APPENDIX 1.

Localities containing specimens used in this study. Locality numbers follow the system of each institution; those beginning with “V” are UCMP localities; those beginning with “C” are UWBM localities. All localities are in Montana except for V5620, which is in Wyoming. Abbreviations: Fm, formation; La, Lancian; n, number of specimens from the locality; Pu1, Puercan 1; Pu3, Puercan 3.

Loc. Number Locality NAme County Fm Biozone n
C0338 Bug Creek A McCone Hell Creek mixed 2
C1115 Celeste's Magnificent Microsite Garfield Hell Creek Lancian 1
C1163 MacDonald Garfield Tullock Pu3 1
C1521 Wake Up Garfield Hell Creek Lancian 1
C1845 Bug Creek McCone Hell Creek mixed 1
V5620 Lull 2 Niobrara Lance Lancian 4
V65127 Bug Creek Anthills General McCone Hell Creek mixed 11
V70201 Bug Creek Anthills C McCone Hell Creek mixed 4
V70209 Bug Creek W McCone Hell Creek mixed 4
V71203 Harbicht Hill 1 McCone Hell Creek mixed 1
V72129 Garbani 04-Nw-S Level 1 Garfield Tullock Pu3 1
V72207 Windy Hill Garfield Hell Creek Lancian 2
V73087 Flat Creek 5 Garfield Hell Creek Lancian 1
V73097 Brownie Butte Garfield Hell Creek Lancian 1
V74111 Worm Coulee 1 Garfield Tullock Pu1 3
V74122 Biscuit Springs Garfield Tullock Pu3 1
V74124 Yellow Sand Hill 2 Garfield Tullock Pu3 1
V84162 Sand Cave Garfield Hell Creek Pu1 1
V84193 Z-Line Quarry McCone Hell Creek Pu1 1
V85092 Kmark II McCone Hell Creek Lancian 1
V87001 O’Connor Site Fallon Hell Creek Lancian 1
V88007 Spigot Bottle Carter Hell Creek Lancian 1
V91065 Capping Channel Garfield Tullock Pu1 1
V93169 Anne’s Beast Garfield Hell Creek Lancian 1
V99438 Garbani Sandy Channel Garfield Tullock Pu3 3

APPENDIX 2.

Histograms illustrating the number of multituberculate (1) and therian (2) specimens in each biozone. Abbreviations: BCA, Bug Creek Anthills mixed-age assemblage; La, Lancian; Pu1, early Puercan; Pu3; middle-late Puercan. See text for morphotype details.

appendix 2

 

APPENDIX 3.

Comparative multituberculate distal humeri used in this study. We follow the convention of Krause and Jenkins (1983) with regards to prefacing unassociated attributions with a query (e.g., for isolated material). Age data for Late Cretaceous and Paleogene North American taxa are given as NALMAs, respectively; ages of Asian taxa are given as geologic stages. Specimens from the Bug Creek Anthills localities (e.g., Deischl 1964; Krause and Jenkins 1983) are given a “Lancian-Pu1 mixed” age. All families are in the Infraorder Cimolodonta. See text for museum abbreviations.

