APPENDIX 1.

Descriptions of new dental characters employed in the phylogenetic analyses; some of them were modified from Bryant et al. (1993), Wolsan (1993), Baskin (2004) and Valenciano et al. (2015, 2016).

Characters and character states used in the phylogenetic analysis

(1) Posterior lacerate and jugular foramina: “fused” into a single foramen (0); tendency to separate openings with the jugular foramen distolateral to the posterior lacerate foramen (1).

(2) Shape of upper incisor row: parabolic (0); straight (1).

(3) Position of the infraorbital foramen: above P3 (0); above P4 parastyle (1).

(4) Incisive foramen: located at the level of C (0); located at the level of the diastema I3-C (1).

(5) Mastoid process: reduced, located in dorsal view in line with the middle point of the orbit (0); enlarged, located laterally exceeding to the orbit (1).

(6) Relative position of the mastoid and paroccipìtal processes: relatively close (0); mastoid process located mesially to the paroccipital process (1).

(7) Paroccipital process: not reduced (0); reduced (1).

(8) Height of the mandibular corpus: low and thin mandibular corpus (0); high and thick mandibular corpus (1).

(9) Orientation of the I3 cusp: spreaded out laterally (0); in line with the cusps of I1-2 (1).

(10) Orientation of Canine: spreaded out laterally, with an arrangement of the tip non parallel (0); ventrally directed, with a parallel arrangement of the tip (1).

(11) P1. Present (0); absent (1).

(12) P2. Mesiodistal axis of P2: in line with the tooth row (0); rotated buccolingually (1).

(13) P2. Distal accessory cusp: absent (0); present (1).

(14) P2. Occlusal shape: subrectangular (0); triangular (1).

(15) P2. Buccal wall: rectilinear (0); conspicuous concavity (1).

(16) P3. Robustness ratio [(maximum width/ maximum length) x 100]: slender P3 (less than 60) (0); Robust P3 (60 or more than 60) (1).

(17) P3. Mesial accessory cusp: reduced or absent (0); present (1).

(18) P3. Distal accessory cusp: present (0); absent (1).

(19) P3. Buccal wall: rectilinear wall (0); conspicuous concavity (1).

(20) P3. Basal cingulum: weak (0); strong (1).

(21) P4/3 length ratio. Maximum length of P4 in relation to maximum length of P3 ratio [(L P4/L P3) x 100]: less than 170 (0); more than 170 (1).

(22) P4. Robustness ratio [(maximum width/ maximum length) x 100]: slender P4 (less than 60) (0); robust P4 (more than 60) (1).

(23) P4 protocone: low (0); knoblike (1).

(24) P4. Protocone cingulum: weak or absent (0); prominent and complete (1).

(25) P4. Protocone: in front or anterior to the mesiobuccal corner (0); displaced distally (1).

(26) P4. Parastyle: Absent or weak (0); Strong and low (1); Strong and high (2).

(27) P4. Buccal wall: rectilinear (0); with a pronounced concavity between paracone and metastyle (1).

(28) P4. Basal cingulum surrounding the tooth: weak (0); strong (1).

(29) Relative size between maximum length of M1 and the maximum length of P4: M1 larger than or equal in size to P4 (values >100) (0); M1 smaller than P4 (values between 70-100) (1); M1 much smaller than P4 (values <70) (2).

(30) M1. Robustness ratio [(maximum width on the buccolingual area/ maximum length) x 100]: relatively robust M1 (from 130 to 150) (0); slender M1 (more than 160) (1), very slender M1 (more than 200) (2).

(31) M1. Stylar area: small (0); enlarged (1).

(32) M1. Metacone related to paracone: normal size (0); very reduced (1).

(33) M1. Metaconule: present (0); absent (1).

(34) M1. Enlargement of the distal base of the metaconule: present (0); absent (1).

(35) M1. Protocone position: mesolingually located (0); almost centrally on the middle of the talone (1).

