APPENDIX 1.

Statistical tests of univariate mesowear values calculated by our method on the original mesowear data for modern ungulate species (Fortelius and Solounias, 2000). The hierarchical clustering analysis (A 1.1) yielded similar results to the ones shown by Fortelius and Solounias (2000), clustering the species in relatively consistent and biologically meaningful dietary groups, with extreme browsers at one end and extreme grazers at the other. Typical diets in each cluster are named according to those of the dominant species in each cluster. MABRA = ‘”minute abraded brachydonts”; a special case of small ungulates which feed on fruit seeds and acquire a more abrasion-dominated mesowear signal than other browsers because of cusp tip-crushing wear (none of these were present in the Pleistocene of Europe). Discriminant analysis (A 1.2), following the methodology of Fortelius and Solounias (2000) showed that our univariate mesowear values still classify ca. 65 % of all extant ungulate species (excluding MABRA) and 85 % of extant ungulate species “typical of their dietary class” (see Fortelius and Solounias, 2000) correctly into the broad “traditional” dietary classes of “browsers”, “mixed-feeders” and “grazers”.

appendix1

APPENDIX 2.

Mean mesowear values of species in localities, with standard errors.

Locality B. pri. B. scho.  Bo. prim.   E. fer. E. mosb. A. alces C. lat. Ce. elap.  Dama sp.   Meg. gig.  Meg. sp. Cap. sp. R.
tar.
S. kir. S. hem.  S. hun. Co.
ant.
Star Carr           1±0   1.38±0.13       1±0          
Ireland (late-glacial)                   1.69±0.25              
Gough’s Cave       2.39±0.15       1.17±0.1                  
Kent's Cavern 1.38±0.1     2.43±0.08       1.29±0.1   1.44±

0.06

    1.03± 0.04       2.53±

0.15

Isleworth                                  
Wretton 1.44±0.06                                
Barrington 1.43±0.1                           1.37±

0.06

   
Joint Mitnor Cave 1.43±0.06             1.1±

0.04

1.17±0.08           1.25±

0.08

   
Kirkdale Cave     1.5±0                            
Hoe Grange Quarry     1.44±0.06           1.1±

0.1

               
Brundon       2.4±

0.2

                         
Ilford     1.45±0.05 2.08±

0.21

                  1.17±

0.17

1.19±

0.09

   
Crayford     1.5±0 2.31±

0.19

                  1±0     2.33±

0.28

Aveley     1.5±0 2.55±0.14                          
Grays Thurrock     1.35±0.08 2.21±0.15       1.13±0.08 1.04±0.04 1.17±

0.17

      1.07±0.07      
Clacton     1.44±0.06 2.3±

0.2

                    1.2±

0.12

   
Swanscombe 1.42±0.06     2.29±

0.21

        1.17±0.09           1.44±0.06    
Hoxne       2.0±

0.15

                         
Boxgrove               1.03±0.03 1±0   1.3±

0.12

        1±0  
Pakefield                               1.17±

0.11

 
West Runton   1.5±0           1.13±0.08 1.1±

0.1

  1.2±

0.12

1±0          
Aufhausener Höhle       2.28±

0.12

                        1.33±

0.1

Villa Seckendorff 1.83±0.33   1.5±0 2.44±

0.1

      1±0                  
Taubach       2.25±

0.25

      1.20±0.07       1.17±

0.1

         
Steinheim (Sammet) 1.5±0   1.44±0.06 2.45±

0.1

          1.1±

0.1

             
Frankenbacher Sande         2.57±0.07                        
Mauer   1.42±0.08     2.07±

0.23

  1±0 1.07±0.07               1.14±0.06  
Süssenborn   1.46±0.04         1.23±0.08 1.19±0.06     1.41±

0.1

        1.22±0.06  
Voigtstedt                     1.11±

0.06

1±0       1±0  
Brühl (Koller), Upper Rhine                           1.13±

0.13

     

APPENDIX 3.

Mean body mass (kg) of all species in localities, with standard errors.

Locality B.
pri.
B. scho.  Bo. prim. E.
fer.
E. mosb.  A.
alces
 
C.
lat.
Ce.
ela.
Dama sp. Meg. gig. Meg. sp. Cap.
sp.
R.
tar.
S.
kir.
S.
hem.
S. hun. Co.
ant.
Star Carr     795.9

±48.5

    400

±18

  193

±12.8

      36.1

±2.5

         
Ireland (late-glacial)                   634

±17.8

             
Gough’s Cave       354.3

±24.5

      308.3

±37.1

                 
Kent's Cavern 1168.6

±57.6

    472.7

±14.5

      291.8

±9

  684.7

±38.7

    95

±5.7

      1934.8

±182.8

Isleworth 714.9

±35.5

                703.7

±126

    146.8

±9.4

       
Wretton 664.3

±30.8

                      144.5

±4.8

       
Barrington 1000.3

±34

  1173.3

±93.9

        252.4

±11.7

59.9

±5.6

          1534

±61.6

   
Joint Mitnor Cave 1008.8

±82.8

            196.6

±9.2

69.5

±2.5

          1618.6

±36.2

   
Kirkdale cave     1226.1

±30.6

                           
Hoe Grange quarry 1100

±65.5

  1114.2

±45

          80.6

±2.4

               
Brundon 939.6

±61.6

  1056.8

±121.6

524.8

±16.3

      201

±9.7

                 
Ilford     1294.4

±30.9

562.3

±16.5

      212.3

±9.9

      35

±4.5

    1537.9

±143.7

   
Crayford     1351.9

±119.8

522.1

±16.6

      179.6

±8.7

                 
Aveley     1212.3

±123.4

                           
Grays Thurrock     1274.1

±105.2

530.6

±0

      157.9

±13.6

98.5

±4.7

               
Clacton     1142.8

±54.1

        153.3

±5.2

91.9

±4

               
Swanscombe 836.2

±94

  1032.2

±88.3

512.3

±17.4

        113.2

±3.1

590.7

±60.3

        1208.5

±49.1

   
Hoxne       472.8

±38.3

      157.4

±13.6

                 
Boxgrove   931.6

±75.3

          218

±22.4

                 
Pakefield   747.7

±46.6

            120.7

±12.5

  301

±43.8

        1220.4

±54

 
West Runton   751.3

±48.9

          254.7

±53.6

105.3

±16.6

  440

±61.8

        1427.3

±264

 
Aufhausener Höhle       458.3

±10.7

                        1873.2

±130.7

Villa Seckendorff 1003

±70.6

  1074.2

±45.5

502.4

±9.6

      275.1

±30.2

  784.4

±59.4

            2043.2

±26.7

Taubach 1274.8

±49.6

    499.2

±45.2

                  1811.4

±69.9

     
Steinheim (Sammet) 1155.1

±26

    493.2

±13

      201.5

±11

  861.1

±63.1

             
Frankenbacher Sande   865.6

±78.2

    594.2

±22.3

  784.4

±63.7

169.8

±14.4

                 
Mauer   936.5

±56

    569.5

±25.2

  801.4

±58

252.5

±12.3

              1405.2

±68

 
Süssenborn   811.1

±29.7

        999

±64.8

284.7

±15.9

    464.5

±25.5

42

±2.8

      1268.2

±79.5

 
Voigtstedt               244.2

±25.2

    453.3

±14.7

35.7

±2.1

      1363.1

±33.2

 
Brühl (Koller), Upper Rhine     981.1

±27.1

    497.8

±43.5

  170.7

±8.8

59.1

±8.8

    39.1

±1.1

  1941.6

±64.6

     

APPENDIX 4.

