APPENDIX 1.

Element and specimen numbers for the reconstruction of Panthera atrox.

Specimen number Element
LACMP23-555 Skull
LACMP23-4819 R dentary
LACMP23-3874 C1
LACMP23-3944 C2
LACMP23-3794 C3
LACMP23-1243 C4
LACMP23-3857 C5
LACMP23-1193 C6
LACMP23-4434 C7
LACMP23-666 T1 (T2 replicated)
LACMP23-666 T2
LACMP23-3719 T3
LACMP23-3764 T4
LACMP23-3764 T5 (T4 replicated)
LACMP23-3765 T6
LACMP23-3765 T7 (T6 replicated)
LACMP23-3754 T8
LACMP23-3715 T9
LACMP2458-19 T10 (“skeleton 2”)
LACMP23-3722 T11
LACMP23-9667 T12
LACMP23-3781 T13
LACMP23-3875 L1
LACMP23-3879 L2
LACMP23-3894 L3
LACMP23-3919 L4
LACMP23-4027 L5
LACMP23-3887 L6
LACMP23-3924 L7
LACMP23-3927 Sacrum
LACMP23-3700 Right scapula
LACMP23-1111 Left humerus
LACMP23-693 Left radius
LACMP23-3694 Left ulna
LACMP23-8741 Right innominate
LACMP23-918 Left femur
LACMP23-3696 Left tibia
NMS.Z.2015.128 Ribs, tail, manus, pes

APPENDIX 2.

Scaling equations for the forelimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a) and calculated muscle belly lengths for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Serrat. vent. cerv. = m. serratus ventralis cervicus, Serrat. vent. thor. = m. serratus ventralis thoracis, Abd. dig. 1 = m. abductor digiti 1. Ext. = extensor, Flex. = flexor.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Latissimus dorsi 0.245 0.155 0.386 -0.757 0.646 0.400 1.374
Trapezius cervicis 0.447 0.168 1.19 -1.46 0.379 0.085 19.92
Trapezius thoracis 0.244 0.135 0.440 -1.13 0.275 0.154 0.783
Rhomboideus capitis 0.419 0.174 1.01 -1.34 0.428 0.116 9.804
Rhomboideus cervicis 0.340 0.147 0.782 -1.43 0.230 0.082 2.429
Rhomboideus thoracis 0.283 0.173 0.464 -1.35 0.204 0.113 0.538
Omotransversarius 0.250 0.201 0.312 -1.04 0.350 0.268 0.487
Cleidocephalicus 0.272 0.180 0.412 -1.02 0.405 0.248 0.853
Cleidobrachialis 0.299 0.238 0.376 -1.17 0.336 0.242 0.507
Serrat. Vent. Cerv. 0.244 0.186 0.321 -1.18 0.244 0.179 0.368
Serrat. Vent. Thor. 0.267 0.145 0.493 -1.24 0.240 0.125 0.801
Pectoralis superficialis 0.307 0.225 0.418 -1.14 0.372 0.241 0.674
Pectoralis profundus 0.395 0.236 0.663 -1.11 0.642 0.274 2.672
Supraspinatus 0.327 0.268 0.398 -1.22 0.344 0.252 0.505
Infraspinatus 0.265 0.194 0.363 -1.20 0.261 0.178 0.440
Deltoideus acromion 0.297 0.231 0.381 -1.42 0.184 0.130 0.289
Deltoideus spinous 0.267 0.245 0.292 -1.33 0.195 0.173 0.222
Teres major 0.286 0.232 0.353 -1.21 0.286 0.214 0.408
Subscapularis 0.279 0.213 0.365 -1.24 0.254 0.179 0.403
Teres minor 0.356 0.154 0.819 -1.87 0.091 0.031 1.076
Coracobrachialis 1.09 0.468 2.54 -2.72 0.644 0.023 1491
Triceps longus 0.417 0.173 1.005 -1.43 0.348 0.095 7.992
Triceps lateralis 0.249 0.198 0.313 -1.13 0.277 0.211 0.389
Triceps medius 0.277 0.199 0.385 -1.24 0.253 0.167 0.452
Triceps accessory 0.308 0.269 0.352 -1.26 0.281 0.229 0.357
Biceps brachi 0.259 0.214 0.315 -1.19 0.257 0.201 0.346
Brachialis 0.412 0.213 0.794 -1.48 0.297 0.103 2.279
Anconeus 0.301 0.225 0.404 -1.48 0.165 0.110 0.286
Ext. carpi radialis 0.305 0.224 0.415 -1.22 0.310 0.201 0.558
Ext. digitorum communis 0.296 0.134 0.653 -1.31 0.236 0.100 1.587
Ext. digitorum lateralis 0.575 0.270 1.23 -1.72 0.415 0.081 13.3
Ext. carpi ulnaris 0.287 0.195 0.423 -1.24 0.264 0.161 0.544
Flex. carpi ulnaris ulnar 0.264 0.162 0.432 -1.19 0.262 0.151 0.641
Flex. carpi ulnaris humeral 0.275 0.185 0.409 -1.17 0.295 0.182 0.604
Brachioradialis 1.37 0.676 2.77 -2.79 2.410 0.060 4289
Supinator 0.316 0.220 0.454 -1.57 0.147 0.088 0.307
Pronator teres 0.316 0.232 0.431 -1.40 0.216 0.138 0.398
Pronator quadratus 0.497 0.326 0.756 -1.75 0.254 0.102 1.014
Flex. carpi radialis 0.305 0.256 0.363 -1.29 0.259 0.199 0.353
Flex. digitorum complex 0.237 0.163 0.345 -1.10 0.284 0.191 0.505
Abd. Dig. 1 0.576 0.388 0.856 -1.71 0.418 0.153 1.859

