FIGURE 1. Phylogeny of the Gobiiformes according to Thacker et al. (2015) and Nelson et al. (2016). 6brG = gobiiforms with six branchiostegal rays, 5brG = gobiiforms with five branchiostegal rays.

figure1 

FIGURE 2.Paralates bleicheri Sauvage, 1883. 1. NMB Ruf. 13_1 skull. 2. NMB Ruf. 15b (Neotype, designated by Gaudant, 1979). 3. NMB Ruf. 15a. Abbreviations: chy = ceratohyal, d = dentary, f = frontal, mx = maxilla, meth = mesethmoid, op = opercle, pmx = premaxilla, pop = preopercle, q = quadrate, sop = subopercle. (Photos by M. Schellenberger.)

 figure2

FIGURE 3. Comparison of frontals (highlighted by the black lines). 1.Paralates bleicheri Sauvage, 1883, NMB Ruf. 13_1 skull mirrored. (Photo by M. Schellenberger.) 2.Paralates chapelcorneri n. sp., NHMUK PV P 59786. Same scale for both skulls.

figure3 

FIGURE 4.Paralates bleicheri Sauvage, 1883, NMB Ruf. 18. 1. Viewed under normal light. (Photo by M. Schellenberger.) 2. Imaged with UV light (Photo by H. Tischlinger).

figure4 

FIGURE 5.Paralates chapelcorneri n. sp., NHMUK PV P 59786. 1. Skull. 2. Complete specimen. 3. Detail of opercle with cycloid scales. Abbreviations: art = anguloarticular, d = dentary, ect = ectopterygoid, f = frontal, meth = mesethmoid, mx = maxilla, op = opercle, pmx = premaxilla, pop = preopercle, q = quadrate, scl = supracleithrum.

figure5 

FIGURE 6.Paralates chapelcorneri n. sp., NHMUK PV P 59785. 1. Complete specimen. 2. Region of the first dorsal fin. Arrows point from the pterygiophores to the interneural spaces into which each inserts. Pterygiophore formula = 3-2121100 The spinous rays of the first dorsal fin are marked with roman numerals. Abbreviations: 1-7 = pterygiophores, ptm = post-temporal, ns-v3-10 = neural spines of vertebrae 3-10, v2-4 = vertebral centra 2-4.

 figure6

FIGURE 7.Paralates chapelcorneri n. sp., NHMUK PV P59785_counterpart. 1. Complete specimen. 2. Caudal skeleton and fin. Small Roman numerals in parentheses label unbranched, unsegmented rays, small Roman numerals indicate segmented unbranched rays, and Arabic numerals designate segmented, branched rays (after Fricke, 1983). Abbreviations: epu = epural, hpu = hemal spine of preural centrum, hy = hypural, npu = neural spine of preural centrum, phy = parhypural, pu = preural centrum, us = urostyle.

 figure7

FIGURE 8.Paralates chapelcorneri n. sp., NHMUK PV P 59784. 1. Complete specimen. 2. Skull showing possible symplectic and six branchiostegals. Abbreviations: 1-6 = branchiostegals, ect = ectopterygoid, mpt = metapterygoid, sf = suspensorium fenestra, sym = symplectic. (Photos by K. Webb; © The Trustees of the Natural History Museum, London)

 figure8