Pairwise correlation analyses of mean body mass (kg) and mean mesowear of species in localities. Indications of correlation in brackets refer to R2 values, which do not have significant p-values, and ones without brackets refer to to significant correlations. + = positive, ̶ = negative, none = no correlation.

Genus species Correlation DF R 2 p
Equus ferus none 11 0.001 0.91
Stephanorhinus hemitoechus (-) 3 0.58 0.23
Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis (-) 4 0.32 0.32
Megaloceros giganteus (-) 2 0.96 0.13
Dama dama none 3 0.001 0.9
Coelodonta antiquitatis (+) 2 0.99 0.07
Cervus elaphus none 8 0.05 0.54
Bos primigenius none 7 0.01 0.81
Bison schoetensacki - 3 0.98 0.001
Bison priscus none 5 0.01 0.85

APPENDIX 5.

Pairwise correlation analyses of mean body mass (kg) between the species (upper rows) and with minimum, maximum and mean NAP % (lower rows) across localities. Count = number of pairs compared. Statistically significant p-values are emboldened.

Variable by Variable Correlation coefficient Count p
Alces alces Bos primigenius 1  2  
Bos primigenius Bison priscus 0.65 5 0.24
Capreolus capreolus Alces alces 1 2  
Capreolus capreolus Bos primigenius -0.40    3 0.74
Capreolus capreolus Cervus elaphus -0.98 3 0.14
Capreolus capreolus Equus ferus -1 2  
Cervalces latifrons Bison schoetensacki -0.78 3 0.43
Cervus elaphus Alces alces -1 2  
Cervus elaphus Bison priscus 0.30 6 0.57
Cervus elaphus Bison schoetensacki -0.35 5 0.57
Cervus elaphus Bos primigenius -0.08 9 0.84
Cervus elaphus Cervalces latifrons 0.76 3 0.45
Cervus elaphus Equus ferus -0.64 11 0.03
Coelodonta antiquitatis Bison priscus -1 2  
Coelodonta antiquitatis Cervus elaphus -1 2  
Coelodonta antiquitatis Equus ferus 1.00 3 0.02
Coelodonta antiquitatis Megaloceros giganteus 1 2  
Dama dama Bison priscus -0.71 4 0.29
Dama dama Bos primigenius 0.18 6 0.73
Dama dama Cervus elaphus -0.07 6 0.89
Dama dama Equus ferus 0.22 3 0.86
Equus ferus Bison priscus -0.67 6 0.15
Equus ferus Bos primigenius 0.62 7 0.14
Megaloceros giganteus Bison priscus 0.52 5 0.37
Megaloceros giganteus Bos primigenius 1 2  
Megaloceros giganteus Cervus elaphus -0.91 3 0.27
Megaloceros giganteus Equus ferus -0.21 4 0.79
Rangifer tarandus Bison priscus -0.99 3 0.08
Rangifer tarandus Megaloceros giganteus 1 2  
Stephanorhinus hemitoechus Bison priscus 0.99 3 0.10
Stephanorhinus hemitoechus Bos primigenius 0.89 3 0.30
Stephanorhinus hemitoechus Cervus elaphus -0.75 3 0.46
Stephanorhinus hemitoechus Dama dama -0.93 3 0.23
Stephanorhinus hemitoechus Equus ferus 1 2  
Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis Bison schoetensacki 0.37 5 0.53
Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis Cervalces latifrons -1 2  
Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis Cervus elaphus -0.41 5 0.49
Stephanorhinus kirchbergensis Equus ferus 1 2  
Minimum NAP % Bison priscus -0.06 4 0.94
Minimum NAP % Bison schoetensacki -0.64 4 0.36
Minimum NAP % Bos primigenius 0.10 7 0.84
Minimum NAP % Capreolus capreolus -1 2  
Minimum NAP % Cervus elaphus 0.55 11 0.08
Minimum NAP % Dama dama -0.91 5 0.03
Minimum NAP % Equus ferus -0.89 5 0.04
Minimum NAP % Megaloceros giganteus 1.00 3 0.05
Minimum NAP % Rangifer tarandus 1 2  
Minimum NAP % Stephanorhinus hemitoechus 0.56 3 0.62
Minimum NAP % Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis -0.88 5 0.05
Maximum NAP % Bison priscus -0.22 4 0.78
Maximum NAP % Bison schoetensacki -0.58 4 0.42
Maximum NAP % Bos primigenius 0.17 7 0.71
Maximum NAP % Capreolus capreolus -1 2  
Maximum NAP % Cervus elaphus 0.46 11 0.16
Maximum NAP % Dama dama -0.63 5 0.26
Maximum NAP % Equus ferus -0.52 5 0.37
Maximum NAP % Megaloceros giganteus 0.81 3 0.40
Maximum NAP % Minimum NAP % 0.80 17 0.0001
Maximum NAP % Rangifer tarandus -1 2  
Maximum NAP % Stephanorhinus hemitoechus 0.66 3 0.54
Maximum NAP % Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis -0.06 5 0.92
Mean NAP % Bison priscus -0.11 4 0.89
Mean NAP % Bison schoetensacki -0.82 4 0.18
Mean NAP % Bos primigenius 0.18 7 0.70
Mean NAP % Capreolus capreolus -1 2  
Mean NAP % Cervus elaphus 0.61 11 0.05
Mean NAP % Dama dama -0.82 5 0.09
Mean NAP % Equus ferus -0.78 5 0.12
Mean NAP % Maximum NAP % 0.92 17 <0.0001
Mean NAP % Megaloceros giganteus 0.92 3 0.25
Mean NAP % Minimum NAP % 0.95 17 <0.0001
Mean NAP % Rangifer tarandus 1 2  
Mean NAP % Stephanorhinus hemitoechus 0.66 3 0.54
Mean NAP % Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis 0.07 5 0.91