APPENDIX 3.

Scaling equations for the forelimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a) and calculated tendon lengths for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Abd. dig. 1 = m. abductor digiti 1. Ext. = extensor, Flex. = flexor.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Cleidobrachialis 0.945 0.433 2.06 -3.04 0.140 0.009 54.70
Supraspinatus 0.719 0.032 16.2 -3.01 0.045 0.001 2.44x1034
Infraspinatus 1.18 0.751 1.84 -3.42 0.203 0.021 7.029
Deltoideus spinous 1.29 0.072 22.9 -3.92 0.113 0.000 1.21x1049
Teres major -0.687 -1.649 -0.286 -1.14 0.002 0.000 0.016
Subscapularis 0.350 0.199 0.614 -2.46 0.022 0.010 0.092
Triceps longus 0.727 0.420 1.26 -2.57 0.130 0.025 2.206
Triceps lateralis 1.03 0.387 2.77 -3.39 0.101 0.003 1029
Triceps medius 0.598 0.225 1.59 -2.25 0.136 0.019 26.37
Biceps brachi 0.289 0.168 0.497 -1.66 0.102 0.054 0.310
Brachialis 0.530 0.285 0.983 -2.46 0.059 0.016 0.658
Ext. carpi radialis 0.336 0.205 0.552 -1.57 0.163 0.081 0.515
Ext. digitorum communis -0.661 -1.580 -0.276 -0.313 0.014 0.000 0.111
Ext. digitorum lateralis 0.242 0.123 0.475 -1.332 0.169 0.090 0.588
Ext. carpi ulnaris 0.289 0.134 0.624 -1.457 0.163 0.071 0.977
Flex. carpi ulnaris ulnar -0.310 -0.823 -0.117 -0.964 0.021 0.001 0.058
Flex. carpi ulnaris humeral 0.534 0.111 2.575 -2.20 0.108 0.011 5765
Supinator -1.37 -8.50 -0.222 0.503 0.002 0.000 0.974
Pronator quadratus 0.552 0.154 1.987 -2.41 0.073 0.009 154.6
Flex. carpi radialis 0.212 0.088 0.511 -1.58 0.081 0.042 0.399
Flex. digitorum complex 0.262 0.151 0.456 -1.36 0.177 0.098 0.496
Abd. Dig. 1 0.691 0.365 1.308 -2.25 0.223 0.039 6.010

APPENDIX 4.

