APPENDIX 1.

Measurements of the canid mandible. 1, total length (infradentale to condyle); 2, length of infradentale to angular process; 3, length of infradentale to angular indentation; 4, behind c1 to condyle length; 5, infradentale to anterior margin of masseter fossa; 6, posterior margin of c1 to posterior margin of m3; 7, length of cheek tooth row (anterior margin of p1 to posterior margin of m3); 8, length of premolar row (anterior margin of p1 to posterior margin of p4); 9, length of molar row (anterior margin of m1 to posterior margin of m3); 10, distance between mental foramina; 11, symphysis maximum diameter; 12, symphysis minimum diameter; 13, posterior margin of m3 to condyle length; 14, condyle height; 15, condyle breadth; 16, angular process to coronoid process height; 17, mandible maximum height; 18, mandible body height between p2 and p3; 19, mandible body thickness between p2 and p3; 20, mandible body height between m1 and m2; and 21, mandible body thickness between m1 and m2.

appendix1

APPENDIX 2.

Measurements (left) and cusp terminology (right) of the ursid lower second molar (m2). 1, total length; 2, trigonid length from lingual side; 3, trigonid length from buccal side; 4, talonid length from lingual side; 5, talonid length from buccal side; 6, trigonid breadth; and 7, talonid breadth.

appendix2

APPENDIX 3.

Measurements of the mustelid cranium. 1, total length (prosthion-acrocranion); 2, condylobasal length (prostion-occipital condyles); 3, basal length (prosthion-basion); 4, viscerocranium length (prosthion-point F); 5, neurocranium length (point F-acrocranion); 6, facial length (prosthion-point F); 7, rostrum length (prosthion-infraorbital); 8, rostrum length (anterior margin of I1 to posterior margin of M1); 9, palatal length (prosthion-staphylion); 10, C1-M1 length on alveoles (anterior margin of alveole of C1 to the posterior margin of alveole of M1); 11, upper premolars row length on alveoles (anterior margin of alveole of P2 to the posterior margin of alveole of P4); 12, breadth at zygomatic arches (zygion-zygion); 13, incisors row breadth (I3-I3 breadth); 14, maximal breadth at the canine alveoli; 15, maximal breadth at the P4 alveoli; 16, maximal breadth at the M1 alveoli; 17, least palatal breadth; 18, least breadth between infraorbital foramens; 19, least breadth between orbits (entorbital-entorbital); 20, frontal breadth (ectorbital-ectorbital); 21, postorbital least breadth (postorbital bar); 22,  maximal neurocranium breadth (euryon-euryon); 23, mastoid breadth (otion-otion); 24, maximal breadth of occipital condyles; 25, nasal aperture height; 26, nasal aperture breadth; 27, height of foramen magnum (basionopisthion); 28, breadth of foramen magnum; 29, bullae ossae length; 30, bullae ossae breadth; 31, cranial height (acrocranion-basion); and 32, maximal cranial height (staphylion-frontal).

 appendix3

APPENDIX 4.

Measurements of the mustelid mandible. 1, total length (condyle to infradentale); 2, angular process to infradentale length; 3, infradentale to anterior margin of masseter fossa; 4, anterior margin of c1 to posterior margin of m2; 5, cheek teeth row length (anterior margin of p2 to posterior margin of m2); 6, premolars row length (anterior margin of p2 to posterior margin of p4); 7, molars row length (anterior margin of m1 to posterior margin of m2); 8, distance between mental foramens; 9, posterior margin of m2 to condyle length; 10, angular process to coronoid process height; 11, mandible maximal height; 12, body mandible height between p3 and p4; 13, body mandible thickness between p3 and p4; 14, body mandible height between m1 and m2; 15, body mandible thickness between m1 and m2; 16, condyle height; 17, condyle breadth; 18, symphysis maximal diameter; and 19, symphysis minimum diameter.

 appendix4

APPENDIX 5.

Measurements (left) and cusp terminology (right) of the felid lower carnassial (m1). Abbreviatios: L, total length; L tri, trigonid length; L tal, talonid length; B tri, trigonid breadth; B tal, talonid breadth; tri, trigonid; tal, talonid; par, paraconid; pro, protoconid; met, metaconid; and hyp, hypoconid.

appendix5

APPENDIX 6.

Measurements of the felid mandible. 1, total length (infradentale to condyle); 2, length of infradentale to angular process; 3, infradentale to coronoid process length; 4, infradentale to anterior margin of masseter fossa; 5, anterior margin of c1 to posterior margin of m1; 6, posterior margin of c1 to posterior margin of m1; 7, diastema length; 8, length of cheek tooth row (anterior margin of p3 to posterior margin of m1); 9, length of premolar row (anterior margin of p3 to posterior margin of p4); 10, distance between mental foramina; 11, angular process to coronoid process height; 12, symphysis maximum diameter; 13, symphysis minimum diameter; 14, condyle height; 15, condyle breadth; 16, mandible body height before p3; 17, mandible body thickness before p3; 18, mandible body height behind m1; and 19, mandible body thickness behind m1.

appendix6

APPENDIX 7.

