FIGURE 1. A detail of the star-like appendages from a preserved specimen. Image modified from Catania (2012b).

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FIGURE 2. Drawing of a left humerus of Condylura cristata showing the anatomical terms used in this study (modified from Hutchinson, 1984). Abbreviations: bg, bicipital groove; gt, greater tuberosity; gs, greater sulcus; hh, humeral head; le, lateral epicondyle; lt, lesser tuberosity; me, medial epicondyle; met, medial edge of the trochlea; ms, minor sulcus; of, olecranon fossa; pc, pectoral crest; tr, trochlea; tt, teres tubercle.

 

FIGURE 3. Drawings ( 1-5, 8) and photographs ( 6 and 7) showing fossil and extant representatives of genus Condylura. 1 and 2, Condylura sp., left humerus in caudal ( 1) and frontal ( 2) views, modified from Lychev (1963). 3-5, cf. Condylura sp., right humerus (YPM 20699, YPM) in caudal ( 3) and lateral ( 4) views and close-up of the greater tuberosity in medial view ( 5), modified from Hutchinson (1984, figure 1B). 6 and 7, Condylura kowalskii, left humerus (MF/1006/16, ISEZ-PAN) in frontal ( 6) and caudal ( 7 ) views, modified from Rzebik-Kowalska (2014, figure 2.1, 2.2). 8, Condylura cristata, right humerus in caudal view, modified from Hutchinson (1984, figure 1A). Scale bars represent 1 mm.

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FIGURE 4. 1, Condylura kowalskii, mandible fragment bearing p1 and p2 in lingual view (MF/1006/4, ISEZ-PAN); from Rzebik-Kowalska (2014, figure 1.3). 2, Line drawing of a left mandible of Condylura cristata in labial view, modified from Laerm et al. (2007).

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FIGURE 5. Drawings ( 1-4) and photographs ( 5-6) of talpid species humeri in caudal view. 1, Yanshuella primaeva, left humerus (IVPP-6455, IVPP), from Storch and Qiu (1983, figure 39b). 2, Yunoscaptor scalprum, left humerus (IVPP-V-9741.38, IVPP), from Storch and Qiu (1991, figure 48b). 3, Scapanulus oweni, left humerus, from Hutchinson (1968). 4, Wilsonius ripafodiator, left humerus (UO-22366, UO), from Hutchinson (1968, figure 55). 5, Leptoscaptor robustior, right humerus (P35-58.6, NHMA), from Ziegler (2003, figure 3B2). 6, Leptoscaptor bavaricum, left humerus (P10-610.2, NHMA), from Ziegler (2003, figure 2I).

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FIGURE 6. 1, Talpidae phylogeny resulting from a parsimony analysis based on 157 discrete morphological characters, modified from Sánchez-Villagra et al. (2006, figure 1). 2, Unconstrained Talpidae phylogeny based on a parsimony analysis (DELTRAN optimization) based on 176 discrete morphological characters, modified from Schwermann and Thompson (2015, figure 16A).

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FIGURE 7. Map showing Condylura fossil bearing localities and a possible palaeobiogeographical scenario. The orange striped area represents the present distribution of the extant C. cristata. The orange star represents Condylura sp. (middle Miocene locality of Kalkaman Lake, Kazakhstan). The red square represents cf. Condylura sp. (late Miocene locality of Malheur River, Oregon, USA). The green triangles represent C. kowalskii and C. izabellae (Pliocene Polish localities). The blue circles represent the late Pleistocene-Holocene localities of C. cristata.

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