Scaling equations for the forelimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a) and calculated muscle belly masses for the mean, lower,and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Serrat. vent. cerv. = m. serratus ventralis cervicus, Serrat. vent. thor. = m. serratus ventralis thoracis, Abd. dig. 1 = m. abductor digiti 1. Ext. = extensor, Flex. = flexor.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Latissimus dorsi 1.12 0.993 1.26 -2.34 1.776 0.906 3.792
Trapezius cervicis 1.05 0.913 1.22 -3.08 0.229 0.108 0.543
Trapezius thoracis 1.07 0.867 1.32 -3.09 0.242 0.083 0.910
Rhomboideus capitis 1.27 0.877 1.84 -3.58 0.232 0.028 4.913
Rhomboideus cervicis 1.15 0.859 1.55 -3.02 0.444 0.093 3.618
Rhomboideus thoracis 1.07 0.734 1.57 -3.30 0.156 0.025 2.231
Omotransversarius 1.08 0.877 1.34 -3.28 0.169 0.056 0.656
Cleidocephalicus 1.18 0.874 1.58 -3.04 0.484 0.096 4.238
Cleidobrachialis 1.14 0.939 1.39 -2.94 0.509 0.171 1.915
Serrat. Vent. Cerv. 0.977 0.702 1.36 -2.55 0.523 0.121 4.027
Serrat. Vent. Thor. 0.949 0.779 1.16 -2.46 0.552 0.223 1.672
Pectoralis superficialis 1.22 0.917 1.63 -3.08 0.567 0.111 4.987
Pectoralis profundus 1.07 0.887 1.29 -2.20 1.923 0.720 6.290
Supraspinatus 1.02 0.844 1.23 -2.36 1.001 0.395 3.082
Infraspinatus 0.991 0.799 1.23 -2.45 0.699 0.251 2.491
Deltoideus acromion 1.04 0.881 1.24 -3.21 0.162 0.068 0.451
Deltoideus spinous 1.08 0.877 1.33 -3.22 0.190 0.064 0.725
Teres major 1.07 0.921 1.25 -2.74 0.554 0.246 1.429
Subscapularis 0.963 0.797 1.16 -2.41 0.670 0.276 1.959
Teres minor 0.982 0.796 1.21 -3.73 0.035 0.013 0.120
Coracobrachialis 1.55 0.734 3.26 -4.46 0.133 0.002 1233
Triceps longus 1.06 0.922 1.23 -2.27 1.562 0.732 3.744
Triceps lateralis 1.05 0.906 1.22 -2.67 0.582 0.270 1.417
Triceps medius 1.05 0.840 1.31 -3.14 0.197 0.064 0.804
Triceps accessory 0.968 0.758 1.23 -3.15 0.123 0.040 0.513
Biceps brachi 1.06 0.895 1.25 -2.73 0.531 0.223 1.485
Brachialis 1.00 0.652 1.54 -3.19 0.138 0.021 2.473
Anconeus 1.05 0.801 1.37 -3.57 0.072 0.019 0.404
Ext. carpi radialis 1.03 0.822 1.30 -3.09 0.201 0.065 0.828
Ext. digitorum communis 1.17 0.929 1.48 -3.45 0.186 0.051 0.945
Ext. digitorum lateralis 1.02 0.761 1.36 -3.63 0.054 0.014 0.300
Ext. carpi ulnaris 1.10 0.681 1.78 -3.66 0.077 0.008 2.868
Flex. carpi ulnaris ulnar 1.19 0.814 1.74 -3.61 0.139 0.019 2.628
Flex. carpi ulnaris humeral 1.10 0.933 1.30 -3.34 0.162 0.066 0.474
Brachioradialis 1.49 1.261 1.75 -4.11 0.218 0.065 0.900
Supinator 1.02 0.747 1.40 -3.77 0.039 0.009 0.292
Pronator teres 1.03 0.836 1.28 -3.29 0.128 0.044 0.476
Pronator quadratus 1.22 0.925 1.61 -3.98 0.071 0.015 0.574
Flex. carpi radialis 0.929 0.792 1.09 -3.39 0.058 0.028 0.138
Flex. digitorum complex 0.998 0.877 1.13 -2.61 0.499 0.262 1.038
Abd. Dig. 1 0.861 0.566 1.31 -3.41 0.039 0.008 0.425

APPENDIX 5.

