FIGURE 1. Locations of the Qalehjough fossil site, near Faizabad of Khorassan Razavi province, and other Quaternary fossil sites in Iran. Fossil vertebrate assemblages from these sites consist of following elements (E = Equus, R = Rhinocerotidae, and C = Caprinae): Qalehjough (E, R, C), Tapeh Naderi (E, C), Shadiakh (E, C), Qazvin (E, R, C), Saveh (E, R), Luristan (E), Qaleh bozi (E, R, C), Kermanshah (E, R), Shahreza (E), and Shahre Soukhteh (E).

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FIGURE 2. 1, Map depicting major cities and local villages around the Qalehjough fossil site. 2, Photograph of the fossil bearing sediments (photographed by Narges Hashemi).

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FIGURE 3. Stratigraphic section and the situation of fossil occurrence in Qalehjough fossil site (drawn by Narges Hashemi).

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FIGURE 4. Photographs of selected vertebrate fossils from the Qalehjough fossil site. 1-2, a right P 4 of Stephanorhinus cf. kirchbergensis (QHJ-45) in lateral (1) and occlusal (2) views. 3-5, three incisors of Equus (QHJ-12-14) in lateral views. 6-7, a right M 3 of Equus (QHJ-22) in lateral (6) and occlusal (7) views. 8-9, a left M 3 of Equus (QHJ-42) in lateral (8) and occlusal (9) views. 10, a first phalange of Sus ( in lateral view. 11, a left mandible of Ovis aries with P 4 (QHJ-44) in lateral view. 12-13, a left M 2 of O. aries (QHJ-5) in lateral (12) and occlusal (13) views. 14, a left mandible of Bos (QHJ-1) in lateral view. 15-16, a horn core (mesiodistal part) of Bos (QHJ-26) in internal (15) and external (16) views. 17-18, a left M 2 of Gazella (QHJ-23) in lateral (17) and occlusal (18) views. Scale bars equal 1 mm.

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