TABLE 1. Measurements (in mm) of Primates from TBM (b = broken dimension, p. = partial).

Taxon/Specimen Number Position ap tr tra trp
Uintasorex parvulus          
SDSNH 110359 p. M2 1.18b 1.41b - -
SDSNH 110358 dp4 1.08 - 0.52 0.64
DMNH 75287 m2 1.14 - 0.83 0.88
Microsyops annectans          
UCM 67984 m1 4.59 - 3.50 3.67
UCM 70315 m2 5.05 - 3.53 3.91
Omomys carteri          
SDSNH 110357 M3 2.35 3.55 - -
UCM 68564 p4 2.58 1.78 - -
SDSNH 110355 m2 2.31b - 1.60b 1.80b
DMNH 75326 m3 2.69 - 1.62 1.54
UCM 95772 m3 2.90 - 1.80 1.75
Washakius insignis          
UCM 68541 M1 or 2 2.60 3.41 - -
Trogolemur myodes          
UCM 78097 m2 1.67 - 1.44 1.49
UCM 67883 m3 2.13 - 1.30 1.26
Notharctus robustior          
DMNH 75300 M1 7.06 8.57 - -
UCM 78457 p. M1 or 2 - 8.10b - -
UCM 69054 M3 5.00 6.50b    
UCM 72600 p3 4.17 3.14 - -
UCM 72600 p. p4 5.15b 4.36 - -

 

TABLE 2. Measurements (in mm) of Ischyromyidae and Rodentia, family undetermined from TBM (* = probably associated teeth).

Taxon/Specimen Number Position ap tr tra trp
Microparamys minutus          
UCM 66310 dP4 1.15 1.26 - -
UCM 95696 P4 1.16 1.28 - -
SDSNH 110373 dp4 1.23 - 0.75 0.90
SDSNH 110374 p4 1.18 - 0.82 1.06
SDSNH 110375 m1 or 2 1.31 - 1.16 1.17
DMNH 74140 m1 or 2 1.35 - 1.18 1.36
Microparamys sp.          
SDSNH 110395 dP4 1.26 1.40 - -
SDSNH 110360 p4* 1.36 - 0.93 1.16
SDSNH 110361 m1* 1.41 - 1.23 1.41
SDSNH 110362 m2* 1.49 - 1.44 1.50
Thisbemys corrugatus          
UCM 70671 m1 4.04 - 3.76 3.90
Rodentia, family undet.          
UCM 95700 m1 or 2 1.54 - 1.18 1.20

 

TABLE 3. Comparison of P4/p4 ap reduction in size (in percent) relative to M1/m1-2 aps in sciuravids and 'Microparamys' scopaiodon (* = percentages for means of isolated teeth that can only be identified as M1 or 2 and m1 or 2, ** = percentage based on alveolar ap of p4 or m1). References: 1 Bown (1982); 2 Burke (1937); 3 Dawson (1962); 4 Dawson (1966); 5 Dawson (1968); 6 Emry and Korth (1989); 7 Flanagan (1986); 8 Gazin (1952); 9 Gazin (1961); 10 Guthrie (1971); 11 Ivy (1990); 12 Korth (1984); 13 Korth (1994); 14 Loomis (1907); 15 Marsh (1871); 16 Marsh (1872); 17 Nelson (1974); 18 Peterson (1919); 19 Rasmussen et al. (1999); 20 Troxell (1923a); 21 Walsh (1997); 22 Walton (1993); 23 Walton and Porter (2008); 24 West (1973); 25 Wilson (1938a); 26 Wilson (1938b); 27 Wilson (1938c); 28 Wilson (1940); 29 Wood (1959b); 30 Wood (1962); 31 Wood (1965).

Taxon P4 ap/M1 ap p4 ap/m1 ap p4 ap/m2 ap References
Knightomys huerfanensis 95%* 80% 81% 12, 30
Knightomys minor 83% 90%* 85%* 11, 31
Knightomys senior - 93% 90% 8, 9, 11
Knightomys reginensis 85% - - 7, 12
Knightomys cuspidatus 77% 74% 72% 1, 12
Knightomys depressus 93% 87% 82% 8, 11, 14, 30, 31
Knightomys cremneus - 79% 79-85% 11, 23
Sciuravus wilsoni - 95% 90% 9, 30
Sciuravus nitidus 85% 84-93% 74-87% 15, 24
'Sciuravus' bridgeri - 93% 88% 26
Sciuravus eucristadens 79% 87.50% 79% 2, 5
Sciuravus powayensis 70% 82% 78-82% 21, 28
Sciuravus altidens 87% - - 18
Sciuravid sp. Powder Wash 91%* 88%* - 5
Sciuravid sp. Br3 79% - - 3
Sciuravus popi 79% - - 5, 19
'Sciuravus' rarus - 59% - 25
'Microparamys' scopaidon - ~65%** 3% 12, 13, 22
'Pauromys' schaubi - ~75% ~80%** 21, 29
Pauromys perditus - 56% 56% 5, 20
Pauromys lillegraveni 57% 50% 56% 22
Pauromys exallos - 101% 92% 6, 21
Pauromys sp. Powder Wash - 59% - 4, 22
Pauromys sp. Lost Cabin - 85% 76% 12
Taxymys lucaris 84% - - 16, 27
Tillomys senex - ~75%** - 16, 27
Tillomys? sp. Fowkes 74% 97% - 17

 

TABLE 4. Measurements (in mm) of specimens of Sciuravus, Taxymys , Tillomys, Pauromys sp., cf. P. perditus, sciuravid sp. B, sciuravid sp. C and Sciuravidae, genus and species undetermined from TBM (a = approximate; p. = partial).