Scaling equations for the forelimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a) and calculated tendon masses for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Abd. dig. 1 = m. abductor digiti 1, Ext. = extensor, Flex. = flexor.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Cleidobrachialis -2.71 -9.826 -0.748 0.836 0.000 0.000 0.127
Supraspinatus 0.651 0.087 4.88 -4.39 0.001 0.000 8.38x106
Infraspinatus 1.289 0.636 2.61 -4.40 0.038 0.001 44.46
Deltoideus spinous -0.349 -5.351 -0.023 -2.54 0.000 0.000 0.003
Teres major 0.621 0.376 1.027 -4.41 0.001 0.000 0.009
Triceps longus 0.852 0.431 1.68 -4.22 0.006 0.001 0.470
Triceps lateralis 1.02 0.627 1.65 -4.65 0.005 0.001 0.154
Triceps medius 1.70 0.772 3.75 -5.94 0.010 0.000 548.4
Biceps brachi 0.933 0.748 1.16 -4.10 0.012 0.004 0.040
Brachialis 0.943 0.495 1.80 -4.71 0.003 0.000 0.287
Ext. carpi radialis 0.915 0.765 1.09 -4.24 0.008 0.003 0.019
Ext. digitorum communis 1.44 0.970 2.12 -4.46 0.074 0.006 2.906
Ext. digitorum lateralis 0.958 0.722 1.27 -4.32 0.008 0.002 0.042
Ext. carpi ulnaris 0.833 0.455 1.52 -4.23 0.005 0.001 0.199
Flex. carpi ulnaris ulnar 1.16 0.743 1.82 -5.21 0.003 0.000 0.101
Flex. carpi ulnaris humeral 0.984 0.643 1.51 -5.08 0.002 0.000 0.026
Supinator 1.57 0.251 9.79 -6.08 0.004 0.000 4.09x106
Pronator quadratus 0.953 0.310 2.93 -4.58 0.004 0.000 162.0
Flex. carpi radialis 0.660 0.450 0.967 -4.28 0.002 0.001 0.009
Flex. digitorum complex 0.943 0.692 1.29 -3.24 0.087 0.023 0.541
Abd. Dig. 1 0.730 0.403 1.32 -4.24 0.003 0.000 0.066

APPENDIX 6.

