APPENDIX 1

List of characters used to on the phylogenetic analysis performed in this work. Characters 111 to 113 are proposed in this manuscript, the others are from Keivany and Nelson (2006, appendix 2);

1. Shape of nasal: 0) Simple, flat; 1) With anterior lamina; 2) Absent.

2. Lateral ethmoid: 0) Not extended to the orbit; 1) Extended to the orbit.

3. Vomer location: 0) Between ethmoids; 1) Superficially anteriorly.

4. Lachrymal: 0) Short; 1) Elongated.

5. Infraorbitals: 0) Discontinuous; 1) Continuous.

6. Frontal lateral postorbital process: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

7. Frontal: 0) Does not meet paresphenoid lateral process; 1) Meeting paresphenoid lateral process.

8. Parietal: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

9. Intercalar: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

10. Prootic and exoccipital: 0) Connected; 1) Widely separated by pterotic.

11. Basisphenoid: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

12. Pterosphenoid: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

13. Paresphenoid: 0) Narrow; 1) Expanded between the lateral ethmoids.

14. Paresphenoid shaft: 0) Divided posteriorly; 1) Entire.

15. Occipital condyle: 0) Concave; 1) Convex.

16. Exoccipital elongated posterior process: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

17. Spina occipitalis: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

18. Teeth on the jaws: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

19. Premaxillary ascending process: 0) Well developed; 1) Absent or reduced.

20. Premaxillary articular process: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

21. Premaxillary postmaxillary process: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

22. Maxillary shaft: 0) Expanded ventrally; 1) Uniform.

23. Maxillary posterior process: 0) Present; 1) With an anterior lamina; 1) Absent.

24. Palatine: 0) Separated; 1) United at the midline and to vomer.

25. Palatine head: 0) Cylindrical; 1) Conical.

26. A separatedentopterygoid: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

27. Metapterygoid: 0) Separate; 1) Fused to hyomandibular or sympletic.

28. Metapterygoid: 0) Posterior; 1) Anterior to the orbit.

29. Quadrate shaft: 0) Lacks a deep dorsal flange; 1) Bears a deep dorsal flange.

30. Length of the quadrate shaft: 0) About the same that quadrate body; 1) Much longer than quadrate body.

31. Articulation of quadrate and lower jaw: 0) Below the orbit; 1) In front of the orbit.

32. Sympletic: 0) Lacking a dorsal or ventral flange; 1) Bearing a dorsal or ventral flange; 2) Bifurcated anteriorly.

33. Hyomandibular: 0) Lacking a large medial lamina; 1) Bearing a large medial lamina.

34. Hyomandibular: 0) Bearing a lateral lamina; 1) Lacking a lateral lamina.

35. Hyomandibular: 0) Bearing distinct cranial condyles; 1) Lacking distinct cranial condyles.

36. Preopercle: 0) Without socket at articulation with interhyal; 1) With socket at articulation with interhyal.

37. Ventral and dorsal arms of the preopercle: 0) Different sized; 1) Equal sized.

38. Preopercular canal: 0) Enclose; 1) Open.

39. Ascending limb of subopercle: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

40. Subopercle and interopercle: 0) Close together; 1) Widely separating from each other.

41. Interopercle: 0) Short; 1) Elongated.

42. Posteroventral expansion of the interopercle: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

43. Basihyal: 0) Small; 1) Elongated; 2) With enlarged anterior cartilage.

44. Urohyal: 0) Without ventrolateral flanges; 1) With ventrolateral flanges.

45. Urohyal blade: 0) Entire; 1) Incised posteriorly.

46. Hypohyals: 0) Overlap anterior ceratohyal; 1) Articulate with posterior ceratohyal.

47. Anterior ceratohyal: 0) Abruptly becoming narrower; 1) Even or gradually becoming narrower anteriorly.

48. Struts that connects anterior and posterior ceratohyals: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

49. Interhyal: 0) Cylindrical and free; 1) Round and sutured to the posterior ceratohyal.

50. Branchiostegal rays: 0) More than four; 1) Four or fewer.

51. Gill membrane: 0) Free from isthmus; 1) United to isthmus.

52. Ossified basibranchials: 0) Three; 1) Less than three.

53. A fourth cartilaginous basibranchials: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

54. Hypobranchials: 0) Three; 1) Fewer than three.

55. Epibranchial 1: 0) With uncinated process; 1) Without uncinated process.

56. Epibranchial 1: 0) Separate to pharyngeal tooth plate 2; 1) Attached to pharyngeal tooth plate 2.

57. Uncinated process of epibranchial 3 and 4: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

58. Epibranchial 3 and 4: 0) Not associated with their processes or heads; 1) Associated with their processes or heads.

59. Epibranchial 4: 0) Normal; 1) Enlarged; 2) Absent.

60. Epibranchial 4 head: 0) Larger than three; 1) Normal.

61. Pharyngobranchial 1: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

62. Pharyngeal tooth plate 2: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

63. Pharyngeal tooth plate 4: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

64. Interarcual cartilage: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

65. Gill filaments: 0) Normal; 1) Lophobranch with skeleton fused basally.

66. Tooth plates on the branchial arches: 0) Present. 1) Absent.

67. Posttemporal dorsal process: 0) Tightly attached with short ligament to epioccipital; 1) Ossified to cranium.

68. Posttemporal sensory canal: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

69. Extrascapular: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

70. Supracleithrum: 0) Normal; 1) Reduced or absent.

71. Pointed anterodorsal ramus of the cleithrum: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

72. Cleithrum: 0) Entire; 1) Divided into two struts ventrally.

73. Cleithrum: 0) Without posteromedial extension to coracoids; 1) With posteromedial extension to coracoids.

