FIGURE 1. Map of North Europe showing the locations of the study site in southern Finland (filled circle) and other late Quaternary palaeoclimate-data producing sites (open circles) mentioned in this study. Lake Iso Lehmälampi is the site of water level reconstructions based on subfossils of the chironomid midge and cladoceran water flea (Luoto, 2009; Nevalainen et al., 2011; Nevalainen and Luoto, 2012). Lit-1 and Lit-2 are tree-ring sites studied by Pukienė (1997) and Edvardsson et al. (2016), respectively.


FIGURE 2. Replication curves of the subfossil tree-ring chronologies. 1, lake sites; and 2, the peatland site. Data are given in Table 1.


FIGURE 3. Comparisons of the proxy indications from southern Finland from AD 600 to 1800. 1, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reflecting spring-summer soil moisture conditions (Cook et al., 2015); 2, the water level reconstruction based on subfossil chironomid midge (dashed line) and cladoceran water flea (solid lines; calibrations from intra-site by thick line and multi-site training sets by thin line) communities in Lake Iso Lehmälampi (Luoto, 2009; Nevalainen et al., 2011; Nevalainen and Luoto, 2012); and 3, the replication curves of the subfossil tree-ring chronologies constituting a peatland and eight lake sites (this study).