Scaling equations for the hindlimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016b) and calculated muscle belly lengths for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Gastroc. = gastrocnemius, dig. = digitorum, supefic. = superficialis.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Biceps femoris 0.264 0.172 0.406 -0.988 0.420 0.257 0.895
Caudofemoralis 0.281 0.185 0.426 -1.079 0.373 0.223 0.811
Sartorius 0.327 0.258 0.414 -0.941 0.654 0.453 1.040
Tensor fascia latae 0.292 0.221 0.387 -1.398 0.190 0.130 0.315
Vastus lateralis 0.286 0.232 0.352 -1.072 0.389 0.293 0.553
Rectus femoris 0.366 0.204 0.658 -1.227 0.419 0.176 1.984
Vastus medius 0.268 0.210 0.342 -1.077 0.350 0.257 0.519
Vastus intermedius 0.554 0.264 1.164 -1.597 0.486 0.103 12.60
Semitendinosus 0.279 0.242 0.322 -0.980 0.464 0.381 0.583
Semimembranosus 0.564 0.270 1.178 -1.451 0.718 0.150 18.95
Gracilis 0.244 0.132 0.449 -1.155 0.257 0.142 0.770
Gluteus superficialis 0.321 0.213 0.484 -1.479 0.184 0.103 0.439
Gluteus medius 0.345 0.290 0.412 -1.405 0.249 0.185 0.354
Gluteus profundus 0.353 0.255 0.489 -1.454 0.231 0.137 0.476
Piriformis 0.167 0.101 0.276 -1.432 0.090 0.063 0.162
Gemelli 0.380 0.188 0.769 -1.693 0.154 0.055 1.226
Quadratus femoris 0.301 0.228 0.396 -1.600 0.125 0.085 0.208
Obturator externus 0.330 0.271 0.402 -1.671 0.124 0.091 0.182
Obturator internus 0.288 0.172 0.480 -1.595 0.118 0.064 0.329
Pectineus 0.455 0.234 0.883 -1.626 0.268 0.083 2.625
Adductor magnus 0.305 0.198 0.471 -1.114 0.392 0.221 0.900
Adductor brevis 0.310 0.175 0.551 -1.388 0.214 0.104 0.773
Iliacus 1.388 0.090 21.318 -3.465 0.564 0.001 8.35x104
Psoas major 0.384 0.256 0.575 -1.142 0.558 0.283 1.547
Psoas minor 0.318 0.201 0.504 -1.165 0.373 0.200 1.004
Gastroc. lateralis 0.327 0.219 0.490 -1.235 0.334 0.187 0.796
Gastroc. medius 0.262 0.216 0.317 -1.142 0.291 0.228 0.392
Superfic. dig. flexor 0.264 0.131 0.530 -1.144 0.293 0.145 1.211
Soleus 0.212 0.147 0.304 -1.061 0.268 0.191 0.439
Dig. extensor longus 0.265 0.150 0.468 -1.150 0.291 0.157 0.859
Tibialis cranialis 0.237 0.130 0.432 -1.095 0.284 0.160 0.800
Popliteus 0.375 0.266 0.530 -1.594 0.189 0.105 0.432
Dig. extensor lateralis 0.265 0.196 0.359 -1.282 0.215 0.149 0.354
Peroneus longus 0.236 0.145 0.383 -1.201 0.222 0.137 0.486
Peroneus brevis 0.192 0.112 0.330 -1.144 0.200 0.130 0.400
Deep digital flexor medial 0.307 0.196 0.480 -1.236 0.298 0.165 0.751
Deep digital flexor lateral 0.406 0.171 0.965 -1.430 0.324 0.092 6.383
Tibialis caudalis 0.413 0.256 0.666 -1.522 0.272 0.118 1.046

APPENDIX 7.

Scaling equations for the hindlimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016b) and calculated tendon lengths for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Gastroc. = gastrocnemius, Dig. = digitorum, Supefic. = superficialis.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Caudofemoralis 0.496 0.304 0.812 -1.612 0.345 0.123 1.854
Tensor fascia latae 0.330 0.160 0.679 -1.298 0.293 0.119 1.880
Rectus femoris 1.307 0.099 17.288 -3.216 0.650 0.001 6.86x103
Vastus medius 0.264 0.144 0.483 -2.155 0.029 0.015 0.092
Vastus intermedius -0.875 -20.805 -0.037 -0.659 0.002 0.000 0.180
Semitendinosus 0.440 0.230 0.841 -1.893 0.134 0.044 1.138
Semimembranosus 0.467 0.162 1.348 -2.446 0.043 0.008 4.746
Gracilis 0.558 0.093 3.355 -2.349 0.088 0.007 2.65x105
Gluteus profundus -0.604 -3.758 -0.097 -0.893 0.005 0.000 0.076
Piriformis 0.278 0.015 5.158 -2.279 0.023 0.006 4.69x109
Obturator internus 0.353 0.068 1.842 -1.924 0.078 0.017 220.4
Psoas major 0.074 0.003 1.689 -1.407 0.058 0.040 320.7
Psoas minor 0.182 0.035 0.937 -1.563 0.072 0.033 4.059
Gastroc. lateralis 0.208 0.102 0.424 -1.624 0.072 0.041 0.228
Gastroc. medius 0.470 0.235 0.939 -1.952 0.137 0.039 1.677
Superfic. dig. flexor 0.887 0.369 2.134 -2.483 0.373 0.023 289.5
Soleus 0.058 0.002 1.424 -1.749 0.024 0.018 35.43
Dig. extensor longus 0.445 0.188 1.051 -1.601 0.269 0.068 6.825
Tibialis cranialis 0.366 0.183 0.731 -1.803 0.111 0.042 0.777
Popliteus 0.564 0.075 4.223 -2.329 0.095 0.007 2.85x107
Dig. extensor lateralis 0.427 0.245 0.745 -1.484 0.320 0.121 1.747
Peroneus longus 0.331 0.148 0.738 -1.546 0.166 0.063 1.456
Peroneus brevis 0.648 0.239 1.753 -2.117 0.242 0.027 87.82
Deep digital flexor medial 0.336 0.148 0.760 -1.302 0.299 0.110 2.877
Deep digital flexor lateral 0.525 0.272 1.015 -1.550 0.465 0.120 6.322
Tibialis caudalis 0.313 0.132 0.740 -1.469 0.180 0.069 1.759

