphus
  Damaliscus dorcas
Tragelaphini Taurotragus oryx
  Tragelaphus strepsiceros
  Tragelaphus scriptus
Bovini Syncerus caffer
Reduncini Redunca arundinum
  Redunca fulvorufula
  Kobus leche
  Kobus ellipsiprymnus
Hippotragini Hippotragus niger
  Hippotragus equinus
  Oryx gazella
Neotragini Raphicerus campestris
  Oreotragus oreotragus
  Pelea capreolus
  Ourebia ourebi
Antilopini Antidorcas marsupialis

 

TABLE 2. Bovidae remains from Malapa, South Africa. NISP = Number of Identified Specimens; MNI = Minimum Number of Individuals

Order Artiodactyla NISP MNI
Family Bovidae
Subfamily Caprinae Tribe Ovibovini
Makapania broomi 2 2
Subfamily Bovinae Tribe Tragelaphini
Tragelaphus scriptus 3 1
Subfamily Alcelaphinae Tribe Alcelaphini
Alcelaphini Indeterminate 2 2
Megalotragus sp. 8 5
Subfamily Antilopinae Tribe Antilopini
Antidorcas recki 2 2
Antilopinae indeterminate 1 1
Bovidae Indeterminate 236

 

TABLE 3. Estimated mesiodistal (MD) measurements of Makapania broomi specimen UW 88-929 in mm.

Maxillary Right MD Left
M3 32.14 M3 33.07
M2 28.78 M2 29.19
M1 22.14 M1 22.86
P4 14.58 P4 14.57
P3 13.81 P3 13.7
P2 13.32 P2 9.7
Mandibular    
M3 38.35    
M2 29.01    
M1 22.86    
P4 14.75    
P3 12.81    
P2 10.61    

 

TABLE 4. Mesiodistal (MD) and buccolingual (BL) measurements in mm of Malapa UW 88-519, UW 88-518, UW 88-1015, M18, and M19

MD BL
M3 88-519 18.82 6.73
M18 17.54 6.24
M19 19.1 7.65
M2 88-518 N/A N/A
M18 12.68 6.8
M19 13.07 8.24
M1 M1 (88-518) 12.47 7.52
M18 11.29 6.77
M19 11.22 7.91
P4 P4 (88-1015) roots 9.03 4.97
M18 9.88 4.87
M19 10.52 5.86
P3 P3 (88-1015) roots 7.52 5.12
M18 8.13 4.33
  M19 N/A N/A

 

TABLE 5. Table 5. Measurements of Malapa teeth compared with Megalotragus sp. and Connochates sp. fossils recovered from Swartkrans Member 1, Kromdraai A, Sterkfontein Member 4, and Makapansgat (Vrba, 1976; Reed, 1996). Due to sample size, mean and minimum and maximum sizes were not always able to be determined. Size was only able to aid in taxonomic designation for the M2.

      Megalotragus   Connochaetes  
Accession Number Tooth Type Tooth Measurement (mm) Mean Min Max n   Mean Min Max n Designation based on size
 
 
UW 88-1311 P4 16.1 16.5 16.5 16.5 1   18.1625 14.5 23.1 8 Inconclusive
UW 88-1205 M1 27.34 24.4 N/A N/A 1   24.11 18.5 28.2 15 Inconclusive
UW 88-746 M2 28.31 27.15 24 30.3 2   27.5 23 32.1 21 Inconclusive
UW 88-556 P4 19.74 15.5 N/A N/A 1   21.55 9 31.5 20 Inconclusive
UW 88-1250 P4 19.01                   Inconclusive
UW 88-1250 P3 13.73 N/A N/A N/A             Inconclusive
UW 88-1250 M1 22.22 20.5 N/A N/A 1   21 16.5 25 13 Inconclusive
UW 88-1251 M1 23.5                   Inconclusive
UW 88-1251 M2 29.66 32.825 28 35 6   24.865 22.5 28 20 Megalotragus

 

 

TABLE 6. Skeletal part representation of Malapa bovid postcrania divided up by Body Size Class (BSC) (Number of Identified Specimens/Minimum Number of Elements/Minimum Number of Individuals).

