TABLE 1. Abbreviations of mammal assemblages including the biozone, the section/fossil point and the locality name.

Assemblage/fossil layer Biozone Section/fossil point Locality name
LOH-C/1 C1 LOH-C Loh
IKH-A/5 C1 IKH-A Ikh Argalatyn Nuru
IKH-B/5 C1 IKH-B Ikh Argalatyn Nuru
DEL-B/12 C1 DEL-B Del
TGW-A/surface C1 TGW-A Toglorhoi
TGW-A/5 C1 TGW-A Toglorhoi
TGW-A/3+4 C1 TGW-A Toglorhoi
TGS/surface C1 TGS Toglorhoi (south)
TAT-W/top C1 TAT Tatatal Gol
TAT-043 C1 TAT-E Tatal Gol
TAT-051/2 C1 TAT Tatal Gol
TAT-052/1 C1 TAT Tatal Gol
TAT-042 C1 TAT Tatal Gol
TAT-E/22 C1 TAT-E Tatal Gol
TAT-E/27 C1 TAT-E Tatal Gol
TAT-E/32 C1-D TAT-E Tatal Gol
RHN-A/7 C1 RHN-A Huch Teeg
RHN-023 C1 RHN Huch Teeg
HTSE-009+013 C1 HTSE Hotuliin Teeg (southeast)
HTSE-009/1 C1 HTSE Hotuliin Teeg (southeast)
HTSE-009/2 C1 HTSE Hotuliin Teeg (southeast)
HTSE-009/3 C1 HTSE Hotuliin Teeg (southeast)
HTSE-010 C1 HTSE Hotuliin Teeg (southeast)
HTSE-013/5 C1 HTSE Hotuliin Teeg (southeast)
HTE-057 C1 HTE Hotuliin Teeg (east)
HTS-011/1 (=HTS-056/1+2) C1-D HTS Hotuliin Teeg (south)
HTS-012 (=HTS-056/3) C1-D HTS Hotuliin Teeg (south)
HTE-009 D HTE Hotuliin Teeg (east)
HTE-008 D HTE Hotuliin Teeg (east)
HTE-014-018 D HTE Hotuliin Teeg (east)
UNCH-A/3+4 D UNCH-A Unkheltseg

 

 

TABLE 2. Descriptive statistics of the upper molars of Yindirtemys deflexus from the Valley of Lakes (Mongolia). Abbreviations: T.N., total number of teeth; N., number of teeth measured; min, minimum; max, maximum, δ, standard deviation. For abbreviations of assemblages see Table 1.