APPENDIX 8.

Scaling equations for the hindlimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016b) and calculated muscle belly masses for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Gastroc. = gastrocnemius, Dig. = digitorum, Supefic. = superficialis.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Biceps femoris 0.998 0.862 1.155 -2.124 1.537 0.745 3.553
Caudofemoralis 1.353 0.950 1.928 -3.423 0.515 0.060 11.03
Sartorius 1.090 0.956 1.242 -2.636 0.775 0.380 1.745
Tensor fascia latae 1.240 0.976 1.575 -3.138 0.542 0.133 3.236
Vastus lateralis 0.955 0.788 1.156 -2.228 0.962 0.396 2.815
Rectus femoris 0.964 0.841 1.103 -2.391 0.693 0.361 1.462
Vastus medius 0.924 0.732 1.165 -2.452 0.487 0.175 1.769
Vastus intermedius 0.796 0.650 0.976 -2.619 0.168 0.077 0.439
Semitendinosus 1.093 0.929 1.286 -2.697 0.684 0.285 1.915
Semimembranosus 1.061 0.789 1.428 -2.322 1.369 0.320 9.683
Gracilis 1.213 0.767 1.917 -3.082 0.534 0.050 22.90
Gluteus superficialis 1.053 0.832 1.334 -3.257 0.153 0.047 0.681
Gluteus medius 1.220 1.120 1.330 -2.800 1.063 0.622 1.905
Gluteus profundus 0.906 0.743 1.106 -3.147 0.090 0.037 0.261
Piriformis 0.828 0.630 1.087 -2.948 0.093 0.033 0.372
Gemelli 1.155 0.827 1.612 -3.510 0.146 0.025 1.675
Quadratus femoris 0.785 0.556 1.109 -3.160 0.046 0.013 0.256
Obturator externus 1.085 0.909 1.295 -3.288 0.168 0.066 0.516
Obturator internus 1.063 0.784 1.441 -3.214 0.178 0.040 1.331
Pectineus 0.903 0.635 1.285 -3.124 0.093 0.022 0.711
Adductor magnus 1.056 0.729 1.530 -2.374 1.181 0.206 14.8
Adductor brevis 0.878 0.547 1.409 -2.710 0.211 0.036 3.574
Iliacus 2.272 0.456 11.327 -5.532 0.538 0.000 5.12x102
Psoas major 1.172 0.849 1.619 -2.821 0.785 0.140 8.520
Psoas minor 1.098 0.801 1.505 -3.159 0.242 0.050 2.131
Gastroc. lateralis 0.923 0.721 1.181 -2.562 0.377 0.129 1.496
Gastroc. medius 0.874 0.737 1.036 -2.545 0.302 0.146 0.718
Superfic. dig. flexor 0.842 0.623 1.138 -2.876 0.119 0.037 0.575
Soleus 0.850 0.669 1.080 -2.880 0.123 0.047 0.419
Dig. extensor longus 0.902 0.527 1.544 -3.166 0.084 0.011 2.577
Tibialis cranialis 1.025 0.725 1.449 -3.046 0.213 0.043 2.00
Popliteus 0.846 0.683 1.048 -3.225 0.054 0.023 0.159
Dig. extensor lateralis 0.835 0.522 1.336 -3.518 0.026 0.005 0.378
Peroneus longus 1.324 0.768 2.283 -3.800 0.185 0.010 30.82
Peroneus brevis 0.912 0.600 1.387 -3.496 0.041 0.008 0.500
Deep digital flexor medial 1.038 0.726 1.485 -3.188 0.165 0.031 1.788
Deep digital flexor lateral 1.017 0.630 1.643 -3.220 0.137 0.017 3.865
Tibialis caudalis 1.263 0.961 1.660 -3.856 0.117 0.023 0.975