Specimen Number Taxon NAme Family Age Location Reference
AMNH 77175 ?Mesodma primaeva Neoplagaiulacidae Judithian North America Sahni, 1972
AMNH 3011a ?Meniscoessus conquistus Cimolomyidae Lancian North America Cope, 1884; Krause and Jenkins, 1983
YPM 10612a ?Meniscoessus robustus (formerly Dipriodon lunatus) Cimolomyidae Lancian North America Marsh, 1889; Krause and Jenkins, 1983
MCZ 20786-20789 ?Mesodma sp. Neoplagaiulacidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Krause and Jenkins, 1983
UMVP 1405 ?Mesodma formosa Neoplagaiulacidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Deischl,1964
UMVP 1403, 1406 ?Mesodma thompsoni Neoplagaiulacidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Deischl,1964
UMVP 1404 ?Cimexomys minor Neoplagaiulacidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Deischl,1964
UMVP 1407 ?Stygimys kuszmauli Eucosmodontidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Deischl,1964; Krause and Jenkins, 1983
UA 11994 ?Stygimys kuszmauli Eucosmodontidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Krause and Jenkins, 1983
MCZ 19529 ?Catopsalis Taeniolabididae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Jenkins, 1973
AMNH 3036 ?Taeniolabis taoensis Taeniolabididae Puercan North America Sloan, 1981
Cope 1884: Figure 4b Taeniolabis taoensis (formerly Polymastodon taoensis) Taeniolabididae Puercan North America Cope, 1884
IVPP V8408, V9051 ?Lambdopsalis bulla Taeniolabididae Late Paleocene Asia Kielan-Jaworowska and Qi, 1990
USNM 9735 ?Ptilodus montanus Ptilodontidae Torrejonian North America Krause and Jenkins, 1983
USNM 6076 Ptilodus montanus Ptilodontidae Torrejonian North America Gidley, 1909; Krause and Jenkins, 1983
UA 9001 Ptilodus kummae Ptilodontidae Tiffanian North America Krause and Jenkins, 1983
UA 11300 ?Ptilodus kummae Ptilodontidae Tiffanian North America Krause and Jenkins, 1983
UALVP 42816 Microcosmodon conus Microcosmodontidae Tiffanian North America Fox, 2005
GISPS 8-2 PST Tugrigbaatar saichanensis Djadochtatheriidae Campanian Asia Kielan-Jaworowska and Dashzeveg, 1978
PSS-MAE 103 Kryptobaatar dashzevegi Djadochtatheriidae Campanian Asia Sereno 2006
PM 120/107 Catopsbaatar catopsaloides Djadochtatheriidae Campanian Asia Hurum and Kielan-Jaworowska, 2008
URBAC 03-076 Multituberculata   Turonian Asia Chester et al., 2010
AMNH 118267 Multituberculata   Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Kielan-Jaworowska and Gambaryan, 1994

 

APPENDIX 4.

Comparative therian fossils specimens used in this study. List of fossil specimens used for comparative study. We follow the convention of Krause and Jenkins with regards to prefacing unassociated attributions with a query (e.g., for isolated material). Age data for Late Cretaceous and Paleogene North and South American taxa are given as NALMAs and SALMAs, respectively; ages of European taxa are given as geologic stages. Specimens from the Bug Creek Anthills localities (e.g., Szalay and Dagosto, 1980; Boyer et al., 2010) are given a “Lancian-Pu1 mixed” age. See text for museum abbreviations.