        Length Width
  Locality Element T.N. N. min mean max σ N. min mean max σ
Yindirtemys deflexus HTE-057 DP4 2 1   3.33     1   2.33    
RHN-023 DP4 1           1   2.55    
RHN-A/7 DP4 1 1   3.43     1   2.54    
HTS-011/1+2 P4 4 1   2.86     1   3.49    
HTE-057 P4 1 1   2.83     1   3.62    
HTSE-013/5 P4 1 1   2.91     1   3.42    
HTSE-009+013 P4 7 6 2.55 2.87 3.27 0.300 7 3.07 3.37 3.74 0.290
RHN-023 P4 4 3 2.80 3.00 3.19   4 3.31 3.44 3.54 0.100
RHN-A/7 P4 12 9 2.85 3.10 3.30 0.160 9 3.26 3.66 3.94 0.200
TAT-043 P4 2 2 2.91   3.44   2 3.42   3.95  
TGW-A/5 P4 4 2 2.62   2.93   2 3.35   3.56  
TGW-A/surface P4 7 5 2.51 2.81 3.10 0.270 4 3.52 3.59 3.71 0.080
DEL-B/12 P4 3 1   2.68     1   3.45    
IKH-A/5 P4 1 1   2.76     1   3.42    
LOH-C/1 P4 4 4 3.11 3.24 3.42   4 3.61 3.77 3.92  
HTS-011/1+2 M1 2 1   3.93     1   2.77    
HTE-057 M1 2 2 .66   4.03   2 3.13   3.32  
HTSE-009+013 M1 6           1   2.97    
RHN-023 M1 8 5 3.57 3.76 3.99 0.170 5 2.98 3.24 3.48 0.210
RHN-A/7 M1 2           1   3.52    
TAT-E/22 M1 1 1   4.34     1   3.39    
TAT-043 M1 3 1   4.10     1   3.34    
TGW-A/surface M1 8 2 .63   3.64   2 3.13   3.37  
DEL-B/12 M1 5 1   3.73     2 3.31   3.40  
LOH-C/1 M1 2 1   4.52     1   3.52    
HTS-011/1+2 M2 3 2 3.99   4.05   3 3.13 3.27 3.34  
HTE-057 M2 2 2 3.99   5.08   2 3.32   4.01  
HTSE-010 M2 1 1   4.72     1   4.18    
HTSE-009+013 M2 5 4 4.24 4.41 4.50 0.120 5 3.71 3.83 3.98 0.130
RHN-023 M2 7 5 3.88 4.29 4.71 0.380 5 3.55 3.73 3.98 0.180
RHN-A/7 M2 6 3 4.65 4.68 4.71   4 3.74 4.01 4.27 0.240
TAT-052/1 M2 2 1   5.16     1   4.60    
TAT-043 M2 1 1   5.44     1   4.60    
TGW-A/5 M2 4 4 4.05 4.43 4.99 0.420 2 3.46   4.21  
TGW-A/surface M2 9 5 4.38 4.62 4.99 0.240 4 3.78 3.95 4.14 0.180
DEL-B/12 M2 10 4 4.12 4.29 4.41 0.120 3 3.31 3.70 3.91  
IKH-A/5 M2 5 3 4.46 4.60 4.73   2 3.87   4.15  
LOH-C/1 M2 1           1   5.16    
HTS-011/1+2 M3 2 1   5.04     1   4.89    
HTE-057 M3 2 1   5.15     1   4.50    
HTSE-009/1 M3 2 1   4.20              
HTSE-009+013 M3 9 9 4.51 4.91 5.84 0.430 8 4.18 4.43 4.83 0.200
RHN-023 M3 2 2 4.80   5.26   2 3.94   4.09  
RHN-A/7 M3 6 6 4.79 5.07 5.38 0.220 6 4.06 4.42 4.74 0.230
TAT-E/27 M3 1 1   5.44     1   4.36    
TAT-052/1 M3 2 2 4.75   5.81   2 4.52   4.85  
TAT-043 M3 3 3 5.19 5.45 5.70   3 4.45 4.69 4.82  
TGW-A/5 M3 2 2 4.69   4.87   2 3.94   4.03  
TGW-A/surface M3 6 4 4.48 4.58 4.68 0.090 4 4.01 4.06 4.11 0.040
DEL-B/12 M3 7 5 4.24 4.65 5.02 0.290 4 3.93 4.13 4.34 0.190
IKH-A/5 M3 2 2 4.69   4.95   2 3.92   4.40  
LOH-C/1 M3 4 3 5.11 5.26 5.57   3 4.30 4.54 4.68  

 

TABLE 3. Descriptive statistics of the lower molars of Yindirtemys deflexus from the Valley of Lakes (Mongolia). Abbreviations: T.N., total number of teeth; N., number of teeth measured; min, minimum; max, maximum, δ, standard deviation. For abbreviations of assemblages see Table 1.