APPENDIX 6.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass of Cervus elaphus in localities. Negative Z values indicate smaller body size and positive values larger body size in the population marked in the first column compared to the one in the second column. Statistically significant p-values are emboldened.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Star Carr Grays Thurrock 6.04 3.28 1.84 0.07
Star Carr Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 6.77 3.71 1.82 0.07
Star Carr Ilford -5.93 3.66 -1.62 0.11
Star Carr Boxgrove -3.67 3.27 -1.12 0.26
Star Carr Crayford 3.42 3.24 1.06 0.29
Star Carr Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 1.09 3.28 0.33 0.74
Star Carr Brundon -0.45 3.25 -0.14 0.89
Star Carr Joint Mitnor Cave 0.35 3.42 0.10 0.92
Star Carr Kent's Cavern -14.43 3.26 -4.43 <0.0001
Star Carr Clacton 10.92 3.46 3.15 0.0016
Star Carr Mauer -10.03 3.24 -3.09 0.0020
Star Carr Gough's Cave -10.35 3.43 -3.02 0.0025
Star Carr Barrington -8.71 3.59 -2.43 0.015
Gough’s Cave Boxgrove 3.77 2.10 1.79 0.07
Gough’s Cave Barrington 1.58 1.84 0.86 0.39
Gough’s Cave Clacton 10.87 3.30 3.29 0.0010
Gough’s Cave Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 12.40 3.93 3.15 0.0016
Gough’s Cave Crayford 6.53 2.33 2.80 0.0051
Gough’s Cave Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 5.83 2.11 2.76 0.0058
Gough’s Cave Brundon 5.69 2.22 2.56 0.010
Kent's Cavern Gough’s Cave 0.29 2.57 0.11 0.91
Kent's Cavern Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 16.43 3.57 4.60 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Clacton 13.93 3.18 4.38 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Grays Thurrock 11.41 2.83 4.03 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Ilford 14.27 3.49 4.09 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Joint Mitnor Cave 12.66 3.11 4.07 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Crayford 9.90 2.66 3.72 0.0002
Kent's Cavern Brundon 9.18 2.61 3.51 0.0004
Kent's Cavern Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 8.88 2.58 3.44 0.0006
Kent's Cavern Boxgrove 5.61 2.58 2.18 0.030
Kent's Cavern Barrington 5.28 2.61 2.02 0.043
Villa Seckendorff Brundon 4.13 2.45 1.68 0.09
Villa Seckendorff Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist 4.13 2.45 1.68 0.09
Villa Seckendorff Ilford 5.40 3.51 1.54 0.12
Villa Seckendorff Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet 4.43 3.07 1.44 0.15
Villa Seckendorff Boxgrove 3.30 2.40 1.38 0.17
Villa Seckendorff Gough’s Cave -2.18 2.33 -0.93 0.35
Villa Seckendorff Kent's Cavern -1.82 2.66 -0.68 0.49
Villa Seckendorff Süssenborn -1.01 2.66 -0.38 0.70
Villa Seckendorff Barrington 0.18 2.34 0.08 0.94
Villa Seckendorff Mauer 0.11 2.59 0.04 0.97
Villa Seckendorff Clacton 12.07 3.15 3.83 0.0001
Villa Seckendorff Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 10.88 3.60 3.03 0.0025
Villa Seckendorff Grays Thurrock 8.07 2.74 2.95 0.0032
Villa Seckendorff Crayford 6.22 2.52 2.47 0.013
Villa Seckendorff Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 5.84 2.40 2.43 0.015
Villa Seckendorff Star Carr 7.42 3.24 2.29 0.022
Villa Seckendorff Joint Mitnor Cave 6.86 3.07 2.24 .025
Joint Mitnor Cave Crayford 3.73 3.07 1.22 0.2234
Joint Mitnor Cave Ilford -4.35 3.59 -1.21 0.2259
Joint Mitnor Cave Boxgrove -2.77 3.07 -0.90 0.3667
Joint Mitnor Cave Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 2.36 3.07 0.77 0.4422
Joint Mitnor Cave Brundon -1.03 3.06 -0.34 0.7362
Joint Mitnor Cave Clacton 12.31 3.37 3.66 0.0003
Joint Mitnor Cave Gough’s Cave -9.06 3.18 -2.85 0.0044
Joint Mitnor Cave Barrington -7.66 3.31 -2.32 0.021
Joint Mitnor Cave Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 7.99 3.65 2.19 0.029
Joint Mitnor Cave Grays Thurrock 6.27 3.14 2.00 0.046
Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel Boxgrove -6.87 3.69 -1.86 0.0627
Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel Barrington -11.67 4.16 -2.81 0.0050
Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel Brundon -7.24 3.63 -1.99 0.046
Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried Clacton 5.65 3.17 1.78 0.0753
Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried Boxgrove -2.57 2.23 -1.15 0.2491
Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried Brundon -2.54 2.31 -1.10 0.2716
Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 2.45 3.69 0.66 0.5075
Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried Crayford -0.25 2.40 -0.11 0.9157
Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried Barrington -5.30 2.08 -2.55 0.011
Crayford Brundon -4.13 2.45 -1.68 0.0922
Crayford Boxgrove -3.30 2.40 -1.38 0.1682
Crayford Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 3.52 3.60 0.98 0.3274
Crayford Barrington -6.32 2.34 -2.70 0.0069
Crayford Clacton 7.82 3.15 2.48 0.013
Brundon Boxgrove -1.21 2.31 -0.52 0.60
Brundon Barrington -4.69 2.21 -2.12 0.034
Ilford Crayford 6.51 3.51 1.86 0.06
Ilford Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 6.29 3.59 1.75 0.08
Ilford Barrington -6.10 4.02 -1.52 0.13
Ilford Brundon 2.50 3.54 0.71 0.48
Ilford Boxgrove 0.00 3.59 0.00 1
Ilford Clacton 13.31 3.63 3.67 0.0002
Ilford Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 10.52 3.83 2.75 0.0060
Ilford Grays Thurrock 9.49 3.50 2.71 0.0067
Ilford Gough’s Cave -9.16 3.81 -2.41 0.016
Grays Thurrock Boxgrove -5.09 2.67 -1.90 0.06
Grays Thurrock Crayford -2.43 2.74 -0.89 0.37
Grays Thurrock Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried -2.38 2.68 -0.89 0.37
Grays Thurrock Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -2.25 3.57 -0.63 0.53
Grays Thurrock Clacton 1.21 3.21 0.38 0.71
Grays Thurrock Gough’s Cave -8.08 2.69 -3.00 0.0027
Grays Thurrock Barrington -7.50 2.75 -2.73 0.0064
Grays Thurrock Brundon -5.52 2.70 -2.04 0.041
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Mauer -5.12 3.08 -1.66 0.10
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Joint Mitnor Cave 5.44 3.32 1.64 0.10
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Star Carr 5.55 3.42 1.62 0.10
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Brundon 3.38 3.06 1.10 0.27
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Barrington -3.59 3.31 -1.09 0.28
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Ilford 1.49 3.59 0.41 0.68
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Boxgrove 0.82 3.07 0.27 0.79
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Clacton 15.10 3.37 4.49 <0.0001
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Kent's Cavern -10.51 3.11 -3.38 0.0007
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 11.93 3.65 3.27 0.0011
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Grays Thurrock 9.41 3.14 2.99 0.0028
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Crayford 7.55 3.07 2.46 0.014
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Gough’s Cave -6.96 3.18 -2.19 0.029
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 6.06 3.07 1.97 0.049
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Grays Thurrock 5.10 2.70 1.89 0.06
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 5.20 3.63 1.43 0.15
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet -3.84 3.06 -1.26 0.21
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 2.54 2.31 1.10 0.27
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Crayford 2.48 2.45 1.01 0.31
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Ilford -3.11 3.54 -0.88 0.38
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Boxgrove -0.94 2.31 -0.41 0.68
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Joint Mitnor Cave 0.66 3.06 0.21 0.83
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Star Carr 0.45 3.25 0.14 0.89
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Brundon -0.13 2.38 -0.05 0.96
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Kent's Cavern -9.39 2.61 -3.59 0.0003
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Clacton 9.10 3.15 2.88 0.0039
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Mauer -6.86 2.53 -2.71 0.0067
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Gough’s Cave -5.69 2.22 -2.56 0.010
Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist Barrington -5.44 2.21 -2.46 0.014
Clacton Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -3.18 3.68 -0.86 0.39
Clacton Brundon -11.67 3.15 -3.70 0.0002
Clacton Barrington -10.35 3.45 -3.00 0.0027
Clacton Boxgrove -8.67 3.17 -2.73 0.0063
Boxgrove Barrington -2.16 2.07 -1.04 0.30
Mauer Boxgrove 3.28 2.49 1.32 0.19
Mauer Gough’s Cave -2.55 2.45 -1.04 0.30
Mauer Barrington 0.53 2.47 0.21 0.83
Mauer Clacton 12.94 3.16 4.09 <0.0001
Mauer Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 13.45 3.58 3.76 0.0002
Mauer Grays Thurrock 9.63 2.78 3.46 0.0005
Mauer Crayford 8.13 2.59 3.14 0.0017
Mauer Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 7.65 2.49 3.07 0.0021
Mauer Joint Mitnor Cave 8.53 3.08 2.77 0.0056
Mauer Kent's Cavern -6.40 2.71 -2.36 0.018
Mauer Brundon 5.96 2.53 2.35 0.019
Mauer Ilford 7.90 3.49 2.26 0.024
Süssenborn Mauer 3.25 2.71 1.20 0.23
Süssenborn Barrington 2.90 2.61 1.11 0.27
Süssenborn Kent's Cavern -1.09 2.77 -0.39 0.69
Süssenborn Gough’s Cave -0.87 2.57 -0.34 0.73
Süssenborn Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 14.80 3.57 4.14 <0.0001
Süssenborn Clacton 13.93 3.18 4.38 <0.0001
Süssenborn Grays Thurrock 11.06 2.83 3.91 <0.0001
Süssenborn Star Carr 12.67 3.26 3.89 0.0001
Süssenborn Joint Mitnor Cave 11.74 3.11 3.78 0.0002
Süssenborn Crayford 9.49 2.66 3.57 0.0004
Süssenborn Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 8.65 2.58 3.35 0.0008
Süssenborn Ilford 11.22 3.49 3.21 0.0013
Süssenborn Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist 8.31 2.61 3.18 0.0015
Süssenborn Brundon 8.10 2.61 3.10 0.0020
Süssenborn Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet 8.82 3.11 2.84 0.0045
Süssenborn Boxgrove 6.31 2.58 2.45 0.014
Voigtstedt Mauer -5.10 2.65 -1.93 0.05
Voigtstedt Crayford .96 2.59 1.92 0.06
Voigtstedt Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 4.25 2.49 1.71 0.09
Voigtstedt Villa Seckendorff -3.91 2.59 -1.51 0.13
Voigtstedt Barrington -3.33 2.47 -1.34 0.18
Voigtstedt Joint Mitnor Cave 3.01 3.08 0.98 0.33
Voigtstedt Star Carr 2.72 3.24 0.84 0.40
Voigtstedt Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sammet -2.36 3.08 -0.76 0.44
Voigtstedt Steinheim a.d. Murr, grube Sigrist 1.46 2.53 0.58 0.56
Voigtstedt Brundon 0.79 2.53 0.31 0.76
Voigtstedt Boxgrove -0.36 2.49 -0.15 0.88
Voigtstedt Ilford -0.07 3.49 -0.02 0.98
Voigtstedt Clacton 11.75 3.16 3.72 0.0002
Voigtstedt Kent's Cavern -9.16 2.71 -3.38 0.0007
Voigtstedt Süssenborn -7.73 2.71 -2.85 0.0043
Voigtstedt Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 9.09 3.58 2.54 0.011
Voigtstedt Grays Thurrock 6.69 2.78 2.41 0.016
Voigtstedt Gough’s Cave -5.55 2.45 -2.27 0.024

