APPENDIX 1.

Paleoecological requirements of fossil vertebrate taxa of Moncucco Torinese. See text for further discussion, details and references.

FISHES

Family Taxon Ecology
Myctophidae Benthosema aff. suborbitale marine adventitious
  Bolinichthys italicus marine adventitious
  Diaphus befralai marine adventitious
  Diaphus aff. pedemontanus marine adventitious
  Diaphus aff. rubus marine adventitious
  Diaphus splendidus marine adventitious
  Diaphus taaningi marine adventitious
  Hygophum aff. derthonensis marine adventitious
  Myctophum coppa marine adventitious
Gadidae Gadiculus labiatus marine adventitious
Moridae Physiculus sp. marine adventitious
Trachichthyidae Hoplostethus cf. mediterraneus marine adventitious
Bythitidae Grammonnus sp. marine adventitious
Gobiidae Lesueurigobius sp. marine migrant
Sciaenidae Argyrosomus sp. marine migrant
  Sciaenidarum sp. nov. estuarine resident
  " Trewasciaena " sp. estuarine resident

AMPHIBIANS

  Biotope preferences Climate preference Eurytopic
  Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Albanerpeton sp. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Chelotriton sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Lissotriton sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Bufo gr. B. viridis - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Pelophylax sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Hyla gr. Hyla arborea - x - - - x - - - - x - -
Latonia sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Pelobates sp.   - - - x x - - - - x - -
REPTILES Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Crocodylia indet. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Testudo sp. - - - - -   x - - - x - -
Mauremys sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
cf. Euleptes sp. - - - x - - - - - - x - -
Agamidae indet. - - - x - - - - - - x - -
non-Anguis Anguinae indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
cf. Lacerta sp. - - - x - - - - - - x - -
Amphisbaenia indet. - - - - x - - - - - x - -
Scolecophidia indet. - - - - x - - - - - x - -
Eryx sp. - - - x x - - - - - x - -
colubrines A - - - - - - x - - - x - -
colubrines B - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Vipera sp. (Oriental group) - - - - - - x - - - x - -
BIRDS Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Palaeortyx cf. gallica - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Coturnix sp. - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Apodidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Coliidae gen. et sp. indet. - x - - - - - - - - x - -
Piciformes indet. x x - - - - - - - - x - -
Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Passeriformes indet. large - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Passeriformes indet. middle - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Passeriformes indet. small - - - - - - x - - - x - -
MAMMALS Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Tapirus arvernensis x - - - - - - x x - - - -
Dihoplus schleiermacheri x - - - - - - - x - - - -
Dicoryphochoerini - - x - - - - - x - - - -
Euprox sp. - - x - - - - - x - - - -
Pliocervus sp. x -   - - - - - x - - - -
aff. Palaeomeryx x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Gazella aff. G. pilgrimi - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Euarctos pyrenaicus - - - - - - - x x - - x -
Viverrinae indet. - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Pristifelis attica - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Pantherinae indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Baranogale cf. helbingi - x x - - - - - - - x - -
Mesopithecus pentelicus x x - - - - - - - - x - -
cf. Macaca x x - - - - - - - - x - -
Neomyini indet. - - - - - x   x - - - - -
Petenyia cf. hungarica - - - - - - - - - - x x  
Parasorex aff. ibericus - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Talpa sp. - - - - x - - - - - - - x
Castorinae indet. - - - - - x - - - - - - -
Hystrix depereti - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Neocricetodon magnus - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Apodemus gudrunae   x - x - - - - - - x - -
Apodemus atavus x x - - - - - x - - - - -
Micromys bendai - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Occitanomys brailloni - x - - - - - - - - x - -
Stephanomys sp. - - - - - - - - - - x x -
Centralomys benericettii - x x - - - - - - - x - -
Paraethomys meini - x x - - - - - - x - x -
Glis minor x - - - - - - x - - - - -
Glirulus lissiensis x - - - - - - x - - - - -
Muscardinus vireti x x - - - - - x - - - - -
Eliomys yevesi - x - x - - - - - - - - x
Sciurus warthae x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Hylopetes hungaricus x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Sciurinae indet. x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Prolagus sorbinii - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Leporidae indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -

APPENDIX 2.

Mollusk and vertebrate taxa identified in the uppermost Miocene of Moncucco Torinese.