Taxon/Specimen Number Position ap tra trp
Sciuravus nitidus        
UCM 68430 p. P4 1.97 2.42 2.28a
Taxymys lucaris        
UCM 68307 M1 or 2 1.97 1.97 2.13
UCM 95759 M1 or 2 1.87 1.87 1.70
UCM 95762 M1 or 2 1.90 2.05 1.87
UCM 68924 M1 or 2 1.82 1.82 1.92
UCM 68921 p. M3 1.72 1.77 -
DMNH 75336 M3 1.77 1.80 1.41
Tillomys senex        
SDSNH 110363 m1 or 2 1.96 1.82 1.92
DMNH 75279 m1 or 2 1.96 1.67 1.88
DMNH 75328 m1 or 2 2.05 1.80 1.97
UCM 78451 m1 or 2 1.92 1.57 1.72
UCM 95753 m1 or 2 1.95 1.54 1.69
Tillomys? parvidens        
SDSNH 110379 m1 or 2 1.87 1.50 1.64
DMNH 75329 m1 or 2 1.82 1.30 1.51
UCM 68533 p. m1 or 2 1.74 - -
DMNH 75288 m3 1.81 1.51 1.46
Pauromys sp., cf. P. perditus        
SDSNH 110414 m1 1.00 0.72 0.82
Sciuravid sp. B        
SDSNH 110412 M1 or 2 1.06 1.05 1.08
Sciuravid sp. C        
UCM 68672 M1 or 2 1.13 1.23 1.18
SDSNH 110447 M1 or 2 1.12 1.23 1.13
SDSNH 110443 M1 or 2 1.13 1.26 1.10
SDSNH 110439 m3 1.16 0.95 0.87
SDSNH 110441 m3 1.16 1.02 0.93
Sciuravidae, gen. and sp. undet.        
SDSNH 110462 P4 0.77 1.00 0.95
SDSNH 140176 p. p4 0.67 - 0.55
SDSNH 110454 p. p4 - - 0.80

 

TABLE 5. Measurements (in mm) of Sciuravid sp. A from TBM (p. = partial).

Specimen Number Position ap tra trp
UCM 68425 M1 or 2 1.25 - 1.13
UCM 70910 M1 or 2 1.28 1.35 1.23
UCM 71413 M1 or 2 1.33 1.26 1.13
UCM 95763 M1 or 2 1.29 1.23 1.10
UCM 95692 M1 or 2 1.28 1.33 1.25
UCM 95696 M1 or 2 1.28 1.34 1.28
UCM 95694 m1 1.23 0.90 1.00
UCM 95812 p. m1 1.21 - 1.00
SDSNH 110398 p. m1 1.18 - -
UCM 71414 m1 1.26 1.00 1.05
UCM 68969 m2 1.36 1.06 1.13
UCM 71415 m2 1.28 1.03 1.10
UCM 77428 m2 1.28 1.03 1.21
UCM 95754 m2 1.34 1.05 1.19
UCM 95755 m2 1.36 1.18 1.26
UCM 95757 m2 1.30 1.10 1.13
UCM 95698 m2 1.31 1.18 1.26
UCM 95699 m2 1.26 1.08 1.17
SDSNH 110458 m2 1.22 1.08 1.08
SDSNH 110459 m2 1.21 1.07 1.10
SDSNH 110460 m2 1.23 1.04 1.10
UCM 71516 m3 1.39 1.08 1.06
UCM 95752 m3 1.43 1.01 1.04
UCM 95756 m3 1.46 1.14 1.11
SDSNH 110440 m3 1.28 1.00 0.95

 

TABLE 6. Dental measurements (in mm) and dental ratios of unworn to early wear teeth of cf. Pareumys sp. from the TBM (a = approximate, pch = protocone or protoconid height of unworn teeth1 or teeth in early wear stage2; p. = partial).