APPENDIX 7.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Dama dama in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif Z p
Joint Mitnor Cave Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 4.04 3.55 1.14 0.26
Joint Mitnor Cave Clacton -12.34 3.33 -3.70 0.0002
Joint Mitnor Cave Grays Thurrock -11.99 3.35 -3.58 0.0003
Joint Mitnor Cave Hoe Grange quarry -11.17 3.85 -2.90 0.0037
Joint Mitnor Cave Barrington 7.41 3.73 1.99 0.047
Hoe Grange quarry Grays Thurrock -11.17 3.83 -2.92 0.0035
Hoe Grange quarry Barrington 11.81 4.44 2.66 0.0078
Hoe Grange quarry Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 10.27 4.18 2.45 0.014
Hoe Grange quarry Clacton -7.89 3.73 -2.11 0.034
Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann Barrington 0.23 1.84 0.12 0.90
Otterstadt Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 3.12 2.93 1.06 0.29
Otterstadt Barrington 3.05 3.03 1.01 0.31
Otterstadt Joint Mitnor Cave 1.24 3.41 0.36 0.72
Otterstadt Grays Thurrock -9.23 2.88 -3.21 0.0013
Otterstadt Clacton -8.77 2.96 -2.96 0.0031
Otterstadt Hoe Grange quarry -7.86 3.74 -2.10 0.035
Grays Thurrock Clacton 2.70 2.61 1.03 0.30
Grays Thurrock Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 6.34 2.22 2.85 0.0043
Grays Thurrock Barrington 5.81 2.21 2.63 0.0085
Swanscombe Hoe Grange quarry 24.97 4.40 5.67 <0.0001
Swanscombe Joint Mitnor Cave 24.62 4.31 5.72 <0.0001
Swanscombe Otterstadt 21.56 4.30 5.01 <0.0001
Swanscombe Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 18.15 5.21 3.49 0.0005
Swanscombe Clacton 14.78 4.39 3.37 0.0008
Swanscombe Barrington 17.86 5.59 3.20 0.0014
Swanscombe Grays Thurrock 10.31 4.62 2.23 0.026
West Runton Otterstadt. Otterstadtler Altrhein (Oberrhein) 5.56 2.93 1.90 0.06
West Runton Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann (Oberrhein) 3.60 1.91 1.88 0.06
West Runton Joint Mitnor Cave 6.06 3.55 1.71 0.09
West Runton Hoe Grange quarry 6.16 4.18 1.47 0.14
West Runton Barrington 2.48 1.84 1.35 0.18
West Runton Clacton 2.33 2.57 0.91 0.36
West Runton Grays Thurrock 1.46 2.22 0.66 0.51
West Runton Swanscombe 1.04 5.21 0.20 0.84

