FIGURE 1. Vienna Basin with geographic and stratigraphic position of localities (asterisks) (modified after Harzhauser et al., 2004, figures 1 and 2).

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FIGURE 2. Fossil remains of Eomellivora fricki (Pia, 1939) from Wien XII-Altmannsdorf and Gaiselberg. 1-4, Holotype NHMW 2016/0065/0001 from Wien XII-Altmannsdorf,left maxilla fragment, 1, lateral view, 2, occlusal view, 3, rostral view, 4, caudal view; 5-6, right maxilla fragment, 5, lateral view, 6, occlusal view; 7, fragment of the left zygomatic arch; 8, fragment of the left temporo-mandibular joint; 9-10, fragment with the right mastoid process (mp), the ventral part of the nuchal crest (nc), the external auditory meatus (eam), and part of the glenoid cavity (gc), 9, lateral view, 10, dorsal view; 11-14, NHMW 1977/1948/0130 right hemimandible from Gaiselberg. 11, lateral view, 12, medial view, 13, occlusal view, 14, ventral view. Scale bar equals 5 cm.

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FIGURE 3. Phylogenetic relationship of Eomellivora fricki within Eomellivora, and of some extinct Neogene mustelids and living carnivorans. Canis lupus is the outgroup. Searches were performed by means of the Branch and Bound and a Bootstrap analysis through 1000 replicates. A single tree is obtained (length 172 steps, consistency index (CI)=0.4593, retention index (RI)=0.5811). The numbers below nodes are Bremer indices, and the numbers above nodes are Bootstrap support percentages (only shown ≥ 50). Letters (A-K) indicated selected nodes. The synapomorphies for each node are reported in Table 4.

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FIGURE 4. Main comparative material of the upper dentition of species of Eomellivora considered in the present manuscript. 1, Holotype of Eomellivora fricki NHMW 2016/0065/0001 from Wien XII-Altmannsdorf (Austria), MN9; 2, Eomellivora piveteaui MNHN-TRQ-1005 from type locality Yassiören (Turkey), MN9; 3, Eomellivora piveteaui Bat-3´13.185 from Batallones (Spain), MN10; 4, Holotype of Eomellivora ursogulo PIN-No.268 from Grebeniki (Ukraine), MN11; 5, Lectotype of Eomellivora wimani PMU-M3692 from Shangyingou (China), MN12-13; 6, Paratype (M1) of Eomellivora hungarica MFGI-Ob-3831 from Polgárdi 2 (Hungary), MN13; 8, cast of the holotype of Eomellivora ursogulo NHMW 2016/0085/0001 from Grebeniki (Ukraine), MN11; 9, cast of the holotype of Ekorus ekakeran KNM-LT 23125 from Lothagan (Kenya), 7 m.y.a. 1-6, occlusal view, 7-9, lateral view. Scale bar equals 5 cm.

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FIGURE 5. Main comparative material of mandible and lower dentition of species of Eomellivora considered in this manuscript. 1-2, Eomellivora fricki NHMW 1977/1948/0130 from Gaiselberg (Austria), MN9. 1, lateral view, 2, occlusal view; 3-4, Eomellivora piveteaui Bat-3´13.230 from Batallones (Spain), MN10. 3, lateral view, 4, occlusal view; 5-6, Eomellivora wimani PMU-M3693 from Shangyingou (China), MN12-13 (same specimen as PMU-M3692). 5, lateral view, 6, occlusal view; 7-8, Holotype of Eomellivora ursogulo PIN-No.269a from Grebeniki (Ukraine), MN11. 7, lateral view, 8, occlusal view; 9-10, Holotype of Eomellivora hungarica MFGI-Ob-2676 from Polgárdi 2 (Hungary), MN13. 9, lateral view, 10, occlusal view. Scale bar equals 5 cm.

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FIGURE 6. Scatter diagrams of measurements (mm) of the dentition of Eomellivora and Ekorus ekakeran. 1, P4; 2, M1; 3, c; 4, p4; 5, m1; 6, m2. Sources: WXII (Wien XII-Altmannsdorf) present manuscript; GAI (Gaiselberg) present manuscript; SH (Shangyingou), and LI (Liuwangou), Zdansky (1924); GRT (Gritsev), Wolsan and Semenov (1996); NO (Novaya Emetovka), Orlov (1948); GYÖ (Györszentmárton), Kretzoi (1965), KRF (Kern River Formation site 50), Stock and Hall (1933); CIM (Cimislia), Wolsan and Semenov (1996); YAS (Yassiören), Ozansoy (1965) and for P4 and M1, estimations based on pictures of MNHN-TRQ-1005, rather than the evidently confusing original data provided in Ozansoy (1965); WSS (Wissberg), Tobien (1955); RPI (Ravin de la Pluie), Koufos (2012); BAT (Batallones), Valenciano et al. (2015); LVF (Los Valles de Fuentidueña), Crusafont-Pairó and Ginsburg (1973) and for p2 Valenciano et al. (2015); KLF (Kalfa), Lungu (1978) and for M1 Valenciano et al. (2015); GRE (Grebeniki), Orlov (1948); CSA (Csákvár), Kretzoi (1942); POL (Polgárdi 2); LOT (Lothagam) Werdelin, 2003.

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