Taxon Fossil assemblages
GASTROPODS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Hydrocena moncuccoensis - - - - - x x
Theodoxus doderleini - x x x x x x
Theodoxus mutinensis x x x x x x x
Melanoides curvicosta x x x x x x x
Melanopsis narzolina x x x x x x x
Melanopsis fusulatina - x - x - x -
Saccoia globosa x x x x x x x
Saccoia oryza x x x x x x x
Saccoia cf. congermana - - - - - - x
? Prososthenia n. sp. A - - - - - - x
Prososthenia n. sp. B - - - - - - x
Hydrobiidae n. sp. - - - - - - x
Cochlostoma esuanum x x x x x x x
Craspedopoma conoidale x x x x - x x
? Procyclotopsis n. sp. A - - - - - - x
Acicula cf. lineata - x - x x x x
Acicula giuntellii - - - - - - x
Acicula n. sp. - - - - - - x
Platyla manganellii - - - - - - x
Renea n. sp. - x - - - x x
Bulinus meneghinii - x - - - x x
Gyraulus sp. - - - - - x -
Carychium cf. rufolabiatum - - - - - - x
Carychiella puisseguri - - - - - - x
Cochlicopa fassabortoloi - - - - - - x
Argna proexcessiva - - - - - x x
Strobilops romani - - - - - - x
Vallonia subcyclophorella - - - - - - x
Acanthinula n. sp. - - - - - - x
Truncatellina cf. callicratis - - - x - - x
Negulopsis suturalis - - - x - x x
Gastrocopta (Albinula) acuminata - - - - - x -
Gastrocopta (Sinalbinula) serotina - - - - - - x
Pagodulina n. sp. - - x - - x x
Succineidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x
Nordsieckia pontica x x x x x x x
? Serrulella sp. - x x x x x x
Cochlodina (? Miophaedusa) n. sp. - x x x - x x
Truciella ballesioi x x x x x x x
Clausilia ( Clausilia) cf. baudoni x x x x - x x
?Clausiliinae sp. - - - - - - x
Cecilioides acicula - - - x - x x
Ferussaciidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x
Helicodiscus roemeri - x - - - x x
Lucilla miocaenica x x x x - x x
Janulus cf. spadinii - - - x x x x
Parmacella n. sp. x x x x x x x
Milacidae gen. et sp. indet. x x x x x x x
? Limax fossilis x x x x x x x
Agriolimacidae gen. et sp. indet. x x x x x x x
? Helicopsis piedmontanica - - x x - x x
Puisseguria sp. - - - - - - x
Gastropoda gen. et sp. indet. x x - - - - x
BIVALVES MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Euxinicardium subodessae - - x x - - x
Pachydacna - - x x x - x
Pontalmyra bollenensis - x x x - x x
Pontalmyra cf. bollenensis - x x - - - x
Pontalmyra cf. incerta chiae x x x x - x x
Pontalmyra partschi - - - - - - x
Pontalmyra cf. partschi x x x x x x x
Pontalmyra sp. - - - - - - x
Prosodacnomya sabbae - - x x - x x
Pseudocatillus nevesskayae - x x   - x x
Pseudocatillus sp. - - - - - - x
cf. Pseudocatillus sp. - - x - - - -
Lymnocardiinae gen. et sp. indet. - x - - - - -
Dreissena ex gr. rostriformis x x x x x x x
Pisidium sp. - - - - - x x
FISHES MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Benthosema aff. suborbitale x - - - - - -
Bolinichthys italicus x - - - - - -
Diaphus befralai x - x - x - -
Diaphus aff. pedemontanus x - x - x - -
Diaphus aff. rubus - - x - - - -
Diaphus splendidus x - x - - - -
Diaphus taaningi x - x x - - -
Hygophum aff. derthonensis - - x x x x -
Myctophum coppa x - x - - x -
Physiculus sp. - - x - - - -
Gadiculus labiatus x -   - - - -