APPENDIX 8.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Capreolus sp. in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Star Carr Ketsch, Hohwiesen 2.49 2.81 0.89 0.38
Star Carr Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -1.50 2.82 -0.53 0.59
Star Carr Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 0.55 2.81 0.20 0.84
Star Carr Ilford 0.29 3.40 0.08 0.93
Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -2.96 2.33 -1.27 0.20
Ketsch, Hohwiesen Ilford -1.05 1.81 -0.58 0.56
Ketsch, Hohwiesen Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -6.22 2.33 -2.67 0.0077
Ketsch, Hohwiesen Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried -4.00 1.91 -2.09 0.037
Ilford Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -2.14 2.59 -0.82 0.41
Ilford Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried -0.35 1.81 -0.19 0.85
Süssenborn Ketsch, Hohwiesen 3.15 1.81 1.74 0.08
Süssenborn Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried 2.45 1.81 1.36 0.18
Süssenborn Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 2.14 2.59 0.82 0.41
Süssenborn Star Carr 2.60 3.40 0.76 0.44
Süssenborn Ilford 0.50 1.29 0.39 0.70
Voigtstedt Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -3.91 2.58 -1.51 0.13
Voigtstedt Süssenborn -3.30 2.79 -1.18 0.24
Voigtstedt Ketsch, Hohwiesen 2.55 2.45 1.04 0.30
Voigtstedt Edingen (Brühl), Edinger Ried -1.05 2.45 -0.43 0.67
Voigtstedt Ilford 0.00 2.79 0.00 1.00
Voigtstedt Star Carr 0.00 2.85 0.00 1.00

APPENDIX 9.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Megacerini spp. in localities. The significant differences are mostly due to the smaller size of early Middle Pleistocene Praemegaceros and Megaloceros species compared to late Middle and Late Pleistocene Megaloceros giganteus.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Kent's Cavern Ireland 7.86 11.18 0.70 0.48
Kent's Cavern Isleworth, Willment’s pit 0.00 1.53 0.00 1.00
Isleworth, Willment’s pit Ireland 5.77 11.18 0.52 0.61
Villa Seckendorff Swanscombe 4.42 2.31 1.91 0.06
Villa Seckendorff Kent's Cavern 2.06 2.25 0.92 0.36
Villa Seckendorff Isleworth, Willment’s pit 1.60 2.25 0.71 0.48
Villa Seckendorff Steinheim, grube Sammet -1.84 2.61 -0.70 0.48
Villa Seckendorff Süssenborn 15.99 4.22 3.79 0.0002
Villa Seckendorff Pakefield 6.34 2.22 2.85 0.0043
Villa Seckendorff Ireland 17.01 7.65 2.22 0.026
Steinheim, grube Sammet Kent's Cavern 4.24 2.72 1.56 0.12
Steinheim, grube Sammet Isleworth, Willment’s pit 3.39 2.72 1.25 0.21
Steinheim, grube Sammet Ireland 22.85 6.94 3.29 0.0010
Steinheim, grube Sammet Pakefield 7.85 2.57 3.06 0.0022
Swanscombe Kent's Cavern -2.38 2.09 -1.14 0.25
Swanscombe Isleworth, Willment’s pit -1.43 2.09 -0.68 0.49
Swanscombe Ireland -5.17 8.00 -0.65 0.52
Swanscombe Pakefield 5.14 2.11 2.44 0.015
Swanscombe Steinheim, grube Sammet -5.84 2.58 -2.26 0.024
Pakefield Ireland -32.74 9.06 -3.61 0.0003
Pakefield Isleworth, Willment’s pit -3.73 1.79 -2.09 0.037
Pakefield Kent's Cavern -3.73 1.79 -2.09 0.037
Süssenborn Swanscombe -8.48 4.33 -1.96 0.05
Süssenborn Ireland -27.68 5.95 -4.65 <0.0001
Süssenborn Steinheim, grube Sammet -18.04 4.06 -4.45 <0.0001
Süssenborn Pakefield 11.67 4.69 2.49 0.013
Süssenborn Kent's Cavern -13.10 5.52 -2.37 0.018
Süssenborn Isleworth, Willment’s pit -11.26 5.52 -2.04 0.042
Voigtstedt Süssenborn -0.79 4.69 -0.17 0.87
Voigtstedt Ireland -34.80 5.96 -5.84 <0.0001
Voigtstedt Steinheim, grube Sammet -22.85 4.72 -4.84 <0.0001
Voigtstedt Villa Seckendorff -21.16 5.02 -4.21 <0.0001
Voigtstedt Kent's Cavern -18.96 6.85 -2.77 0.0057
Voigtstedt Pakefield 15.15 5.72 2.65 0.0081
Voigtstedt Swanscombe -11.86 5.19 -2.29 0.022
Voigtstedt Isleworth, Willment’s pit -14.63 6.85 -2.13 0.033

APPENDIX 10.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Rangifer tarandus in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Kent's Cavern Isleworth, Willment's pit -17.67 4.14 -4.27 <0.0001
Wretton Kent's Cavern 17.53 3.77 4.65 <0.0001
Wretton Isleworth, Willment's pit 3.06 4.00 0.76 0.44

APPENDIX 11.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Alcini in localities. The significant differences are mostly due to the larger size of early Middle Pleistocene Cervalces latifrons compared to Late Pleistocene and Holocene Alces alces.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Star Carr Mauer -12.39 3.45 -3.60 0.0003
Star Carr Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel -6.47 3.45 -1.88 0.061
Mauer Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 5.17 2.08 2.48 0.013
Süssenborn Star Carr 14.93 3.34 4.48 <0.0001
Süssenborn Brühl (Koller), Schlangenwinkel 8.37 2.56 3.27 0.0011
Süssenborn Mauer 5.54 2.56 2.16 0.031

APPENDIX 12.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Stephanorhinus hundsheimensis in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Pakefield Mauer -3.33 2.09 -1.60 0.11
Süssenborn Mauer -2.63 2.17 -1.21 0.22
Süssenborn Pakefield 0.25 1.94 0.13 0.90
West Runton Süssenborn 1.67 2.00 0.83 0.40
West Runton Pakefield 0.42 1.44 0.29 0.77
West Runton Mauer 0.32 2.20 0.15 0.88
Voigtstedt Pakefield 7.48 4.20 1.78 0.08
Voigtstedt Süssenborn 3.36 3.56 0.94 0.35
Voigtstedt Mauer -1.06 3.49 -0.30 0.76
Voigtstedt West Runton -1.38 4.82 -0.29 0.78