        Length Width
  Locality Element T.N. N. min mean max σ N. min mean max σ
Yindirtemys deflexus RHN-A/7 dp4 3 2 3.16   3.52   2 1.87   2.03  
LOH-C/1 dp4 1 1   4.00     1   2.30    
HTS-011/1+2 p4 1 1   2.95     1   2.47    
HTSE-009/2 p4 2 1   2.64     2 2.32   2.53  
HTSE-009+013 p4 1 1   3.14     1   2.77    
RHN-023 p4 6 2 2.93   3.02   4 2.41 2.51 2.61 0.090
RHN-A/7 p4 6 3 2.89 2.95 3.00   5 2.25 2.44 2.73 0.180
TAT-052/1 p4 3           3 2.21 2.62 2.86  
TAT-051/2 p4 2 1   2.66     2 2.07   2.38  
TAT-043 p4 1 1   3.01     1   2.58    
TGW-A/5 p4 1           1   2.75    
TGW-A/surface p4 2           2 2.31   2.32  
DEL-B/12 p4 9 6 2.85 2.89 2.98 0.060 8 2.31 2.43 2.54 0.090
IKH-B/5 p4 2           1   2.66    
LOH-C/1 p4 2           1   2.61    
HTS-011/1+2 m1 3 1   4.01     2 2.61   2.75  
HTE-057 m1 1 1   3.66     1   2.53    
HTSE-009/2 m1 1 1   3.39     1   2.47    
HTSE-009+013 m1 4 2 3.96   4.19   2 2.85   2.87  
RHN-023 m1 5 4 3.72 4.01 4.34 0.270 4 2.58 2.79 3.07 0.230
RHN-A/7 m1 8 5 3.58 3.93 4.39 0.340 6 2.48 2.76 3.09 0.230
TAT-051/2 m1 2 1   3.46     2 2.21   2.57  
TAT-043 m1 1           1   3.03    
TAT-W/Top m1 2 1   4.20     1   2.95    
TGW-A/5 m1 1 1   4.83     1   3.15    
IKH-B/5 m1 2           2 3.79   3.97  
IKH-A/5 m1 1           1   2.62    
HTS-011/1+2 m2 1 1   4.47     1   3.23    
HTE-057 m2 4 1   5.48     3 3.52 3.70 4.05  
HTSE-009/2 m2 1 1   4.55     1 3.25   3.25  
HTSE-009+013 m2 7 3 4.74 5.01 5.30   5 3.31 3.57 3.80 0.220
RHN-023 m2 4 4 4.35 4.91 5.28 0.400 4 3.15 3.48 3.70 0.240
RHN-A/7 m2 13 8 4.55 4.97 5.37 0.240 11 3.03 3.53 3.93 0.260
TAT-052/1 m2 3           2 3.50   4.25  
TAT-051/2 m2 3 1   5.43     2 3.33   3.81  
TAT-043 m2 1           1   3.91    
TAT-W/Top m2 1           1   3.95    
TGS m2 1     5.25              
TGW-A/5 m2 3     5.55     3 4.04 4.08 4.13  
TGW-A/surface m2 2           1   3.39    
DEL-B/12 m2 6 4 4.74 4.95 5.43 0.320 5 3.08 3.39 3.70 0.240
IKH-B/5 m2 2           2 4.36   4.77  
IKH-A/5 m2 1           1   3.48    
LOH-C/1 m2 5     5.58     1   4.15    
HTS-011/1+2 m3 2 1   5.60     1   3.69    
HTE-057 m3 1 1   6.08     1   4.08    
HTSE-009/3 m3 1 1   5.36              
HTSE-009/2 m3 1 1   4.99     1   3.35    
HTSE-009+013 m3 2 2 5.52   5.69   2 3.59   3.89  
RHN-023 m3 3 1   6.35     2 3.91   4.16  
RHN-A/7 m3 9 6 5.90 6.20 6.45 0.210 7 3.76 3.99 4.27 0.160
TAT-051/2 m3 1           1   3.61    
TAT-043 m3 1 1   6.11     1   4.06    
DEL-B/12 m3 16 12 5.03 5.48 5.90 0.270 12 3.45 3.68 3.97 0.140
IKH-B/5 m3 2           1   5.11    
IKH-A/5 m3 3 1   5.02     3 3.25 3.51 3.76  
LOH-C/1 m3 5 2 6.16   6.73   3 4.27 4.49 4.62  

 

TABLE 4. Descriptive statistics of the upper and lower molars of Yindirtemys suni from the Valley of Lakes (Mongolia) and the holotype from the Xiejia Formation of Xiejia, Quinghai (IVPP V 5992). Abbreviations: T.N., total number of teeth; N., number of teeth measured; min, minimum; max, maximum, δ, standard deviation. For abbreviations of assemblages see Table 1.

        Length Width
  Locality Element T.N. N. min mean max σ N. min mean max σ
Yindirtemys suni HTE-14-18 P4 2 2 3.74   4.44   2 4.62   4.98  
HTE-008 2 2 3.63   3.87   2 4.42   4.65  
HTE-009 1 1   4.11     1   4.33    
IVPP V 5992 (Type)   1   3.16     1   3.45    
HTE-009 M1 3 1   4.65     1   4.24    
IVPP V 5992 (Type)   1   3.76     1   3.56    
HTE-14-18 M2 2 1   5.35     2 4.86   5.43  
HTE-009 4 3 5.74 5.87 6.01   3 4.87 5.12 5.33  
HTS-012 1 1   5.00              
IVPP V 5992 (Type)   1   5.15     1   4.30    
HTE-14-18 M3 4 4 5.66 6.32 7.11 0.610 4 4.85 5.35 5.81 0.510
HTE-008 2 2 6.24   6.27   2 5.64   5.92  
HTE-009 3 3 6.25 6.34 6.49   2 5.50   5.57  
HTS-012 1 1   4.96     1   4.79    
IVPP V 5992 (Type)   1   6.30     1   5.10    
HTE-14-18 dp4 1 1   4.14              
HTE-008 p4 1 1   3.78     1   3.19    
HTE-14-18 m1 3 2 5.07   5.43   2 3.67   3.99  
HTE-14-18 m2 3 2 6.57   6.60   2 5.07   5.08  
HTE-008 2 1   5.78     2 4.53   4.56  
HTE-14-18 m3 2 2 8.18   8.37   2 5.47   5.80  
HTE-008 1 1   6.21     1   4.58    
HTE-009 4 3 7.36 7.55 7.68   3 4.93 5.02 5.13  

