APPENDIX 1.

Abundance, racemization relations of aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid (Glu), serine (Ser) and age of the samples from Los Aprendices. D: dextro; L :levo; ka: kilo annum; mg: milligram; pmol: picomol. All appendix files are available at the website as zipped spreadsheet files.

APPENDIX 2.

Cranial measurements (in mm) of cave hyena from the Iberian Peninsula compared to other European individuals and extant individuals. Abbreviations: L, Length; H, height; W, width; Ap, Los Aprendices; Ga, Gabasa; Fo, Fontainhas; Ga, Gargas; Ch, Châtillon Saint Jean; Ja, Jaurens; Bi, Binagady; Jav, Javorka Cave; Sl, Sloup Cave; Ka, kazanka; Mo, Mosbach; LV, Lunel-Viel; TDW, Atapuerca Trinchera Dolina, extant Crocuta crocuta ; A, Blasco and Montes, 1997; b, Cardoso, 1993; c, J.M.-M personal commun., 2015; d, Baryshnikov, 2014; e, Bonifay, 1971; f, García, 2003; g, Baryshnikov and Tsoukala, 2010. Note:? denotes uncertainity in the measure due to a fracture in the bone. All appendix files are available at the website as zipped spreadsheet files.

APPENDIX 3.

Upper dentition measurements (in mm) of Los Aprendices Crocuta spelaea compared to other fossil hyenas and extant Crocuta crocuta. Abbreviations: X: mean; min; minimum; max: maximum; DMD, Mesiodistal diameter; DVL, vestibulo-lingual diameter; Ko, Kobaederra;Fo, Fontainhas; Ag, Aguilón; Ka, Kazanka; Mo, Mosbach; a, Altuna and Mariezkurrena , 2000; b, Castaños, 1987; c, Blasco and Montes, 1997; d, Iñigo et al., 1998; e, Cardoso, 1993; f, J.M.-M and personal commun., 2015; g, García, 2001; h, Bonifay, 1971; I, Kurtén and Poulianos, 1981; j, Kurtén, 1962; k, Schütt, 1971; l, Baryshnikov, 2014; m, Turner, 1984; n, Hollister, 1918. All appendix files are available at the website as zipped spreadsheet files.

APPENDIX 4.

Mandible measurements (in mm) of Los Aprendices Crocuta spelaea compared to other fossil hyenas and extant Crocuta crocuta. Abbreviations: X: mean; min; minimum; max: maximum; Hramus, mandibular ramus height; Hdiast, height of ramus below the diastema; Hm1, height of ramus below m1; Hp4, height of ramus below p4; H condyle md, height of mandibular condyle; W condyle md, width of the mandibular condyle; Ap, Los Aprendices; Ga, Gabasa; Va, Valdegoba; S.Ab, Sima de Abraham; Ca, Caldeirao; Gar, Gargas; Eh, Ehringsdorf; Te, Teixoneres; TR, Terrasses des Canyars; Ka, Kazanka; a, Blasco and Montes, 1997; b, García, 2001; c, Altuna and Mariezkurrena, 2000; d, Martínez-Sánchez et al., 2012 e, Davis, 2002; f, Cardoso, 1993; g, Rosell et al., 2012; h, Daura et al., 2013; i, Baryshnikov, 2014; j, Bonifay, 1971; k, J.M.-M personal commun., 2015. All appendix files are available at the website as zipped spreadsheet files.

APPENDIX 5.

Lower dentition (in mm) of Los Aprendices Crocuta spelaea compared to other fossil hyenas and extant Crocuta crocuta. Abbreviations: X: mean; min; minimum; max: maximum; DMD, Mesiodistal diameter; DVL, vestibulo-lingual diameter; Ap, Los Aprendices: L.K, Labeko Koba; S.I, Sima I; Bo, Bolinkoba; Ga, Gabasa; Fo, Fontainhas; Va, Valdegoba; C.B, Cueva del Búho; To, El Toll; Ol, Olopte B; C.O, Cova de l’Or; Mo, Mollet; Ata, Atapuerca; LV, Lunel-Viel; Pe, Petralona; Mos, Mosbach; Ka, Kazanka; a, Altuna and Mariezkurrena , 2000; b, Castaños, 1987; c, Blasco and Montes, 1997; d, Cardoso, 1993; e, García, 2001; f, Iñigo et al., 1998; g, J.M.-M personal commun., 2015; h, Bonifay, 1971; I, Kurtén and Poulianos, 1981; j, Schütt, 1971; l, Turner, 1984; m, Hollister, 1918. All appendix files are available at the website as zipped spreadsheet files.

APPENDIX 6.

Postcranial measurements (in mm) of Los Aprendices Crocuta spelaea compared to other fossil hyenas and extant Crocuta crocuta. Abbreviations: X: mean; min; minimum; max: maximum, Bd: Breadth of the distal end; Bp: Breadth of proximal end; BPC, Proximal articular surface breadth; DPA, Olecranic maximum depth; GB: Greatest breadth; GL: Greatest length; SD: smallest breadth of the diaphysis; Mtc: metacarpus; Mtt: metatarsus; 1st Pha: first phalanx; 2nd Pha: second phalanx; Ap, Los Aprendices; L.K, Labeko Koba; S.I, Sima I; Ga, Gabasa; To, El Toll; TD 8, Atapuerca Trinchera Dolina 8; LV, Lunel-Viel; A, Altuna and Mariezkurrena , 2000; b, Blasco and Montes, 1997; c, Castaños, 1987; d, García, 2001; e, J.M.-M personal communication., 2015; f, Cardoso, 1993; g, Bonifay, 1971; h, Ehrenberg, 1940. Note: ? denotes uncertainity in the measure due to a fracture in the bone. All appendix files are available at the website as zipped spreadsheet files.

APPENDIX 7.

Palaeontological and archaeological sites of the Iberian Peninsula with hyena remains. The numbers refer to the sites of Figure 1. Abbreviations: Context: A, archaeological; P, palaeontological. Chronology: P, Pleistocene; MP, Middle Pleistocene; ELP, Early Late Pleistocene; LP, Late Pleistocene; EH, Early Holocene; MPal, Middle Palaeolithic; EUPal, Early Upper Palaeolithic; UPal, Upper Palaeolithic; Ms, Mousterian; Chat, Chatelperronian; Per, Perigordian; Au, Aurignacian; Gr, Gravettian; So, Solutrean; Mg, Magdalenian; Az, Azilian. All appendix files are available at the website as zipped spreadsheet files.