APPENDIX 9.

Scaling equations for the hindlimb muscles from Cuff et al. (2016b) and calculated tendon masses for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Gastroc. = gastrocnemius, Dig. = digitorum, Supefic. = superficialis.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Caudofemoralis 1.190 0.455 3.111 -4.484 0.019 0.000 527.3
Tensor fascia latae 0.964 0.690 1.347 -3.599 0.043 0.010 0.333
Rectus femoris 1.441 0.059 35.233 -4.439 0.079 0.000 1.53x1077
Vastus medius 1.029 0.621 1.704 -4.782 0.004 0.000 0.147
Vastus intermedius -0.488 -11.839 -0.020 -2.481 0.000 0.000 0.003
Semitendinosus 0.962 0.607 1.525 -4.575 0.005 0.001 0.091
Semimembranosus 0.750 0.419 1.342 -4.321 0.003 0.000 0.061
Gracilis 1.225 0.445 3.372 -4.638 0.016 0.000 1492
Gluteus profundus 0.574 0.176 1.876 -4.360 0.001 0.000 0.971
Piriformis 0.893 0.229 3.492 -4.675 0.002 0.000 2602
Obturator internus 1.035 0.127 8.421 -4.487 0.008 0.000 1.05x1015
Psoas major 1.725 1.080 2.756 -5.129 0.074 0.002 18.08
Psoas minor 0.756 0.212 2.692 -4.446 0.002 0.000 61.68
Gastroc. lateralis 1.014 0.642 1.601 -4.036 0.021 0.003 0.471
Gastroc. medius 0.973 0.547 1.729 -3.929 0.021 0.002 1.19
Superfic. dig. flexor 1.710 1.153 2.536 -4.468 0.311 0.016 25.49
Soleus 0.770 0.052 11.341 -4.509 0.002 0.000 5.82x1021
Dig. extensor longus 1.568 1.063 2.313 -4.610 0.105 0.007 5.61
Tibialis cranialis 1.010 0.666 1.532 -4.696 0.004 0.001 0.071
Popliteus 0.814 0.423 1.566 -4.388 0.003 0.000 0.174
Dig. extensor lateralis 0.829 0.595 1.155 -4.389 0.003 0.001 0.019
Peroneus longus 1.856 0.726 4.745 -5.506 0.062 0.000 3.06x105
Peroneus brevis 0.950 0.553 1.633 -4.589 0.004 0.000 0.156
Deep digital flexor medial 1.335 0.711 2.508 -4.300 0.062 0.002 32.40
Deep digital flexor lateral 1.035 0.659 1.625 -3.791 0.040 0.005 0.940
Tibialis caudalis 1.129 0.630 2.023 -4.585 0.011 0.001 1.266

APPENDIX 10.

