TABLE 1. List of anatomical elements recovered from the individual of Crocuta spelaea from Los Aprendices. L left. R right. NR, number of remains; NISP, number of identified remains; MNE: minimum number of elements.

Elements   MNE NISP NR
Cranium   1 12 12
Mandible R 1 1 1
Mandible L 1 3 3
Axis   1 4 4
Cervical V.   5 9 9
Thoracic V.   7 26 26
Lumbar V.   4 8 8
Ribs   10 29 29
Scapula L 1 2 2
Scapula R 1 2 2
Humerus R 1 2 2
Ulna L 1 2 2
Ulna R 1 4 4
Radius R 1 3 3
Scapholunate R 1 1 1
Capitate R 1 1 1
Unciform R 1 1 1
Capitate L 1 1 1
Pisiform R 1 1 1
Mtc II R 1 1 1
Mtc III R 1 1 1
Mtc IV R 1 1 1
Mtc V R 1 1 1
Mtc II L 1 1 1
Mtc III L 1 1 1
Mtc IV L 1 1 1
Mtc V L 1 1 1
Femur R 1 10 10
Tibia R 1 2 2
Tibia L 1 1 1
Talus R 1 1 1
Calcaneus L 1 1 1
Calcaneus R 1 2 2
Cuboid L 1 1 1
Cuboid R 1 1 1
Pyramidal R 1 1 1
Scaphoid R 1 1 1
Scaphoid L 1 1 1
Cuneiform R 1 1 1
Cuneiform L 1 1 1
Mt II R 1 1 1
Mtt III R 1 1 1
Mtt IV R 1 1 1
Mtt V R 1 1 1
Mt II L 1 1 1
Mtt III L 1 1 1
Mtt IV L 1 1 1
Mtt V L 1 1 1
1st phalanx   12 16 16
2nd phalanx   8 9 9
3rd phalanx   4 4 4
Sesamoids   13 13 13
    107 194 194

 

TABLE 2. Overview of NR, number of remains; NISP, number of identified remains; MNE, minimum number of elements; MNI, minimum number of individuals and the distribution by age of the fossils from Los Aprendices.

          MNI by ages
Taxa NR NISP MNE MNI neonate adult
Capra pyrenaica 15 15 13 2 1 1
Crocuta spelaea 194 194 107 1   1
Unidentified (>4cm) 8          
Total 217 209 120 3 1 2

 

TABLE 3. Cave hyena remains (NISP) affected by carnivore bites in the skeleton of Crocuta spelaea from Los Aprendices.

  NISP Modified NISP % Modified
Axial skeleton 96 11 11.5
Zeugopod-stylopod 24 6 25
Autopod 71 3 4.2
Total 191 20 10.5

 

TABLE 4. Number of cave hyena remains (NISP) affected by different types of bites in the skeleton of Crocuta spelaea from Los Aprendices.

  "Groove" "Pit" "Puncture" Crenulated edge Impact point "Furrowing" "Scoping out"
Cervical V.           2  
Thoracic V.           1  
Lumbar V.   3   2   1  
Indet. V.   1 1 1 1 2  
Scapula     1     1  
Ribs   1 1 2   2  
Humerus 1 1 1   1   1
Ulna   1 1   1 2  
Femur 1         1  
Tibia 1 1 2     1 1
Tarsal 1         1  
Phalanx           2  
NISP 4 8 7 5 3 16 2

 

TABLE 5. Measurements of the “pits”, “punctures” and grooves found in the skeleton of Crocuta spelaea from Los Aprendices. Abbreviations: min, minimum; max, maximum; σ, standard deviation; n, sample size; L, length; W, width.

  Pits in
cancellous bone
Punctures in
cancellous bone
"Pits" & "punctures" in cancellous bone Grooves in cancellous bone
  Width Length L/W Width Length L/W Width Length L/W Width Length
Mean 2.38 3.21 1.35 3.61 4.49 1.2 2.91 3.77 1.31 1.6 5.7
σ 0.76 1.27 1.67 1.32 1.46 1.1 1.14 1.46 0.26 0.57 1.48
Min. 1.49 1.59 1.07 2.19 3.33 1.5 1.49 1.59 0.92 1.01 3.66
Max. 3.35 5.16 1.54 6.4 7.42 1.2 6.4 7.42 1.73 2.33 7.55
n 9 9   7 7   17 16 16 8 8

 

TABLE 6. Regression equations used for estimating the body mass of Crocuta spelaea and estimates of size obtained with them for the living hyenas modified of Pamlqvit et al., 2011. Deviations between estimated and actual masses for extant species [(mass estimate)/mass*100] are shown between brackets. Abbreviations: X, mean; min, minimum; max: maximum; BM, body mass; SKL, skull length; Lm1, lower carnassial length; HL, humerus length; FL, femur length.

References Equation Los Aprendices Crocuta spelaea   Crocuta crocuta
(55 kg)
  Pachycrocuta brevirostris
N X min max   N    
Van Valkenburgh, 1990 log10 (BM)= 3.13log10 (SKL) - 5.59 145.6 22 140 107.2 173.1   72 63 (14.5%)   176
  log10 (BM)= 2.72log10 (Lm1) - 2.03 135.6 177 112.6 73 165     62 (12.7%)   92
Anyonge, 1993 log10 (BM)= 2.93log10 (HL) - 5.11   19 75.3 58.9 93.5   28 54 (-1.9%)   115
  log10 (BM)= 2.92log10 (FL) - 5.27 67.5 15 69.7 57.1 86.6     52 (-5.5%)   86
Christiansen, 1999 log10 (BM)= 2.88log10 (HL) - 5.15   19 65.7 51.65 81.3   30 48 (-12.7%)   89
  log10 (BM)= 2.86log10 (FL) - 5.15 63.6 15 65.6 54 81.2   199 49 (-10.9%)   80
Andersson, 2004 log10 (BM)= 2.55log10 (TC) - 0.6               62 (12.7%)   110
Average   103   88.15         56 (1.8%)   108