TABLE 1. Distribution of size groups of the stratigraphically youngest populations of Bln. gr. kazimiroviensis from Nasiłów (Poland) and from the Geulhemmerberg and Albert Canal sections near Maastricht (the Netherlands, Belgium). SD: standard deviation, N: number of specimens.

  Nasiłów, glauconitic sandstone - below “phosphatic layer” Nasiłów, glauconitic sandstone, “phosphatic layer” Nasiłów, basal Siwak (immediately above "phosphatic layer") Nasiłów, glauconitic sandstone and basal Siwak Maastricht, Geuhemmer-berg, above Berg en Terblijt Horizon Maastricht, Albert Canal, above Vroenhoven Horizon Maastricht, Geuhemmer-berg & Albert Canal
Mean 7.8 7.4 8 7.6 7.1 7.5 7.4
Median 7.9 7.4 7.2 7.8 6.7 6.8 6.8
SD 2.8 3.1 4.1 3.1 3.3 2.4 2.6
Max 12.6 13.2 14.1 14.1 14.3 14.4 14.4
Min 3 2 3.3 2 2.5 4.7 2.5
N 27 31 9 67 10 27 37

 

TABLE 2. Principal components (PC) co-ordinates of the variables, based on correlations (PCA). See the section Morphometrics of Material and Methods for measurement abbreviations.

  PC 1 PC 2 PC 3 PC 4 PC 5 PC 6
Dp 0.433 -0.662 0.374 0.362 -0.227 -0.227
SW 0.46 0.021 -0.836 0.101 -0.263 -0.097
AA -0.148 0.764 0.171 0.585 -0.107 -0.104
FA -0.788 0.087 0.07 -0.391 -0.33 -0.321
Lsn -0.778 -0.304 -0.094 0.266 -0.261 0.392
AV -0.713 -0.311 -0.323 0.305 0.365 -0.252

 

TABLE 3. Eigenvalues of correlation matrix and related statistics of the PCA.

PC Eigenvalue Total
variance [%]
Cumulative total
variance [%]
1 2.16 35.97 35.97
2 1.22 20.32 56.29
3 0.99 16.44 72.73
4 0.8 13.35 86.08
5 0.44 7.38 93.46
6 0.39 6.54 100

 

 

TABLE 4. Comparison of characteristic parameters of Bln. kazimiroviensis from the Nasiłów area (the Middle Vistula valley, Poland), the Maastricht area (the Netherlands, Belgium) and central and southern Russia as well as Central Asia (for abbreviations see the section Morphometrics of Material and Methods). Data represent means ± standard deviation. Different letters (a or b) within a row indicate significant differences by Tukey HSD test for unequal number of specimens (ANOVA) or Mann-Whitney U test in case the variances were even after data transformation not homogeneously distributed. In the latter case the significance level was corrected according to Bonferroni.

  Nasiłów area - Kazimierz Opoka Nasiłów area - glauconitic sandstone Nasiłów area - basal Siwak Maastricht area Central and southern Russia; Central Asia
Ls [mm] 57.2 ± 8.2 a 52.6 ± 8.8 a 47.1 ± 8.5 a 50.9 ± 10.6 a 53.3 ± 17.2 a
Dp [mm] 11.0 ± 2.3 a 10.4 ± 2.2 a 9.3 ± 2.5 a 9.5 ± 2.3 a 10.7 ± 3.5 a
SW [mm] 3.3 ± 0.6 a 3.4 ± 0.8 a 3.8 ± 0.9 a 3.5 ± 0.7 a 3.2 ± 0.7 a
AA [°] 18.5 ± 1.1 ab 18.5 ± 1.3 ab 20.0 ± 0.7 a 18.8 ± 1.4 ab 18.0 ± 1.8 b
FA [°] 73.4 ± 25.3 a 73.2 ± 27.2 a 59.8 ± 28.9 a 72.9 ± 27.4 a 63.0 ± 31.5 a
BI [--] 5.3 ± 0.5 a 5.2 ± 0.6 a 5.1 ± 0.5 a 5.4 ± 0.6 a 5.0 ± 0.6 a
Lsn [mm] 54.0 ± 2.8 a 51.5 ± 4.6 a 49.3 ± 3.2 a 52.3 ± 5.0 a 50.1 ± 7.9 a
AV [%] 12.1 ± 5.8 ab 11.1 ± 7.0 a 9.6 ± 7.6 ab 6.7 ± 5.4 b 13.9 ± 6.0 a
AL[%] -4.2 ± 4.4 a -5.9 ± 6.5 a -5.0 ± 5.4 a -10.2 ± 5.4 a -3.3 ± 9.2 a
AVs [%] 7.4 ± 4.8 ab 6.4 ± 6.1 ab 5.8 ± 6.0 ab 3.1 ± 4.8 b 9.7 ± 5.7 a
ALs [%] -5.0 ± 4.0 a -6.2 ± 5.2 a -6.4 ± 4.2 a -9.6 ± 3.9 a -3.6 ± 6.6 a

 

TABLE 5. Mean values and standard deviation (SD) of critical characters of Bln. skolozdrownae from the Middle Vistula valley region and the Maastricht area (for abbreviations see the section Morphometrics of Material and Methods). Extreme values of a probably pathological specimen from Maastricht (NHMM 2015 NK001-18) are given in brackets and are not included in the calculation of the means.

  Means ± SD Observed range
Ls [mm] 56.9 ± 7.6 49.0 - 81.0
Dp [mm] 8.9 ± 1.6 5.4 - 13.5
SW [mm] 3.1 ± 0.7 2.0 - 5.0
AA [°] 18.8 ± 1.5 16 - 21
FA [°] 107.2 ±20.3 70 - 138
BI [--] 6.4 ± 0.5 5.7 - 7.6 (9.3)
Lsn [mm] 61.2 ± 4.1 54.0 - 70.5 (79.9)
AV [%] 22.9 ± 7.6 11.6 - 35.4
AL[%] 4.7 ± 5.2 -3.6 - 15.5 (30.8)
AVs [%] 15.5 ± 5.8 6.6 - 30.2
ALs [%] 0.7 ± 3.5 -4.9 - 8.4 (22.9)