BSI BSII BSIII
Humerus, complete 1/1/1
Proximal humerus   1/1/1 2/2/1
Distal humerus   1/1/1 3/2/1
Femur, complete 1/1/1
Proximal femur   2/2/2
Distal femur   4/3/2 2/1/1
Tibia, complete 2/2/1
Proximal tibia   2/2/2 1/1/1
Shaft tibia   1/1/1 1/1/1
Distal tibia   2/2/1
Radius
Proximal radius   1/1/1
Shaft radius   1/1/1 1/1/1
Distal radius   1/1/1 1/1/1
Ulna
Proximal ulna   3/3/2
Shaft ulna   1/1/1
Distal ulna   1/1/1
Metacarpal, complete 6/2/1
Proximal metacarpal   3/3/2
Shaft metacarpal   1/1/1
Distal metacarpal   2/2/1
Metatarsal  
Proximal metatarsal   1/1/1 1/1/1
Shaft metatarsal   1/1/1 4/2/1
Distal metatarsal   1/1/1 1/1/1
Metapodial
Distal metatarsal   1/1/1 2/2/1
Scapula 8/3/3 2/2/2
Atlas 1/1/1
Axis 1/1/1
Cervical vertebra 7/7/2 1/1/1
Thoracic vertebra 6/6/2 5/5/2
Lumbar vertebra 8/5/2
Caudal vertebra 1/1/1
Stenebra 1/1/1
Pelvis 1/1/1
Ribs 32/5/1 10/4/1
Sacrum 3/2/2
Proximal phalanx 4/3/1 10/10/3
Intermediate phalanx 1/1/1 4/4/2 7/7/2
Distal phalanx 2/2/1 2/2/1
Accessory carpal 1/1/1
Astragalus 3/3/2 1/1/1
Calcaneous 4/3/3 2/2/2
Internal cuneiform 1/1/1
Cuneiform 1/1/1
Lateral malleolus 1/1/1
Magnum 2/2/1
Naviculo-cuboid 2/2/1 1/1/1
Scaphoid 1/1/1
Unciform 1/1/1 1/1/1
Sesamoid 7/7/2

 

 

TABLE 7. Estimated ages of Megalotragus sp. specimens from Malapa based on occlusion rates from Connochaetes taurinus (Talbot and Talbot, 1963).

 Accession
Number
 Estimated Age of Specimen
(months)
UW 88-556  < 30-33
UW 88-746  30-33
 UW 88-1205  ~6
 UW 88-1249  26-28+
UW 88-1250 37-40+
UW 88-1251 26-28
UW 88-1299 30-33+
UW 88-1311 30-33+

 

 

TABLE 8. Differences in identifications between this paper and identifications listed in Val et al. (2015).

Accession Number Suggested Identifications Val et al., (2015)
88-518 Tragelaphus scriptus Tragelaphus
88-519 Tragelaphus scriptus Tragelaphus
88-555 Bovidae gen. et sp. indet. Unknown Bovid II
88-556 Megalotragus sp. Bovid
88-562 Antilopini gen. et sp. indet. Tragelaphini
88-734 Bovidae gen. et sp. indet. Unknown Bovid III
88-746 Megalotragus sp. Alcelaphini Bovid III
88-796 Bovidae gen. et sp. indet. Unknown Bovid III
88-797 Makapania broomi Unknown Bovid III
88-869 Antidorcas sp. not in paper
88-877 Alcelaphini gen. et sp. indet. Connchaetes
88-929 Makapania broomi Tragelaphus
88-1015 Tragelaphus scriptus Unknown Bovid II
88-1205 Megalotragus sp. Alcelaphini Bovid III
88-1249 Megalotragus sp. not in paper
88-1250 Megalotragus sp. not in paper
88-1251 Megalotragus sp. not in paper
88-1298 Antidorcas recki not in paper
88-1299 Megalotragus sp. not in paper
88-1311 Megalotragus sp. not in paper
88-1314 Bovidae gen. et sp. indet. not in paper