74. Postcleithrum number: 0) Two; 1) One; 2) Absent.

75. Scapular foramen: 0) Complete; 1) Incomplete.

76. Scapula and first actinost: 0) Separate; 1) Fused together.

77. Coracoid ventral flange: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

78. Ectocoracoid: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

79. Shape of actinost: 0) Normal; 1) Strongly hourglass-shaped.

80. Size of actinosts: 0) Different; 1) Similar.

81. Position of actinosts: 0) Normal; 1) Rotated laterally.

82. Anteroventral spike of actinost 4: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

83. Actinost 4 and coracoids sutured to each other: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

84. Pelvic spines: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

85. Pelvic plates: 0) Separated; 1) Joined by a suture.

86. Pelvic posterior process: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

87. Pelvic plate: 0) Lacking anterior process; 1) Bearing an anterior process.

88. Dorsal spines: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

89. Dorsal posterior basals: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

90. Dorsal spine distal pterygiophores: 0) Not expanding; 1) Expanding.

91. Number of anal spines: 0) More than one; 1) One; 2) Absent.

92. Dorsal part of occipital condyle: 0) Made of exoccipitals and the first centrum bearing a dorsal facet that articulate with the exoccipital condyles; 1) Occipital condyle consisting only of basioccipital and the first vertebra lacks the dorsal facet, but bears lateral facets that articulate with exoccipital; 2) The first vertebra directly connected only to the basioccipital.

93. Anterior centra: 0) Separate; 1) Sutured together.

94. Transverse process on the first two vertebrae: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

95. Anterior vertebrae: 0) Normal; 1) Longer than posterior one.

96. Anterior vertebrae: 0) Lack lateral process to scutes; 1) Bear lateral processes to scutes.

97. Neural arch of precaudal vertebra: 0) Not pierced by foramina; 1) Pierced by foramina.

98. Neurohypophyses: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

99. Number of supraneural bones: 0) Three; 1) One or two; 2) Absent.

100. Pleural ribs: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

101. Epineurals and epipleurals: 0) Both present; 1) Only epineurals present; 2) Both absent.

102. Baudelot’s ligament: 0) Originates on the first vertebra; 1) Originates on exoccipital; 2) Absent.

103. Bony scutes: 0) Absent; 1) Present.

104. Parhypural: 0) Autogenous; 1) Fused to centrum or hypurals.

105. Condition of hypurals: 0) Autogenous; 1) All fused to centrum.

106. Number of hypural plates: 0) Three or more; 1) Two; 2) One.

107. Condition of hypurapophysis: 0) Distinct; 1) Indistinct.

108. Length of neural spine of preural 2: 0) Shorter than other preneurals; 1) The same size as other preneurals.

109. Condition of the uroneural 1: 0) Autogenous; 1) Fused.

110. Caudal cartilage: 0) Present; 1) Absent.

111. Interspace of dorsal spines: 0) Separate; 1) Close together.

112. Snout: 0) Nude; 1) Covered with dermal scutes or scales.

113. Condition of postcleithrum: 0) Not posteriorly elongate (it does not reach the level of the posterior tip of the postcleithrum); 1) Posteriorly elongate (it reaches the posterior level of the postcleithrum).

APPENDIX 2

List of states of characters considered to perform the phylogenetic analysis of the present paper (Figure 6). Polymorphic states are coded as * = 0/1, # = 0/2, @ = 1/2.

Atheriniformes:

0000000000000000010110000100001000000000020000000000000001010110100010*0***00000000000000100000*000000**000*0-00.

Elassomatiformes:

0000000000100100000000000100000000000000000000010000000100000000000010000000000?000011000001000000000000010010-00.

Synbranchiformes:

0100000010000000100*00100*00000*00*01110000*0000001**01*0*0*010*000*001012001000000????*00#00000000*0100001*01-00.

Hypoptychidae:

01000100001011001*01111001000001010001000010001101?01011000100100000111012000000010????10?20000010000101121111-00.

Aulorhynchidae:

11011110*01*01000001*1101110011201*00100101000100100*011000100*00101*10112101101010010101112000*10**11111@1111-00.

Gasterosteidae:

11010110001101000001011011100112000001001110000001100011000100100000010012101101011010101112000010100111121111000.

Pegasidae:

11011000101111000110011??110000110101101010000100011111?100101101010010002100001011011110?20011001011111121011-00.

Solenostomidae:

201100011110110111100011001111111010011111?01011010111????2?00101000010102100011000101110?20011001011111121011-00.

Syngnathidae:

211101111110110011100110001111111011001110010110111111111?2?01101010011012100011000????10?20000111011111121011-00.

Indostomidae:

010101?110100001101101100110001000000111001000010000001110001100101001101111000101010110?120000101110111121011-00.

Aulostomidae:

011100011110100101100000010111110010010010110100011110011?2?00010101011111111111000101110?00111000010100011110001.

Fistulariidae:

211100001110100101100010001111110010010010111110001110111?2?00010011010111101111000101110?20111000011101121101-01.

Macrorhamphosidae:

11110001111011100110011000111110101101001010101110000010010100000010011001010001111010100020001100111111121111-00.

Centriscidae: 0111000011101110011001100011111010110100101011111010101101011000001001101101000 1111001100?20111111011110121111-00.

Eekaulostomus cuevasae gen. and sp. nov.:

?11???0????01?????0??0??0???1?1?011?01??10????????????????????????????0011???1?????1???0??0???????????1???????111.

 


 

APPENDIX 3

Data matrix considered to perform the phylogenetic analyzes on the present work in NEXUS file format. The characters 1-110 and compared taxa are retrieved from Keivany and Nelson (2006). The characters 111-113 and Eekaulostomus cuevasae gen. and sp. nov. are added in this manuscript. Polymorphic states are represented by numbers separated by a slash (/) symbol. This zipped file is available for download.