 

TABLE 5. Descriptive statistics of the upper and lower molars of Yindirtemys birgeri from the Aral Formation (Kazakhstan) and the locality Tatal Gol (TAT-051/2; 2012/0060/0001) in the Valley of Lakes (Mongolia). Abbreviations: T.N., total number of teeth; N., number of teeth measured; min, minimum; max, maximum, δ, standard deviation. The data on Y. birgeri from the Aral Formation are from Bendukidze et al. (2009).

      Length Width
  Country Element N. min mean max σ N. min mean max σ
Yindirtemys birgeri   P4 6 2.3 2.47 2.5 0.08 6 2.75 2.9 3 0.12
  M1 3 2.87 2.96 3 0.08 3 2.37 2.42 2.5 0.07
  M2 6 3.5 3.59 3.7 0.08 6 2.87 3.14 3.37 0.19
Aral Formation M3 7 3.62 3.91 4.12 0.19 7 2.5 3.23 3.5 0.38
(Kazakhstan) p4 6 2.2 2.41 2.75 0.19 6 1.85 2.03 2.2 0.16
  m1 2 3.1 3.18 3.25 0.11 2 2 2.2 2.4 0.28
  m2 3 3.95 4.28 4.5 0.29 3 2.6 2.8 2.9 0.17
  m3 5 4.8 4.88 5 0.08 5 3 3.09 3.25 0.1
    P4 2 2.53   2.54   2 2.99   3.02  
TAT-051/2 Valley of Lakes M2 1   3.31     2 3.25   3.26  
2012/0060/0001 (Mongolia) M3 2 3.35   3.75   2 3.48   3.52  

 

TABLE 6. Statistical analyses of the lengths of the cheek teeth of Yindirtemys deflexus and Y. suni. Abbreviations: N, number of specimens; df, degree of freedom; df2W, degree of freedom of the denominator corrected for Welch’s test; p, significance value; df2B-F, degree of freedom of the denominator corrected for Brown-Forsythe’s test; t, T-student value; F, One-way ANOVA test. Significant differences in bold (α=0.05). All analyses use exclusively localities with sample sizes larger than four specimens.

    Y. deflexus Y. suni  Welch's test Brown-Forsythe's test Student's test ANOVA
Element N Locality df df2W p df2B-F p t p F p
m1 4 RHN-023   8         0.137 0.723    
5 RHN-A/7              
m2 4 RHN-023   15             0.046 0.956
8 RHN-A/7              
4 DEL-B/12              
m3 6 RHN-A/7   17         31.723 0.000    
12 DEL-B/12              
P4 6 HTSE-009+013                    
9 RHN-A/7   19             2.914 0.082
5 TGW-A/surface                    
M2 4 HTSE-009+013   4 8.230     0.428        
5 RHN-023          
4 TGW-A/5   0.280 9.854    
5 TGW-A/surface          
4 DEL-B/12          
M3 4   HTE-14-18 27             14.826 0.000
9 HTSE-009+013              
6 RHN-A/7              
4 TGW-A/surface              
5 DEL-B/12              

 

TABLE 7. Post hoc (Tukey’s-b) of the M3 of Yindirtemys deflexus and Y. suni. Significant differences are indicated in bold. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

  Localities   Mean difference
Tukey's-b.   HTE-14-18 -1.664
DEL-B/12 HTSE-009+013 -0.263
Y. deflexus RHN-A/7 -0.416
  TGW-A/surface 0.07525
  DEL-B/12 1.664
HTE-14-18 HTSE-009+013 1.401
Y. suni RHN-A/7 1,248
  TGW-A/surface 1.73925
  DEL-B/12 0.263
HTSE-009+013 HTE-14-18 -1.401
Y. deflexus RHN-A/7 -0.153
  TGW-A/surface 0.33825
  DEL-B/12 0.416
RHN-A/7 HTE-14-18 -1.248
Y. deflexus HTSE-009+013 0.153
  TGW-A/surface 0.49125
  DEL-B/12 -0.07525
TGW-A/surface HTE-14-18 -1.73925
Y. deflexus HTSE-009+013 -0.33825
  RHN-A/7 -0.49125