Grammonus sp. - - x - - - -
Hoplostethus cf. mediterraneus - - - x - - -
Argyrosomus sp. - - x - - - -
“Trewasciaena” sp. x x x - x - -
Sciaenidarum sp. nov. x x x x x x -
Lesueurigobius sp. x - x - x - -
AMPHIBIANS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Albanerpeton sp. x x x x x x x
Chelotriton sp. - - - x - - -
Lissotriton sp. - x - - - - -
Bufo gr. B. viridis - - - x - - x
Pelophylax sp. - - - - - x -
Rana s.l. - x x - - x -
Hyla gr. Hyla arborea x x x x - - x
Latonia sp. x x x x x x x
Pelobates sp. - - - x - - x
REPTILES MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Crocodylia indet. - - x - - - -
Testudo sp. x - x - - - -
Mauremys sp. x - - - - - -
cf. Euleptes sp. - - x - - - x
Agamidae indet. x x x x - - x
non- Anguis Anguinae indet. x x x x x x x
cf. Lacerta sp. x x x x x x x
Amphisbaenia indet. - - x x - x -
Scolecophidia indet. x - - - - - -
Eryx sp. - - - - - - x
colubrines A - - - x - - -
colubrines B - - - x - - -
colubrines indet. x x x x   x x
Vipera sp. (Oriental group) - - - - x - x
BIRDS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Palaeortyx cf. gallica - - x x x x x
Coturnix sp. - - x x x x -
Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. x - x x x - -
Apodidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - x - - -
Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. - - - x - - -
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. x x x x x x x
Coliidae gen. et sp. indet. - - x - - - -
Piciformes indet. - - x - - x -
Corvidae gen. et sp., indet. - - - x - - -
Passeriformes indet. large - - - x - - x
Passeriformes indet. middle - x x x x x x
Passeriformes indet. small - x x x x x x
MAMMALS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Tapirus arvernensis x - - - - - -
Dihoplus schleiermacheri x - - x - - x
Dicoryphochoerini - - - - - - x
Euprox sp x - x x x x x
Pliocervus sp. x - x x x - x
aff. Palaeomeryx - - - - - x x
Gazella aff. G. pilgrimi - - x - - x -
Euarctos pyrenaicus - - - - - - x
Viverridae gen. et sp. indet. x   x - - - -
Pristifelis attica - - x - - - x
Pantherinae indet. x - x - - - x
Baranogale cf. helbingi - - x - - - -
Mesopithecus pentelicus x - - - - - -
cf. Macaca x - - - - - -
Chiroptera indet. sp. 1 x x x x x x x
Chiroptera indet. sp. 2 - - - x - - -
Parasorex aff. ibericus x x x x x x x
Talpa sp. x x x x x x x
Neomyiini indet. x x x x x x x
Patenyia cf. hungarica - x x - - x -
Castorinae indet. x - - - - - -
Hystrix depereti - - x - - - -
Neocricetodon magnus x x x x x x x
Apodemus atavus x x x x x x x
Apodemus gudrunae x x x x x x x
Centralomys benericettii x x x x x x x
Micromys bendai x x x x x x x
Occitanomys brailloni x x x x x x x
Paraethomys meini x x x x x x x
Stephanomys sp. x - x - - - -
Muscardinus vireti x x x x x x x
Glis minor x x x x x x x
Glirulus lissiensis - - - x x x x
Eliomys yevesi - x x x x x x
Sciurus warthae - x - x - x -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica - - - x - - -
Hylopetes hungaricus x - - - - - -
Sciurinae indet. - - - - - x -
Prolagus sorbinii x x x x x x x
Leporidae indet. - - x - x - -