APPENDIX 13.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Joint Mitnor Cave Ilford 2.19 2.39 0.91 0.36
Joint Mitnor Cave Barrington 1.53 2.59 0.59 0.56
Reilingen, Spies Joint Mitnor Cave -2.63 1.62 -1.62 0.11
Reilingen, Spies Barrington -3.43 2.34 -1.47 0.14
Reilingen, Spies Ilford -0.19 2.21 -0.08 0.93
Ilford Barrington -1.53 2.45 -0.63 0.53
Swanscombe Barrington -4.58 2.59 -1.77 0.08
Swanscombe Reilingen, Spies -2.63 1.62 -1.62 0.11
Swanscombe Ilford -3.44 2.39 -1.44 0.15
Swanscombe Joint Mitnor Cave -1.50 1.29 -1.16 0.25

APPENDIX 14.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Coelodonta antiquitatis in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Kent's Cavern Aufhausener höhle 2.31 2.49 0.93 0.35
Whitemoor Haye Aufhausener höhle 3.30 2.79 1.18 0.24
Whitemoor Haye Kent's Cavern 1.61 2.20 0.73 0.46
Whitemoor Haye Lampertheim in der Tanne 0.42 1.44 0.29 0.77
Villa Seckendorff Aufhausener höhle 3.30 2.79 1.18 0.24
Villa Seckendorff Lampertheim in der Tanne 0.42 1.44 0.29 0.77
Villa Seckendorff Kent's Cavern -0.32 2.20 -0.15 0.88
Villa Seckendorff Whitemoor Haye 0.00 1.29 0.00 1.00
Lampertheim in der Tanne Aufhausener höhle 0.65 2.56 0.25 0.80
Lampertheim in der Tanne Kent's Cavern 0.00 2.09 0.00 1.00

APPENDIX 15.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Bison priscus/schoetensacki in localities. Some of the significant differences are due to the smaller size of early Middle Pleistocene Bison schoetensacki compared to Late Pleistocene B. priscus.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Kent's Cavern Boxgrove 6.41 3.31 1.94 0.053
Kent's Cavern Brundon 5.16 3.11 1.66 0.097
Kent's Cavern Joint Mitnor Cave 5.18 3.14 1.65 0.099
Kent's Cavern Isleworth, Willment’s pit 19.59 4.03 4.87 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Barrington 14.33 5.58 2.57 0.010
Isleworth, Willment’s pit Brundon -6.38 4.48 -1.42 0.16
Isleworth, Willment’s pit Barrington -24.42 5.40 -4.53 <0.0001
Isleworth, Willment’s pit Boxgrove -10.71 5.01 -2.14 0.033
Wretton Swanscombe -8.52 5.33 -1.60 0.11
Wretton Pakefield -6.67 4.47 -1.49 0.14
Wretton Isleworth, Willment’s pit -5.31 4.56 -1.17 0.24
Wretton West Runton -7.69 7.46 -1.03 0.303
Wretton Barrington -30.00 5.45 -5.50 <0.0001
Wretton Kent's Cavern -22.78 4.35 -5.23 <0.0001
Wretton Steinheim, grube Sammet -42.07 5.67 -7.42 <0.0001
Wretton Taubach -31.07 4.87 -6.38 <0.0001
Wretton Villa Seckendorff -16.88 4.43 -3.81 0.0001
Wretton Mauer -16.33 4.35 -3.75 0.0002
Wretton Joint Mitnor Cave -15.97 4.43 -3.61 0.0003
Wretton Süssenborn -16.45 5.07 -3.24 0.0012
Wretton Boxgrove -14.44 5.73 -2.52 0.012
Wretton Brundon -10.93 5.06 -2.16 0.031
Villa Seckendorff Kent's Cavern -5.32 3.14 -1.69 0.09
Villa Seckendorff Swanscombe 3.83 2.69 1.42 0.16
Villa Seckendorff West Runton 4.38 3.20 1.37 0.17
Villa Seckendorff Brundon 2.13 2.67 0.80 0.43
Villa Seckendorff Mauer 1.82 3.14 0.58 0.56
Villa Seckendorff Barrington 0.41 5.88 0.07 0.94
Villa Seckendorff Boxgrove 0.17 2.75 0.06 0.95
Villa Seckendorff Joint Mitnor Cave -0.08 2.89 -0.03 0.98
Villa Seckendorff Isleworth, Willment’s pit 13.04 4.03 3.23 0.0012
Villa Seckendorff Taubach -12.25 4.75 -2.58 0.0099
Villa Seckendorff Pakefield 6.19 2.83 2.18 0.029
Villa Seckendorff Süssenborn 11.20 5.15 2.17 0.030
Villa Seckendorff Steinheim, grube Sammet -13.56 6.29 -2.16 0.031
Joint Mitnor Cave Brundon 1.38 2.67 0.52 0.61
Joint Mitnor Cave Boxgrove 0.83 2.75 0.30 0.76
Joint Mitnor Cave Barrington -0.15 5.88 -0.03 0.98
Joint Mitnor Cave Isleworth, Willment’s pit 11.13 4.03 2.76 0.0058
Taubach Kent's Cavern 5.28 4.62 1.14 0.25
Taubach Barrington 23.39 5.52 4.24 <0.0001
Taubach Isleworth, Willment’s pit 27.89 4.74 5.89 <0.0001
Taubach Pakefield 20.40 4.81 4.24 <0.0001
Taubach Süssenborn 31.34 5.17 6.06 <0.0001
Taubach Mauer 16.79 4.62 3.63 0.0003
Taubach Swanscombe 15.89 5.85 2.72 0.0066
Taubach Steinheim, grube Sammet 14.07 5.72 2.46 0.014
Taubach Joint Mitnor Cave 11.31 4.75 2.38 0.017
Taubach Boxgrove 14.27 6.30 2.26 0.024
Taubach Brundon 10.94 5.53 1.98 0.048
Brundon Barrington -5.31 7.16 -0.74 0.46
Brundon Boxgrove -0.63 1.95 -0.32 0.75
Steinheim, grube Sammet Joint Mitnor Cave 10.98 6.29 1.75 0.081
Steinheim, grube Sammet Kent's Cavern -4.58 5.93 -0.77 0.44
Steinheim, grube Sammet Isleworth, Willment’s pit 38.46 5.65 6.81 <0.0001
Steinheim, grube Sammet Pakefield 31.05 6.43 4.83 <0.0001
Steinheim, grube Sammet Brundon 15.22 7.75 1.96 0.050
Steinheim, grube Sammet Mauer 18.48 5.93 3.12 0.0018
Steinheim, grube Sammet Barrington 17.63 6.01 2.93 0.0033
Steinheim, grube Sammet Boxgrove 20.49 9.04 2.27 0.023
Swanscombe Barrington -10.76 7.64 -1.41 0.16
Swanscombe Joint Mitnor Cave -3.26 2.69 -1.21 0.23
Swanscombe Isleworth, Willment’s pit 5.30 4.69 1.13 0.26
Swanscombe Boxgrove -1.58 1.84 -0.86 0.39
Swanscombe Mauer -2.23 3.18 -0.70 0.48
Swanscombe Pakefield 1.75 2.57 0.68 0.50
Swanscombe Brundon -0.55 2.01 -0.27 0.78
Swanscombe Kent's Cavern -8.27 3.18 -2.60 0.0093
Swanscombe Steinheim, grube Sammet -20.70 8.29 -2.50 0.013
Boxgrove Barrington -6.07 8.32 -0.73 0.47
Mauer Barrington -4.89 5.58 -0.88 0.38
Mauer Joint Mitnor Cave -1.68 3.14 -0.53 0.59
Mauer Brundon 1.03 3.11 0.33 0.74
Mauer Boxgrove 0.00 3.31 0.00 1.000
Mauer Isleworth, Willment’s pit 11.83 4.03 2.94 0.0033
Mauer Kent's Cavern -8.69 3.32 -2.62 0.0088
Pakefield Boxgrove -3.92 2.61 -1.50 0.133
Pakefield Brundon -2.70 2.56 -1.06 0.29
Pakefield Isleworth, Willment’s pit 1.84 4.06 0.45 0.65
Pakefield Kent's Cavern -12.04 3.11 -3.87 0.0001
Pakefield Barrington -18.57 6.00 -3.10 0.0020
Pakefield Mauer -7.13 3.11 -2.29 0.022
Pakefield Joint Mitnor Cave -5.84 2.83 -2.06 0.039
Süssenborn Mauer -9.49 4.96 -1.91 0.056
Süssenborn Isleworth, Willment’s pit 9.02 4.97 1.82 0.069
Süssenborn Boxgrove -8.90 7.02 -1.27 0.21
Süssenborn Pakefield 5.79 5.23 1.11 0.27
Süssenborn Brundon -3.33 6.11 -0.55 0.59
Süssenborn Swanscombe -1.01 6.49 -0.16 0.88
Süssenborn Kent's Cavern -23.00 4.96 -4.64 <0.0001
Süssenborn Steinheim, grube Sammet -38.83 5.80 -6.69 <0.0001
Süssenborn Barrington -20.84 5.62 -3.71 0.0002
Süssenborn Joint Mitnor Cave -10.98 5.15 -2.13 0.033
West Runton Taubach -16.07 8.28 -1.94 0.05
West Runton Barrington -15.85 11.13 -1.42 0.16
West Runton Mauer -4.78 4.00 -1.19 0.23
West Runton Boxgrove -1.88 1.62 -1.16 0.25
West Runton Joint Mitnor Cave -3.21 3.20 -1.00 0.32
West Runton Brundon -1.00 2.00 -0.50 0.62
West Runton Süssenborn -3.93 9.30 -0.42 0.67
West Runton Swanscombe -0.35 1.81 -0.19 0.85
West Runton Isleworth, Willment’s pit 0.80 6.44 0.12 0.90
West Runton Pakefield 0.00 2.99 0.00 1.000
West Runton Steinheim, grube Sammet -28.74 12.15 -2.37 0.018
West Runton Kent's Cavern -8.16 4.00 -2.04 0.042

