TABLE 1. Summary of brachiopod taxa, locality and stratigraphic details of selected specimens for the XMT experiments.

Sample Species Locality Formation Age References
GSC26406 Timaniella harkeri Waterhouse in Bamber and Waterhouse, 1971 Grinnell Peninsula, Devon Island, Canada Assistance Fm. Roadian Waterhouse and Waddington (1982)
BS-1 Spiriferina sp. West Timor, Indonesia Maubisse Fm. Wuchiapingian Charlton et al. (2002)
BS-2 Stenoscisma timorense (Hayasaka and Gan, 1940) West Timor, Indonesia Maubisse Fm. Wuchiapingian Archbold and Bird (1989)
ML32 Cleiothyridina baracoodensis (Etheridge, 1903) Carnarvon Basin, WA, Australia Callytharra Fm. Artinskian Etheridge (1903), Thomas (1958)
TeP Tylothyris transversa Roberts, 1971 Bonaparte Basin, WA, Australia Enga Sandstone Tournaisian Roberts (1971)
3229 Indospirifer sp. Unknown Unknown Devonian No records so far
CD Cyrtospirifer whitneyi (Hall, 1858) Rockford, Iowa, USA Lime Creek Fm. Frasnian Day (1988)
S1 Spiriferidae gen. sp. indet. Skansen, Spitsbergen, Norway Wordiekammen Fm. Pennsylvanian Nakamura et al. (1992)
F8 Spiriferella loveni (Diener, 1903) Kapp Starostin, Spitsbergen, Norway Kapp Starostin Fm. Kungurian Gobbett (1964),
Nakamura et al. (1992)
Q-1 Meekella sangzhiensis Liu and Zhao in Liu et
al., 1982
Liuyang County, Hunan Province, China Qixia Fm. Kungurian Liu et al. (1982)
Q-2 Tyloplecta nankingensis (Frech, 1911) Liuyang County, Hunan Province, China Qixia Fm. Kungurian Liu et al. (1982)

 

TABLE 2. Summary of XMT setting, nature of brachiopod shells and their infillings, CL results of brachiopod shells, and quality of XMT images.

Sample X-ray beam Resolution
(µm/pixel)
Exposure (ms) Rotation step (°) No. of projections Shell mineral
composition
Nature of material
inside of valve
Cathodoluminescence of
brachiopod shell#
Degree of visibility of shell internal structures in XMT images
(keV) (µA)
GSC26406* 89 112 31.82 316 0.70 271 calcite sandstone NL, partially SL All internal shell structures distinctly defined; Figures 3, 13, 14
BS-1 85 118 26.98 316 0.70 275 calcite calcite cement SL Dental structures and median septum well recognized; Figure 7
BS-2* 78 125 34.58 474 0.90 209 calcite quartz cement L Dental structures (spondylium) recognized; Figure 4
ML32 100 100 24.90 316 0.90 214 calcite mixed carbonate-silicate SL Shell articulation and cardinal structure recognized; Figure 5
TeP* 88 112 31.82 316 0.70 271 calcite mixed carbonate-silicate NL, partially SL Dental structures poorly detected, spiralia partly recognized; Figure 6
3229* 78 125 34.58 474 0.70 269 calcite lime mudstone SL Dental structures well defined, but having possible mock structures; Figure 8
CD* 88 112 32.85 474 0.90 209 calcite wackestone L Dental structures weakly detected; Figure 9
S1 100 100 34.58 474 0.90 209 calcite packstone NL, partly SL Dental structures not sharply bounded, but distinctly recognized; Figure 10
F8* 100 100 34.58 474 0.90 209 calcite grainstone SL, partially L No traces of internal structures
Q-1* 80 124 34.58 474 0.90 209 silica microcrystalline quartz   Dental structures poorly and partly recognized; Figure 11
Q-2 80 124 34.58 474 0.70 269 silica quartz cement   Cardinal structures and muscle scars distinctly defined; Figure 12
*An additional specimen has been thin sectioned for CL analysis.
#NL, SL and L indicate nonluminescent, slightly luminescent and luminescent, respectively.

 

TABLE 3. Summary of EDS results, showing the elemental composition in brachiopod shell and infilling of each specimen.

    Composition of element (formula) (%)
Sample EDS experiment area C (CO2) Ca (CaO) Si (SiO2) Mg (MgO) Al (Al2 O3) S (SO3) K (K2O) Mn (MnO) Fe (FeO) others
GSC26406* Brachiopod shell 59.02 40.98                
Major grain in infilling sediment 39.90   60.10              
Minor grain in infilling sediment 42.75 1.66 2.37           53.22  
BS-1 Brachiopod shell 58.14 41.86                
Infilling cement 55.34 44.66                
BS-2* Brachiopod shell 53.25 43.94 1.53           0.22 1.06
Infilling cement 33.06   66.94              
ML32 Brachiopod shell 54.50 45.50                
Major grain in infilling sediment 27.27   72.73              
Minor grain in infilling sediment 37.85   8.89 2.45 5.63       45.19  
Infilling micrite 43.23 55.51   1.25            
TeP* Brachiopod shell 57.14 41.64               0.89
Infilling material (by area) 49.07 31.67 13.27 0.55 2.75   0.78 0.21 1.70  
3229* Brachiopod shell 61.42 37.13   0.38 0.40 0.66        
Infilling sediment 54.35 38.30 3.72 0.45 1.09   0.32   0.91 0.86
CD* Brachiopod shell 51.48 46.68       0.62       1.21
Infilling sediment 44.15 42.93 7.29 0.99 1.87 0.40 0.62   0.82 0.93
S1 Brachiopod shell 51.44 48.56                
Major grain in infilling sediment 59.39 40.61                
Thin layer between shell and infilling 47.06 2.86 50.08              
F8* Brachiopod shell 55.30 38.80     0.45 0.57       0.87
Infilling sediment (by area) 59.72 23.82 10.95 3.66 0.72       1.13  
Q-1* Brachiopod shell 35.17   63.61   0.25         0.97
Infilling cement 35.94   63.68             0.39
Q-2 Major part of brachiopod shell 34.76   65.24              
Minor part of brachiopod shell 52.01   29.37 18.62            
Infilling cement 33.96   66.04              
*An additional specimen has been thin sectioned for EDS analysis.