APPENDIX 3.

Number of specimens (valves) of bivalves from Moncucco Torinese.

Taxon Fossil assemblages
  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Euxinicardium subodessae - - 3 1 - - 3
Pachydacna (Parapachydacna) sp. - - 1 1 - 2 6
Pontalmyra bollenensis - 3 31 3 - 25 38
Pontalmyra cf. bollenensis - 6 10 - - - 2
Pontalmyra cf. incerta chiae 6 11 22 5 - 4 9
Pontalmyra partschi - - - - - - 1
Pontalmyra cf. partschi 10 20 151 22 17 43 105
Pontalmyra sp. - - - - - - 2
Prosodacnomya sabbae - - 3 1 - 2 3
Pseudocatillus nevesskayae - 2 2 - - 5 1
Pseudocatillus sp. - - - - - - 5
cf. Pseudocatillus sp. - - 1 - - - -
Lymnocardiinae gen. et sp. indet. - 1 - - - - -
Dreissena ex gr. rostriformis 41 75 499 55 89 112 104
Pisidium sp. - - - - - 1 4

APPENDIX 4.

Osteometrics and odontometrics (mm) of the measurable fossil specimens of perissodactyls, artiodactyls and carnivorans from Moncucco Torinese. Measures were taken following Von den Driesch (1976).

Dihoplus schleiermacheri

    L B H Labs Lanat
MGPT-PU 127005 left M2 52 53.4? - - -
MGPT-PU 127004 left M3 - 55.3 - 61 57.8
MGPT-PU 130524 small cuneiform - - 23 - -

Tapirus arvernensis

    L B BP
MGPT-PU 127001 right m1 20 15 -
MGPT-PU 130549 m2 20 20 -
MGPT-PU 130517 III Mt - - 22.4?

Euprox sp.

    L B H BP DP DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130664 right C - - - - - 13? 5
MGPT-PU 130526 left C - - - - - 6.6 3
MGPT-PU 130675 left d3 7.4 3.6 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130670 right M1 11 13 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130548 right M1 10 12 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130665 right M1 11 13 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130666 left M1 11 14 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130565 left M1 9 10 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130668 left M2 13 14 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130672 right p2 5.1 3 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130671 left p3 7.7 3.8 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130674 left p4 - 5.5 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130521 right radius - - - 23 14 - -
MGPT-PU 130530 right radius - - - 19 10 - -
MGPT-PU 130667 right naviculocuboid - - 15 - - 14 18

Pliocervus sp .

    Lped PAD PTW DAD DTW
MGPT-PU 130574 left antler 32.6 14.7 15.4 18.2 17

Pliocervus sp.

      L B
MGPT-PU 130569 left maxillary D3 12.7 8.8
D4 12.3 -
MGPT-PU 130660   right P2 9.7 8.6
MGPT-PU 130663   right P2 10.9 8.2
MGPT-PU 130662   right P3 10.6 10.2
MGPT-PU 130661   left P4 8.0 10.7
MGPT-PU 130570   left M1 12.3 13.7
MGPT-PU 130566   right M2 12.8 15.0
MGPT-PU 130567   left M2 13.3 14.5
MGPT-PU 130659   right M3 12.6 14.9
MGPT-PU 127008 right mandible p2 7.8 4.4
p3 11.1 6.7
p4 10.8 7.4
m1 13 8.9
m2 14 9.7
m3 21.9? 9.4
MGPT-PU 130563 right mandible m1 12.2 8.0
m2 13.8 9.1
MGPT-PU 127023   left p3 10 16.9

Pliocervus sp.

    L B H LC DC BT Lprox Ldist Lsole LL ML BP Bpa DP DL DM BS DS BD DD DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130657 right humerus - - - - - 24.7 - - - - - - - - - - - - 27.5 26.0 - -
MGPT-PU 130523 right humerus - - - - - 27.9? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130656 left femur - - - 19.3 13.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130557 right femur - - - 16 13.8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 127011 right astragalus 32 - - - - - - - - 32 28.7 19.4 17.3 - 16.9 17 - - 19.6 15.4 - -
MGPT-PU 130553 right astragalus 30 - - - - - - - - 30 27.9 18.2 16.4 - 16.5 15.6 - - 17.9 13.7 - -
MGPT-PU 130513 left calcaneum 62.7 21.3 - - - - 43.4 21.9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130525 right calcaneum - 22 23.3 - - - - 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 127006 left naviculocuboid - - 20.9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21.1 25.5
MGPT-PU 127012 left naviculocuboid - - 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 25
MGPT-PU 130556 left I cuneiform - - 6.6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12.5 9.5
MGPT-PU 127010 right Mt 183? - - - - - - - - - - 21.9 - 20.1 - - 13.9 14.9 23.6 15.4 - -
MGPT-PU 127013 III phalanx - - - - - - - - 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - -

aff. Palaeomeryx

    L B
MGPT-PU 130658 left P4 18 21
MGPT-PU 127009 left tibia - -

Gazella aff. pilgrimi

      L B
MGPT-PU 130655   left C 13.7 11
MGPT-PU 127007 left mandible p3 10.3 7.1
p4 10.5 7.5
m1 12.8 8.7
m2 15.2 11
m3 23.5 11
premolar length 27.2? -
toothrow length 76.3? -

Viverridae gen. et sp. indet.