Specimen Number Position ap tra trp pch pch/ap pch/tra
UCM 95760 P4 1.48 1.69 1.64 1.142 0.86 0.85
DMNH 75335 P4 1.36 1.76 1.72 - - -
DMNH 75337 P4 1.35 1.77 1.69 - - -
SDSNH 110435 p. P4 1.49 - - - - -
UCM 68942 M1 or 2 1.67 1.82 1.74 1.511 0.90 0.83
UCM 95758 M1 or 2 1.51 1.79 1.67 - - -
DMNH 75334 M1 or 2 1.51 1.53 1.43 1.301 0.86 0.85
SDSNH 110396 M1 or 2 1.69 1.86 1.79 1.641 0.97 0.88
SDSNH 110397 M1 or 2 1.71 1.85a 1.67 -   -
UCM 67987 M3 1.51 1.67 1.31 - - -
UCM 70905 M3 1.57 1.56 1.46 1.261 0.80 0.81
UCM 69974 m1 1.56 1.39 1.36 - - -
UCM 67885 m2 1.61 1.39 1.44 - - -
SDSNH 110366 m2 1.64 1.54 1.58 - - -
SDSNH 110365 m2 1.57a - 1.49 - - -
SDSNH 110367 m3 1.97 1.46 1.51 - - -
SDSNH 110368 p. m3 1.77a - - - - -
SDSNH 110434 m3 1.77 1.54 1.57 1.472 0.83 0.96

 

 

TABLE 7. Dental measurements (in mm) and statistics for Metanoiamys sp. from TBM.

Position   N Mean Observed range SD CV
dP4 ap 3 0.97 0.93-1.00 0.04 -
  tra 3 0.81 0.79-0.82 0.02 -
  trp 3 0.81 0.77-0.85 0.04 -
P4 ap 3 0.83 0.77-0.89 0.06 -
  tra 3 0.88 0.80-1.00 0.09 -
  trp 3 0.84 0.77-0.93 0.07 -
M1 or 2 ap 14 1.02 0.90-1.09 0.05 4.9
  tra 13 1.03 0.95-1.10 0.05 4.8
  trp 13 1.01 0.89-1.09 0.06 5.9
M3 ap 6 0.89 0.83-0.93 0.05 5.6
  tra 6 0.94 0.83-1.00 0.06 6.3
  trp 6 0.79 0.77-0.82 0.03 3.7
dp4 ap 1 0.80 - - -
  tra 1 0.49 - - -
  trp 1 0.70 - - -
p4 ap 6 0.86 0.79-0.93 0.06 6.5
  tra 6 0.67 0.58-0.70 0.03 4.6
  trp 6 0.79 0.70-0.84 0.04 5.1
m1 or 2 ap 10 1.00 0.89-1.07 0.06 6.0
  tra 10 0.88 0.80-1.00 0.07 7.9
  trp 10 0.94 0.82-1.04 0.08 8.5
m3 ap 4 1.05 1.00-1.08 0.04 -
  tra 4 0.92 0.85-0.98 0.06 -
  trp 4 0.85 0.79-0.93 0.06 -

 

TABLE 8. Measurements (in mm) of SDSNH specimens of Elymys ? emryi new species from TBM (a = approximate, enamel abraded; p. = partial).

Specimen Number Position ap tra trp
110466 (holotype) M1 1.17 0.95 0.95
110465 M1 1.18 0.96 0.96
110463 M1 1.20 1.07 1.15
110464 p. M1 1.18 - 1.13
110444 M2 1.21 1.10 1.10
110448 M3 0.98 1.00 0.82
110455 m1 1.23 0.54 0.89
110456 m1 1.16 0.52 0.81
110405 m2 1.18a 0.92a 0.90a
110457 m2 1.28 0.98 1.05
110461 m3 1.21 1.00 0.82

 

TABLE 9. Comparison of lower molar characters of UCM 95700, Ailuravus michauxi, Eohaplomys, Haplomys and Spurimus scotti (presumed shared characters in bold; character states after Rensberger [1975] and Korth [1988]).

Character UCM 95700 Ailuravus Eohaplomys Haplomys Spurimus
1. angle between labial and posterior margins nearly square - 790-850 more acute - 600 -730 on m1-2, nearly square on m3 nearly square - 790-850 more acute - 600-730 more acute - 600-730
2. trigonids proportions Relatively wide trigonid basin with longer metalophulids I and II Relatively wide trigonid basin with longer metalophulids I and II Relatively wide trigonid basin with longer metalophulids I and II, especially in m3 trigonid basins narrower with shorter metalophulid I and II, especially m3 trigonid basins narrower with shorter metalophulid I and II, especially m3
3. metastylid crest Strongly developed Strongly developed Strongly developed More weakly developed More weakly developed
4. metastylid Absent Absent Absent or sometimes incipient on posterior edge of metastylid crest Present - well developed Absent
5. entoconid Bulbous Bulbous Bulbous Not bulbous, more anteroposteriorly compressed Not bulbous, more anteroposteriorly compressed
6. hypolophid and hypolophid connection Incomplete, extending into central basin with no connection Usually incomplete, extending into central basin, especially m3, or sometimes connecting to posterior cingulid Commonly complete, but low labially, connects to mesoconid Complete, tall and usually connects to posterior corner of ectolophid Complete, tall and usually connects to posterior corner of ectolophid
7. mesoconid small - oval shaped Commonly present - usually oval shaped Present - oval shaped More triangularly shaped with labial crest Absent
8. ectolophid straight Relatively straight Relatively straight Inflected Inflected
9. space (or valley) between entoconid, hypolophid and posterior cingulid Wide Wide Wide Narrow Narrow
10. crenulated enamel Yes Yes Yes No No