(36) M1. Protocone shape: ridge-shaped (0); conical cusp-like shape (1).

(37) M1. Lingual platform: not completely enclose the protocone (0); completely enclose the protocone (1).

(38) M1. Length of the lingual wall: lesser than the buccal wall (unexpanded lingual platform) (0); longer than the buccal wall (moderately lingual platform) (1); much longer than the buccal wall (very expanded lingual platform) (2).

(39) M1. Lingual platform: oval shape (0); with a concavity in the middle point (1).

(40) p1. Present (0); absent (1).

(41) p2. Position of the mesiodistal axis of p2: in line with the tooth row (0); buccolingually rotated (1).

(42) p2. Distal accessory cuspid: absent (0); present (1).

(43) p2. Robustness ratio [(maximum width/ maximum length) x 100]: slender p2 (less than 50) (0); relatively robust p2 (from 50 to 70) (1); very robust p2 (more than 70) (2).

(44) p2 length compared to p3: p2 not reduced (0); p2 reduced (1).

(45) p2-4. Basal cingula with a mesial and distal thickened cristids: cingula and cristid weaks (0); complete and strong cingula and cristids (1).

(46) p3. Mesial accessory cuspid: absent (0); present (1).

(47) p3. Distal accessory cuspid: present (0); absent (1).

(48) p3. Distal thickened of p3: absent (0); present (1).

(49) p4. Length ratio in relation to m1 [(maximum length p4/ maximum length m1) x 100]: from 50 to 60, indicating a relatively not reduced p4 (0); more than 60, indicating a p4 relatively enlarged (1).

(50) p4. Mesial accesory cuspid: absent or poorly developed (0); present, well developed (1).

(51) p4. Distal accessory cuspid: High and well developed (0); low and reduced (1); Absent (2).

(52) p4. Backward inclination of the main cuspid: practically vertical (90º-80º) (0); with backward inclination (less than 80º) (1).

(53) p4, unworn principal cusp: equals or exceeds height of m1 paraconid (0); lower than m1 paraconid (1).

(54) p4. Distal area: not buccolingually thickened, oval shaped (0); buccolingually thickened, quadrangular shaped (1).

(55) p4. Lingual expansion or basal bulge: absent (0); present (1).

(56) m1. Height of protoconid in relation to paraconid: protoconid higher than paraconid (0); protoconid similar in height than the paraconid (1).

(57) m 1. Metaconid: individualized, with a moderate size (0); reduced (1); absent (2).

(58) m1. Relative length of talonid with respect the total m1 length: the talonid 1/3 of the total length (0); equal or less than 1/4 of the total length (1).

(59) m1. Width talonid ratio [(maximum talonid width/ maximum width in the base of the protoconid-metaconid) x 100]: talonid not widened (values between 85-100) (0); reduced talonid (< 85) (1).

(60) m1. Height of hypoconid: low (0); high (1).

(61) m1. Position of hypoconid: labially located (0); centrally positioned or almost centrally positioned (1).

(62) m1. Orientation of the hypoconid: almost vertical (0); orientated towards the protoconid (1).

(63) m1. Entoconid: individualized (0); transform in an entocristid (1); absent (2).

(64) m1 talonid: closed and deep basin (0); open and shallow basin with a low entocristid and a beveled lingual wall of the talonid (1); basin lost (2).

(65) m1. Shape of the hypoconid: pyramidal (0); trending to a crest-like shape (1).

(66) m1. Hypoconid size: medium (0); enlarged (1); reduced (2).

(67) m1. Hypoconulid: very reduced to absent (0); present not reduced (1).

(68) (39) m2. Present (0); absent (1).

(69) m2 paraconid: present (0); (1) very week or absent (1).

(70) m2. Metaconid: present (0); absent (1).

APPENDIX 2.

Character-taxon matrix used for phylogenetic analyses.

APPENDIX 3.

Character-taxon matrix in nexus format. (Available online in zipped format)