      L B H BT BP DP BS DS BD BDa DD DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130563 left maxillary P3 14 9.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
P4 9.6 5.7 - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130546 skull P4 14.6 9.5 - - - - - - - - - - -
M1 8.7 11.7? - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130652   left I3 - - - - - - - - - - - 4.6 4.5
MGPT-PU 130550   right C - - - - - - - - - - - 6.9 5.3
MGPT-PU 130551   P 9.1 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130573   left C - - - - - - - - - - - 7.1 5.1
MGPT-PU 130654   right p4 - 5.6 - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130505   left humerus - - - 16.1 - - - - 19.1? - 13.3 - -
MGPT-PU 130572   left radius - - - - - - - - 16.1 - 12.2 - -
MGPT-PU 130512   right III Mc 39.1 - - - 7.8 7.9 4.6 3.8 8.0 6.7 6.4 - -
MGPT-PU 130503   left cuboid - - 12.5 - - - - - - - - 9.0 10.3

Pristifelis attica

    L BP DP BS DS BD BDa DD
MGPT-PU 130541 right IV Mc 33.2 5 7 4 4 8 6.6 6

Pantherinae gen. et sp. indet.

      BP DP BS DS BD DD DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130545 left premaxilla I1 - - - - - - 4 3
I3 - - - - - - 6.3 6
MGPT-PU 130543 right V Mc - 12 17 9 9 - - - -
MGPT-PU 130518 right tibia - - - - - 38 24.8 - -

Baranogale cf. helbingi

    L B
MGPT-PU 136483 left M1 2.89 5.74

APPENDIX 5.

Number of identified specimens (NISP) of small mammals (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia and Lagomorpha) from Moncucco Torinese. Chiropterans excluded.

  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 TOTAL
Parasorex aff. ibericus 4 1 46 47 22 9 129
Talpa sp. 5 3 3 15 4 3 33
Neomyiini indet. 6 9 44 37 22 26 144
Patenyia cf. hungarica 0 1 1 0 0 2 4
Castorinae indet 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Hystrix depereti 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Neocricetodon magnus 3 3 9 12 2 6 35
Apodemus atavus 17 13 47 24 19 16 136
Apodemus gudrunae 53 44 243 118 83 79 620
Centralomys benericettii 21 17 103 61 67 87 356
Micromys bendai 6 3 18 15 16 29 87
Occitanomys brailloni 61 50 295 168 120 95 789
Paraethomys meini 19 21 143 85 73 72 413
Stephanomys sp. 1 0 4 0 0 0 5
Muscardinus vireti 11 18 74 47 46 35 231
Glis minor 7 6 15 14 14 5 61
Glirulus lissiensis 0 0 0 2 1 1 4
Eliomys yevesi 0 2 6 1 3 7 19
Sciurus warthae 0 1 0 2 0 2 5
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Hylopetes hungaricus 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Sciurinae indet. 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Prolagus sorbinii 41 43 205 135 111 68 603
Leporidae indet. 0 0 5 0 1 0 6
TOTAL 257 235 1262 784 604 543 3685

APPENDIX 6.

Small mammals (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia and Lagomorpha) from Moncucco Torinese based on nNISP (normalized Number of Identified Specimens; see Material and methods for further details). Chiropterans excluded.