APPENDIX 16.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Bos primigenius in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Star Carr Brundon -6.63 3.93 -1.69 0.092
Star Carr Clacton -15.03 3.83 -3.92 <0.0001
Star Carr Ilford -28.83 4.73 -6.09 <0.0001
Star Carr Grays Thurrock -13.07 3.57 -3.66 0.0003
Star Carr Joint Mitnor Cave -9.98 3.57 -2.79 0.0052
Star Carr Aveley -9.18 3.60 -2.55 0.011
Star Carr Barrington -10.19 4.16 -2.45 0.014
Star Carr Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann -7.93 3.63 -2.18 0.029
Villa Seckendorff Grays Thurrock -9.60 5.31 -1.81 0.071
Villa Seckendorff Aveley -5.98 5.18 -1.15 0.25
Villa Seckendorff Clacton -4.99 5.01 -1.00 0.32
Villa Seckendorff Barrington -5.86 7.31 -0.80 0.42
Villa Seckendorff Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 3.62 5.82 0.62 0.53
Villa Seckendorff Joint Mitnor Cave -2.28 5.31 -0.43 0.67
Villa Seckendorff Swanscombe 1.25 5.40 0.23 0.82
Villa Seckendorff Brundon -0.11 6.74 -0.02 0.99
Villa Seckendorff Ilford -18.79 5.30 -3.54 0.0004
Villa Seckendorff Star Carr 16.13 5.01 3.22 0.0013
Joint Mitnor Cave Grays Thurrock -3.00 2.89 -1.04 0.30
Joint Mitnor Cave Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 2.19 2.70 0.81 0.42
Joint Mitnor Cave Aveley -2.24 3.01 -0.75 0.46
Joint Mitnor Cave Barrington -1.50 2.75 -0.55 0.59
Joint Mitnor Cave Clacton -1.51 3.50 -0.43 0.67
Joint Mitnor Cave Brundon 0.99 2.69 0.37 0.71
Joint Mitnor Cave Ilford -10.13 4.91 -2.07 0.040
Barrington Aveley -1.45 3.03 -0.48 0.63
Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann Barrington -2.81 2.21 -1.27 0.20
Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann Aveley -3.04 2.88 -1.06 0.29
Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann Brundon -0.49 2.22 -0.22 0.83
Brundon Aveley -1.76 2.93 -0.60 0.55
Brundon Barrington -0.68 1.84 -0.37 0.71
Ilford Brundon 11.73 6.10 1.92 0.055
Ilford Barrington 7.58 6.59 1.15 0.25
Ilford Aveley -1.02 4.81 -0.21 0.83
Ilford Grays Thurrock 0.82 4.91 0.17 0.87
Ilford Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 20.71 5.32 3.89 <0.0001
Ilford Clacton 11.06 4.73 2.34 0.019
Grays Thurrock Brundon 2.98 2.69 1.11 0.27
Grays Thurrock Clacton 3.08 3.50 0.88 0.38
Grays Thurrock Barrington 1.17 2.75 0.42 0.67
Grays Thurrock Aveley -0.23 3.01 -0.08 0.94
Grays Thurrock Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 5.73 2.70 2.12 0.034
Clacton Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 6.47 3.54 1.83 0.067
Clacton Aveley -2.80 3.54 -0.79 0.43
Clacton Brundon 2.60 3.81 0.68 0.49
Clacton Barrington -1.04 4.02 -0.26 0.80
Swanscombe Grays Thurrock -4.79 2.83 -1.69 0.091
Swanscombe Clacton -3.74 3.49 -1.07 0.28
Swanscombe Aveley -3.00 2.97 -1.01 0.31
Swanscombe Barrington -2.39 2.61 -0.91 0.36
Swanscombe Joint Mitnor Cave -1.31 2.83 -0.46 0.64
Swanscombe Brühl (Koller), Rheingewann 0.65 2.61 0.25 0.80
Swanscombe Brundon -0.29 2.57 -0.11 0.91
Swanscombe Ilford -13.46 4.98 -2.71 0.0068
Swanscombe Star Carr 7.30 3.57 2.04 0.041

APPENDIX 17.

