FIGURE 1. Drawing indicating the different features described. Terminology using the right metapodials of Okapia johnstoni. AMNH 51218: 1, metacarpal palmar view; 2, metatarsal plantar view; and Samotherium major from Samos, MGL S 382; 3, pygmaios. Scale bar equals 50 mm.

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FIGURE 2. Measurements applied to the giraffid metapodials, based on those proposed by Quiralte (2011), using the same specimen as in figure 1.

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FIGURE 3. Helladotherium duvernoyi from Pikermi. 1, left metacarpal (reversed) MNHN 1658; 2, right metatarsal MNHN 1564.

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FIGURE 4. Three selected metacarpal characteristics. This simplified table can be used to facilitate specimen identifications and differentiate between different giraffid taxa.

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FIGURE 5. Palmar views of the right metacarpals (left) and plantar views of metatarsals (right) of certain Giraffidae. 1, Helladotherium duvernoyi, late Miocene, Pikermi, NHM 11382 (metacarpal), MNHNP 1554 (metatarsal) (both reversed); 2, Bramatherium megacephalum, late Miocene-Pliocene, Siwaliks, AMNH 29820, (metacarpal), AMNH 19668 (metatarsal); 3, Sivatherium giganteum, Pleistocene, Siwaliks, NHM 39553 (metacarpal), NHM 39752 (metatarsal); 4, Decennatherium pachecoi, late Miocene, Los Valles de la Fuentidueña, MNCN 42769 (metacarpal), MNCN 42764 (metatarsal) (both reversed); 5, Birgerbohlinia schaubi, late Miocene, Piera, IPS 5060 (metacarpal), Crusafont, 1952, fig. 15-5 (metatarsal), (both reversed); 6, Okapia johnstoni, Zaire, AMNH 51196 (metacarpal), AMNH 51196 (metatarsal). Scale bar equals 200 mm.

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FIGURE 6. Representative cross sections of right metacarpals. 1, Helladotherium duvernoyi, late Miocene, Pikermi, MNHNP 1527; 2, Birgerbohlinia schaubi, late Miocene, Samos, AMNH 20610 (reversed); 3, Okapia johnstoni, AMNH 15218 (reversed); 4, Samotherium major, late Miocene, Samos, AMNH 22790; 5, Bohlinia attica, late Miocene, Pikermi, PA 1474-1991; 6, Giraffa camelopardalis, AMNH 70016. Scale bar equals 80 mm.

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FIGURE 7. Three additional metacarpal characteristics. This simplified table can be used to facilitate specimen identifications and differentiate between different giraffid taxa.

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FIGURE 8. Bramatherium megacephalum from the Upper Siwaliks. 1, Right metacarpal AMNH 29820; 2, Right metatarsal AMNH 19688.

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FIGURE 9. Sivatherium giganteum from the Upper Siwaliks. 1, Right metacarpal NHM UK 39533; 2, Left metatarsal (reversed) NHM UK 39752.

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FIGURE 10. Metacarpal proximal morphology. Birgerbohlinia schaubi, late Miocene, Samos, AMNH 20610. Abbreviations: HA, os hamatum facet; TC, os trapezoideocapitatum facet; S, synovial fossa. Image not to scale.

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FIGURE 11. Samotherium major from Samos. 1, Right metacarpal NHMBe 711; 2, Right metatarsal AMNH 22967.

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FIGURE 12. Palmar views of the right metacarpals (left) and plantar views of the metatarsals (right) of certain Giraffidae. 1, Samotherium major, late Miocene, Samos, NHM Be Samos 711 (metacarpal), AMNH 22967 (metatarsal) (both reversed); 2, Palaeotragus rouenii , late Miocene, Pikermi, MNHNP 1692 (metacarpal), (reversed); MNHNP 1691 (metatarsal). Scale bar equals 200 mm.

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FIGURE 13. Bohlinia attica from Pikermi. 1, Right metacarpal MNHN 52780; 2, Right metatarsal MNHN 1639.

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FIGURE 14. Palmar views of the right metacarpals (left) and plantar views of the metatarsals (right) of certain Giraffidae. 1, Canthumeryx sirtensis, early-middle Miocene, Moruorot Hill, NMK Mo 41 (metatarsal); 2, Bohlinia attica, late Miocene, Pikermi, MNHNP 27561 (metacarpal), MNHNP 2357 (metatarsal) (reversed); 3, Giraffa camelopardalis, Zaire, AMNH 53550 (metacarpal), AMNH 53550 (metatarsal) (both reversed). Scale bar equals 200 mm.

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FIGURE 15. Giraffa camelopardalis from Kenya. 1, Left metacarpal (reversed) AMNH 53543; 2, Left metatarsal (reversed) AMNH 53550.

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FIGURE 16. Three selected metatarsal characteristics. This simplified table can be used to facilitate specimen identifications and differentiate between different giraffid taxa.

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FIGURE 17. Three selected metatarsal characteristics. This simplified table can be used to facilitate specimen identifications and differentiate between different giraffid taxa.

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FIGURE 18. Metatarsal proximal morphology. 1, Helladotherium duvernoyi, late Miocene, Pikermi, M 1138; 2, Bramatherium megacephalum, late Miocene-Pliocene, Siwaliks, AMNH 19688; 3, Decennatherium pachecoi, late Miocene, Los Valles de Fuentidueña, MNCN 42764; 4, Birgerbohlinia schaubi, late Miocene, Piera, IPS 5090. Abbreviations: NC, os naviculocuboideum facet; CIL, os cuneiforme intermediolaterale facet; CM, os cuneiforme mediale facet. Images not to scale.

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FIGURE 19. Box-and-whiskers plot with the metacarpal RI of the Giraffidae analyzed.

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FIGURE 20. Dispersion plot with the absolute metacarpal length of the Giraffidae analyzed.

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FIGURE 21. Dispersion plot showing the total length of the metacarpals versus the midshaft minimum transverse diameter of the Giraffidae analyzed.

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FIGURE 22. Box-and-whiskers plot with the metatarsal RI of the Giraffidae analyzed.

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FIGURE 23. Dispersion plot with the absolute metatarsal length of the Giraffidae analyzed.

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FIGURE 24. Dispersion plot showing the total length of the metatarsals versus the midshaft minimum transverse diameter of the Giraffidae analyzed.

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