  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7
Parasorex aff. ibericus 0.095 0.024 1.095 1.119 0.524 0.214
Talpa sp. 0.109 0.065 0.065 0.326 0.087 0.065
Neomyiini indet. 0.300 0.450 2.200 1.850 1.100 1.300
Patenyia cf. hungarica 0.000 0.050 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.100
Castorinae indet. 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hystrix depereti 0.000 0.000 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.000
Neocricetodon magnus 0.250 0.250 0.750 1.000 0.167 0.500
Apodemus atavus 1.417 1.083 3.917 2.000 1.583 1.333
Apodemus gudrunae 4.417 3.667 20.250 9.833 6.917 6.583
Centralomys benericettii 1.750 1.417 8.583 5.083 5.583 7.250
Micromys bendai 0.500 0.250 1.500 1.250 1.333 2.417
Occitanomys brailloni 5.083 4.167 24.583 14.000 10.000 7.917
Paraethomys meini 1.583 1.750 11.917 7.083 6.083 6.000
Stephanomys sp. 0.083 0.000 0.333 0.000 0.000 0.000
Muscardinus vireti 0.688 1.125 4.625 2.938 2.875 2.188
Glis minor 0.438 0.375 0.938 0.875 0.875 0.313
Glirulus lissiensis 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.125 0.063 0.063
Eliomys yevesi 0.000 0.125 0.375 0.063 0.188 0.438
Sciurus warthae 0.000 0.063 0.000 0.125 0.000 0.125
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.063 0.000 0.000
Hylopetes hungaricus 0.063 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Sciurinae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.063
Prolagus sorbinii 1.708 1.792 8.542 5.625 4.625 2.833
Leporidae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.192 0.000 0.038 0.000

APPENDIX 7.

Relative abundances of small mammal taxa (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia and Lagomorpha) from Moncucco Torinese based on nNISP and distribution of their habitat requirements used to calculate variation of the habitat spectrum of Moncucco Torinese. Chiropterans excluded. Further details in Material and methods. See also Blain et al. (2008) and Piñero et al. (2015).

  Relative Abundances (based on nNISP) Distribution of habitat requirements (see Piñero et al., 2015)
  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 Closed canopy forests Woodlands / bushlands Grass lands Rocky outcrops Sandy/soft substrate Water edges Unknown / eurytopic
Parasorex aff. ibericus 0.005 0.001 0.012 0.021 0.013 0.005 - - - - - - 1
Talpa sp. 0.006 0.004 0.001 0.006 0.002 0.002 - - - - 1 - -
Neomyiini indet. 0.016 0.027 0.025 0.035 0.026 0.033 - - - - - 1 -
Patenyia cf. hungarica 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.003 - - - - - - 1
Castorinae indet. 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - - - - 1  
Hystrix depereti 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - - - - - 1
Neocricetodon magnus 0.014 0.015 0.008 0.019 0.004 0.013 - - - - - - 1
Apodemus atavus 0.077 0.066 0.044 0.038 0.038 0.034 0.5 0.5 - - - - -
Apodemus gudrunae 0.240 0.222 0.227 0.186 0.166 0.167 - 0.5 - 0.5 - - -
Centralomys benericettii 0.095 0.086 0.096 0.096 0.134 0.184 - 0.5 0.5 - - - -
Micromys bendai 0.027 0.015 0.017 0.024 0.032 0.061 - - 1 - - - -
Occitanomys brailloni 0.276 0.252 0.275 0.265 0.240 0.201 - 1 - - - - -
Paraethomys meini 0.086 0.106 0.133 0.134 0.146 0.152 - 0.5 0.5 - - - -
Stephanomys sp. 0.005 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - - - - - 1
Muscardinus vireti 0.037 0.068 0.052 0.056 0.069 0.055 0.5 0.5 - - - - -
Glis minor 0.024 0.023 0.010 0.017 0.021 0.008 1 - - - - - -
Glirulus lissiensis 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.002 1 - - - - - -
Eliomys yevesi 0.000 0.008 0.004 0.001 0.004 0.011  - 0.5 - 0.5 - - -
Sciurus warthae 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.003 1 - - - - - -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 1 - - - - - -
Hylopetes hungaricus 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 - - - - - -
Sciurinae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 1 - - - - - -
Prolagus sorbinii 0.086 0.100 0.088 0.098 0.102 0.066 - - - - - - 1
Leporidae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.000 - - - - - - 1

APPENDIX 8.

Values of beta coefficients figured in Figure 17 and their statistical significance assessed by computing Wald Chi-square tests (small characters below the value of the coefficient) of the binary logistic regression models estimating the log odds of finding a murid species at Moncucco Torinese with MCC3 as reference variable.