Pairwise comparison by Wilcoxon tests of mean body mass (kg) of Equus ferus/mosbachensis in localities.

Fossil population by Fossil population Score Mean Difference Std. Err. Dif. Z p
Gough's Cave Brundon -15.48 4.48 -3.46 0.0005
Gough's Cave Frankenbacher Sande -10.66 3.11 -3.43 0.0006
Gough's Cave Crayford -22.01 6.46 -3.41 0.0007
Gough's Cave Aufhausener Höhle -8.82 3.11 -2.84 0.0045
Kent's Cavern Aufhausener Höhle -1.07 4.35 -0.25 0.81
Kent's Cavern Frankenbacher Sande -17.31 4.35 -3.98 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Ilford -18.35 4.56 -4.02 <0.0001
Kent's Cavern Gough's Cave 15.46 5.06 3.06 0.0022
Kent's Cavern Brundon -12.25 4.56 -2.68 0.0073
Kent's Cavern Crayford -12.74 5.19 -2.45 0.014
Villa Seckendorff Kent's Cavern 13.71 7.93 1.73 0.08
Villa Seckendorff Aufhausener Höhle 15.14 9.34 1.62 0.11
Villa Seckendorff Brundon -10.02 8.14 -1.23 0.22
Villa Seckendorff Crayford -6.78 7.70 -0.88 0.38
Villa Seckendorff Swanscombe -7.67 11.91 -0.64 0.52
Villa Seckendorff Steinheim, grube Sigrist -5.43 11.38 -0.48 0.63
Villa Seckendorff Steinheim, grube Sammet 2.68 7.69 0.35 0.73
Villa Seckendorff Taubach -1.75 11.38 -0.15 0.88
Villa Seckendorff Gough's Cave 44.69 13.39 3.34 0.0008
Villa Seckendorff Frankenbacher Sande -30.58 9.34 -3.27 0.0011
Villa Seckendorff Ilford -24.48 8.14 -3.01 0.0026
Villa Seckendorff Mauer -21.87 9.18 -2.38 0.017
Taubach Frankenbacher Sande -4.77 3.07 -1.56 0.12
Taubach Mauer -3.91 3.15 -1.24 0.22
Taubach Aufhausener Höhle 3.39 3.07 1.10 0.27
Taubach Ilford -4.04 4.15 -0.97 0.33
Taubach Kent's Cavern 3.89 4.61 0.84 0.40
Taubach Steinheim, grube Sammet 2.19 5.84 0.38 0.71
Taubach Brundon -1.10 4.15 -0.27 0.79
Taubach Steinheim, grube Sigrist 0.22 2.52 0.09 0.93
Taubach Crayford -0.40 5.74 -0.07 0.94
Taubach Swanscombe 0.12 2.45 0.05 0.96
Taubach Gough's Cave 5.14 2.36 2.18 0.029
Crayford Brundon -3.07 5.11 -0.60 0.55
Crayford Aufhausener Höhle 12.28 5.17 2.38 0.017
Brundon Aufhausener Höhle 11.15 4.03 2.77 0.0056
Ilford Brundon 6.68 4.36 1.53 0.13
Ilford Frankenbacher Sande -5.16 4.03 -1.28 0.20
Ilford Aufhausener Höhle 15.76 4.03 3.92 <0.0001
Ilford Gough's Cave 16.29 4.48 3.64 0.0003
Ilford Crayford 10.60 5.11 2.08 0.038
Steinheim, grube Sammet Brundon -7.53 5.15 -1.46 0.14
Steinheim, grube Sammet Kent's Cavern 7.42 5.24 1.42 0.16
Steinheim, grube Sammet Aufhausener Höhle 7.08 5.24 1.35 0.18
Steinheim, grube Sammet Crayford -6.22 5.54 -1.12 0.26
Steinheim, grube Sammet Frankenbacher Sande -17.73 5.24 -3.39 0.0007
Steinheim, grube Sammet Gough's Cave 21.01 6.58 3.19 0.0014
Steinheim, grube Sammet Ilford -15.31 5.15 -2.97 0.0030
Steinheim, grube Sammet Mauer -13.01 5.20 -2.50 0.012
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Kent's Cavern 8.98 4.61 1.95 0.05
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Aufhausener Höhle 5.82  3.07 1.90 0.06
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Ilford -6.68 4.15 -1.61 0.11
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Mauer -4.33 3.15 -1.37 0.17
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Brundon -2.72 4.15 -0.65 0.51
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Steinheim, grube Sammet 2.86 5.84 0.49 0.62
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Crayford -0.80 5.74 -0.14 0.89
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Gough's Cave 6.53 2.36 2.77 0.0056
Steinheim, grube Sigrist Frankenbacher Sande -7.12 3.07 -2.32 0.020
Swanscombe Kent's Cavern 8.85 4.72 1.88 0.06
Swanscombe Ilford -6.35 4.22 -1.50 0.13
Swanscombe Mauer -3.40 3.15 -1.08 0.28
Swanscombe Steinheim, grube Sammet 4.92 6.03 0.82 0.41
Swanscombe Steinheim, grube Sigrist 1.06 2.45 0.43 0.67
Swanscombe Crayford 1.99 5.93 0.34 0.74
Swanscombe Brundon -0.40 4.22 -0.10 0.92
Swanscombe Gough's Cave 6.27 2.26 2.78 0.0055
Swanscombe Aufhausener Höhle 6.84 3.06 2.24 0.025
Swanscombe Frankenbacher Sande -6.47 3.06 -2.11 0.035
Frankenbacher Sande Aufhausener Höhle 13.44 3.32 4.05 <0.0001
Frankenbacher Sande Crayford 14.11 5.17 2.73 0.0063
Frankenbacher Sande Brundon 9.48 4.03 2.35 0.019
Mauer Crayford 8.55 5.14 1.66 0.10
Mauer Brundon 5.06 4.04 1.25 0.21
Mauer Frankenbacher Sande -2.00 3.37 -0.59 0.55
Mauer Ilford 0.43 4.04 0.11 0.92
Mauer Gough's Cave 10.94 3.22 3.40 0.0007
Mauer Kent's Cavern 14.62 4.35 3.36 0.0008
Mauer Aufhausener Höhle 10.74 3.37 3.19 0.0014