Scaling equations for the vertebral muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a, 2016b) and calculated muscle belly lengths for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Longis. = longissimus, Iliocost. = iliocostalis, Multifid. = multifidus.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Rectus capitis 0.208 0.080 0.541 -1.43 0.112 0.057 0.662
Splenius cervicis 0.234 0.174 0.316 -0.946 0.395 0.286 0.610
Serratus dorsalis cranialis 0.239 0.079 0.719 -1.45 0.127 0.054 1.647
Serratus dorsalis caudalis 0.186 0.070 0.496 -1.50 0.085 0.046 0.444
Semispinalis capitis biventer 1.36 0.683 2.71 -2.55 4.009 0.108 5326
Semispinalis capitis complexus 0.336 0.162 0.700 -1.11 0.470 0.185 3.267
Spinalis cervicis 0.240 0.098 0.591 -1.06 0.314 0.147 2.040
Spinalis thoracis 0.309 0.252 0.380 -0.910 0.641 0.472 0.934
Longissimus capitis 0.287 0.130 0.633 -1.16 0.323 0.140 2.044
Longissimus cervicis 0.227 0.121 0.425 -0.920 0.405 0.230 1.163
Longissimus thoracis 0.340 0.208 0.556 -0.872 0.827 0.409 2.612
Iliocostalis thoracis 0.266 0.183 0.386 -0.809 0.640 0.412 1.215
Multifidis throacis 0.305 0.213 0.435 -0.852 0.713 0.439 1.429
Longis. lumborum 0.603 0.197 1.849 -1.403 0.987 0.113 758.5
Iliocost. lumborum 0.358 0.216 0.594 -1.030 0.630 0.295 2.217
Multifid. lumborum 0.319 0.166 0.613 -0.919 0.661 0.293 3.165

 

APPENDIX 11.

Scaling equations for the vertebral muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a, 2016b) and calculated tendon lengths for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Serratus dorsalis cranialis 1.35 0.217 8.42 -3.772 0.228 0.001 5.43x105
Serratus dorsalis caudalis -1.53 -6.001 -0.389 0.484 0.001 0.000 0.382

APPENDIX 12.

Scaling equations for the vertebral muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a, 2016b) and calculated muscle belly masses for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Rectus capitis 0.679 0.472 0.977 -2.58 0.098 0.032 0.480
Splenius cervicis 1.04 0.785 1.39 -2.86 0.366 0.092 2.31
Serratus dorsalis cranialis 1.00 0.523 1.93 -3.23 0.124 0.009 17.1
Serratus dorsalis caudalis 0.893 0.701 1.14 -3.17 0.080 0.029 0.294
Semispinalis capitis biventer 1.05 0.899 1.24 -2.93 0.325 0.143 0.9
Semispinalis capitis complexus 1.13 0.854 1.51 -3.12 0.325 0.073 2.38
Spinalis cervicis 0.992 0.532 1.85 -2.77 0.336 0.029 32.4
Spinalis thoracis 1.26 0.941 1.69 -2.98 0.877 0.160 8.52
Longissimus capitis 0.867 0.488 1.54 -3.21 0.064 0.008 2.32
Longissimus cervicis 0.673 0.338 1.34 -2.40 0.143 0.024 4.98
Longissimus thoracis 0.821 0.542 1.24 -1.94 0.916 0.207 8.76
Iliocostalis thoracis 0.899 0.743 1.09 -2.79 0.195 0.085 0.533
Multifidis throacis 0.893 0.784 1.02 -2.52 0.355 0.198 0.690
Longis. lumborum 1.26 0.652 2.43 -2.55 2.34 0.092 1230
Iliocost. lumborum 1.19 0.860 1.65 -2.58 1.49 0.258 17.0
Multifid. lumborum 0.942 0.705 1.26 -2.60 0.381 0.108 2.05

 

 

APPENDIX 13.

Scaling equations for the vertebral muscles from Cuff et al. (2016a, 2016b) and calculated tendon masses for the mean, lower, and upper bounds of muscles for Panthera atrox. Longis. = longissimus, Iliocost. = iliocostalis, Multifid. = multifidus.

Muscle Slope Lower limit Upper limit Intercept Mean Lower Upper
Serratus dorsalis cranialis 1.36 0.609 3.03 -4.63 0.033 0.001 247.5
Serratus dorsalis caudalis 1.40 0.639 3.06 -4.94 0.020 0.000 141.3