Measurements of the felid p3/p4 and m1 (modified from Schmid, 1940). Left: lateral view; right: occlusal view. Measurements of premolar: 1, total length; 2, protoconid length; 3, protoconid height; 4, anterior breadth; and 5, posterior breadth. Measurements of m1: 1, total length; 2, paraconid length; 3, paraconid height; 4, protoconid length; 5, protoconid height; 6, incisor height; and 7, breadth. Abbreviations: Pa, paraconid; Pr, protoconid; H, hypoconid; T, talonid; C, cingulum; mes, mesial side; dist, distal side; ling, lingual side; bucc, buccal side.

appendix7

APPENDIX 8.

Measurements (in mm) of Gulo gulo postcranials from Solna Jama Cave. See Appendices 3 and 4 for measured parts.

Bone part and collection no. L pl pB mL mB dL dB B
Humerus (JSJ/Gg/1-5)       15.85 14.79      
Radius (JSJ/Gg/1-6) 134.86 18.93 12.56 11.44 8.91 26.71 17.23  
Mtcp I (JSJ/Gg/1-27) 36.42 9.72 9.82 4.71 5.57 7.58 8.32  
Mtcp I (JSJ/Gg/1-28) 47.15 10.33 8.49 5.46 6.83   10.56  
Mtcp III (JSJ/Gg/1-29) 55.38 11.98 9.91 5.71 7.16 9.72 10.94  
Mtcp IV (JSJ/Gg/1-30)   12.49 9.19 5.76 7.31      
Mtcp V (JSJ/Gg/1-31) 46.98 10.08 10.96 5.39 7.06 8.84 9.34  
Mtts I (JSJ/Gg/1-32)       5.36 6.54 7.80 8.78  
Mtts II (JSJ/Gg/1-33) 57.36 11.16 8.17 5.82 7.56 9.26 10.64  
Mtts III (JSJ/Gg/1-34) 64.65 14.76 11.24 6.67 8.14 9.42 11.32  
Mtts IV (JSJ/Gg/1-35) 68.69 14.98 10.21 6.84 7.93 9.54 11.23  
Mtts V (JSJ/Gg/1-36) 63.47 10.66 12.08 6.71 7.39 9.71 11.20  
Calcaneus (JSJ/Gg/1-18) 54.27             28.86
Talus (JSJ/Gg/1-19) 36.14             27.06
Left pisiform (JSJ/Gg/1-20) 21.50 11.75 12.58          
Right pisiform (JSJ/Gg/1-21) 21.68 11.69 12.92          
Navicular (JSJ/Gg/1-22) 19.97             15.47
Cuboid (JSJ/Gg/1-23) 15.46             15.11
Cuneiform I (JSJ/Gg/1-24) 13.67             7.59
Cuneiform II (JSJ/Gg/1-25) 9.74             6.65
Cuneiform III (JSJ/Gg/1-26) 16.81             9.85
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-37) 28.84 8.52 10.87 5.68 6.18 5.63 8.58  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-38) 29.60 7.94 11.22 6.19 6.56 6.13 8.80  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-39) 29.90 8.16 10.52 5.15 6.23 6.05 8.02  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-40) 29.97 8.57 10.81 4.97 6.31 5.90 8.49  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-41) 26.39 8.32 10.99 5.36 6.52 5.89 8.59  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-42) 26.54 8.74 11.04 5.33 6.69 6.68 8.36  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-43) 25.12 6.45 9.50 4.25 6.32 6.27 7.63  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-44) 24.68 7.82 9.67 4.61 5.51 5.82 7.43  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-45) 30.02 9.02 11.18 5.27 6.94 6.12 8.85  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-46) 29.39 8.65 10.97 5.21 6.44 6.69 8.62  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-47) 25.61 8.05 10.80 5.25 6.66 5.89 7.96  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-48) 26.25 8.34 10.72 4.98 6.69 5.80 7.66  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-49) 27.06 8.62 10.47 5.24 6.58 6.01 8.23  
Phalange I (JSJ/Gg/1-50) 24.42 7.14 9.29 4.80 5.95 5.86 7.11  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-51) 17.63 8.11 8.76 4.36 5.16 6.76 6.69  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-52) 23.55 7.87 9.39 4.64 5.21 7.03 7.96  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-53) 17.71 7.51 9.01 4.71 5.61 6.42 7.49  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-54) 18.94 7.21 8.85 4.43 5.62 6.63 7.76  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-55) 22.25 7.49 9.35 4.64 5.48 6.63 7.87  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-56) 21.85 6.41       6.31    
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-57) 20.74 7.17 8.63 4.44 5.34 7.22 7.79  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-58) 22.38 7.42 9.32 4.69 5.38 7.09 7.81  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-59) 22.13 7.13 9.09 4.39 6.08 6.98 7.67  
Phalange II (JSJ/Gg/1-60) 21.97 7.27 9.13 4.48 5.26 6.72 7.71