  Constant MCC3_4 MCC4 MCC4_5 MCC5 MCC7
Apodemus atavus -2.2481 -0.0922 -0.5938 -0.6764 -0.6907 -0.8709
  <.0001 0.8115 0.0448 0.0404 0.0466 0.0158
Apodemus gudrunae -0.858 -0.002 -0.062 -0.238 -0.410 -0.473
  <.0001 0.993 0.730 0.224 0.046 0.022
Centralomys benericettii -2.012 -0.030 0.026 0.106 0.477 0.804
  <.0001 0.931 0.918 0.693 0.076 0.002
Micromys bendai -3.356 -0.522 -0.481 -0.059 0.237 0.868
  <.0001 0.466 0.315 0.905 0.627 0.058
Occitanomys brailloni -0.651 -0.022 0.014 0.062 -0.114 -0.440
  <.0001 0.927 0.936 0.739 0.554 0.026
Paraethomys meini -2.125 0.325 0.522 0.611 0.695 0.678
  <.0001 0.337 0.044 0.024 0.012 0.014
Stephanomys sp. -5.176 -12.001 -0.182 -12.001 -12.001 -12.001
  <.0001 0.978 0.871 0.961 0.965 0.965

APPENDIX 9

Frequencies of different habitat systems in each fossil assemblage of Moncucco Torinese (see Figure 18). According to the Habitat Weightings Method (Blain et al., 2008), the values are based on the small mammal relative abundances within each fossil assemblage and on their habitat preference as indicated in Appendix 7. See also Material and methods.

  Forests Woodlands/ Bushlands Grasslands Rocky outcrops Sandy/soft substrate Water edges Unknown/ eurytopic
MCC3 0.084 0.544 0.118 0.120 0.006 0.019 0.109
MCC3/4 0.093 0.530 0.111 0.115 0.004 0.027 0.120
MCC4 0.058 0.553 0.132 0.115 0.001 0.025 0.116
MCC4/5 0.069 0.520 0.139 0.093 0.006 0.035 0.138
MCC5 0.076 0.519 0.172 0.085 0.002 0.026 0.120
MC7 0.059 0.502 0.229 0.089 0.002 0.033 0.087

APPENDIX 10.

Values of the CRI (Climatic Restriction Index) of each rodent species in each climatic zones and bioclimatic characterization of Moncucco Torinese according to the methods of Hernández Fernández (2001), Hernández Fernández and Peláez-Campomanes (2003) and Hernández Fernández et al. (2007) with modifications (see material and methods). Following Hernández Fernández et al. (2007), the climate zone and the main vegetational types (in brackets) are defined as follows: I: Equatorial (Evergreen tropical rainforests); II: Tropical with summer rains (Tropical deciduous forests); II/III: Transition tropical semiarid (savannah-like); III: Subtropical arid (subtropical desert); IV: Subtropical with winter rains and summer drought/Mediterranean (Sclerophyllous woodland-shrubland); V: Warm-temperate (Temperate evergreen forests); VI: Typical temperate (Nemoral broadleaf-deciduous forest); VII: Arid-temperate (Steppe to cold desert); VIII: Cold Temperate/boreal (Boreal coniferous forest/taiga); IX: Polar (tundra).

  I II II/III III IV V VI VII VIII IX
Castorinae indet. - - - - 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.200 -
Hystrix depereti 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 - 0.143 - -
Neocricetodon magnus - - - - 0.333 - 0.333 0.333 - -
Apodemus atavus - - - - 0.250 - 0.250 0.250 0.250 -
Apodemus gudrunae - - - - 1.000 - - - - -
Centralomys benericettii - 0.333 0.333 - 0.333 - - - - -
Micromys bendai - - - - - - 0.500 - 0.500 -
Occitanomys brailloni - 1.000 - - - - - - - -
Paraethomys meini - 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 - - - - -
Stephanomys sp. - 0.333 0.333   0.333 - - - - -
Muscardinus vireti - - - - 0.500 - 0.500 - - -
Glis minor - - - - 0.500 - 0.500 - - -
Glirulus lissiensis - - - - - 1.000 - - - -
Eliomys yevesi - -   - 0.500 - 0.500 - - -
Sciurus warthae - - - - 0.333 - 0.333 - 0.333 -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0.200 0.200 - - - 0.200 0.200 - 0.200 -
Hylopetes hungaricus 1.000 - - - - - - - - -
Sciurinae indet. 0.167 0.167 - - 0.167 0.167 0.167 - 0.167 -
Bioclimatic spectrum 8.386 13.479 5.886 2.183 26.905 9.497 19.352 5.146 9.167 0.000