Specimen Number Taxon Name Higher Taxon Family Age Location References
Marsh,1889: Plate V, figs. 5-6 Didelphodon vorax Didelphimorphia Stagodontidae Lancian North America Marsh,1889
MHNC 1249 Mayulestes ferox Didelphimorphia Mayulestidae Tiupampan South America Muizon, 1998
YPFB 6105, 6106, 6110, 6111 Pucadelphys andinus Didelphimorphia Didelphidae Tiupampan South America Marshall et al., 1995
AMNH 118456 ?Procerberus formicarum   Cimolestidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Boyer et al., 2010
UMVP 1837 ?Procerberus formicarum   Cimolestidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Szalay and Dagosto, 1980
UM 88105 ?Prodiacodon tauricinerei Leptictida Leptictidae Wasatchian North America Rose, 1999
AMNH 16614 Protoselene opisthacus archaic ungulate Hyopsodontidae Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
NMMNH P-20949 Tetraclaenodon puercensis archaic ungulate Phenacodontidae Torrejonian North America Kondrashov and Lucas, 2012
AMNH 119994 ?Protungulatum donnae archaic ungulate Arctocyonidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Boyer et al., 2010
UM 1836 ?Protungulatum donnae archaic ungulate Arctocyonidae Lancian-Pu1 mixed North America Szalay and Dagosto, 1980
AMNH 16343 Loxolophus hyattianus archaic ungulate Artocyonidae Puercan North America Matthew, 1937
AMNH 16543 Arctocyon corrugatus (formerly Claenodon corrugatus) archaic ungulate Artocyonidae Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
AMNH 16591 Chriacus sp. archaic ungulate Artocyonidae Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
MNHN.F.CR17, MNHN.F.CR16 Arctocyon primaevus archaic ungulate Artocyonidae Thanetian Europe Russell, 1964; Argot, 2013
USGS 2353 Chriacus sp. archaic ungulate Artocyonidae Wasatchian North America Rose, 1987; O’Leary and Rose, 1995
AMNH 16500 Ectoconus ditrigonus (formerly E. majusculus) archaic ungulate Periptychidae Puercan North America Matthew, 1937
UNM-B029 Mithrandir gillianus (formerly Gillisonchus gillianus) archaic ungulate Periptychidae Puercan North America Rigby, 1981
AMNH 3636 ?Periptychus carinidens (formerly P. rhabdodon) archaic ungulate Periptychidae Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
AMNH 17075 ?Periptychus carinidens (formerly P. rhabdodon) archaic ungulate Periptychidae Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
USGS 2352 Diacodexis metsiacus Artiodactyla Diacodexeidae Wasatchian North America Rose, 1982
UALVP 49114 Pronothodectes gaoi “Plesiadapiformes” Plesiadapidae Tiffanian North America Boyer et al., 2010
AMNH 17379 ?NAnnodectes gidleyi (formerly Plesiadapis gidleyi) “Plesiadapiformes” Plesiadapidae Tiffanian North America Simpson, 1935
UM 64588 Plesiadapis rex “Plesiadapiformes” Plesiadapidae Tiffanian North America Boyer et al., 2010
MNHN BR 3L and B4L Plesiadapis tricuspidens “Plesiadapiformes” Plesiadapidae Thanetian Europe Szalay et al., 1975
UM 87990 Plesiadapis cookei “Plesiadapiformes” Plesiadapidae Clarkforkian North America Bloch et al., 2007
UM 108210 and 82606 Ignacius clarkforkensis “Plesiadapiformes” Paramomyidae Clarkforkian North America Bloch et al., 2007
UM 101963 Carpolestes simpsoni “Plesiadapiformes” Carpolestidae Clarkforkian North America Bloch and Boyer,2002
AMNH 2549 Pantolambda bathmodon Pantodonta   Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
AMNH 16663 Pantolambda bathmodon Pantodonta   Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
AMNH 16410 Onychodectes tisonensis Taeniodonta Conoryctidae Puercan North America Schoch, 1986
TMM 41364-1 Psittacotheriummultifragum Taeniodonta Stylinodontidae Torrejonian North America Schoch, 1986
FMNH P 26090 Ectoganusgliriformis Taeniodonta Stylinodontidae Tiffanian-Clarkforkian North America Schoch, 1986
FMNH P 26083 Ectoganus lobdelli (formerly Lampadophorus expectatus) Taeniodonta Stylinodontidae Tiffanian-Clarkforkian North America Schoch, 1986
YPM 27201 Ectoganus sp. Taeniodonta Stylinodontidae Wasatchian North America Schoch, 1986
YPM 11096 Stylinodon mirus Taeniodonta Stylinodontidae Bridgerian North America Schoch, 1986
AMNH 16610 Deltherium Tillodontia Deltatheriidae Torrejonian North America Matthew, 1937
PU 14389 Theria indet.     Fort Union Formation North America Jenkins, 1973
LSUMG V-802 Theria indet.     Puercan North America Standhardt, 1986

 

APPENDIX 5.

Intraobserver error results. We performed five trials in which we plotted all six landmarks (LMs) on five specimens for each trial. Specimens were chosen to represent the overall variation in the study (i.e., at the maxima and minima of PC1 and PC2, see Appendix 32). We report the variances for each LM placement for each specimen across the five trials, as well as the mean variance across all LMs for a single specimen, and the mean variance across all specimens for a single LM. See Appendix 6 for F test comparison of differences in variance across all LMs. We report the genus and species, sex (in parentheses), and specimen number for each specimen used in this repeatability study. The specimen for Caluromys philander was taken from Argot (2001, figure 8) and lacks sex information; see Methods. Specimen ID Numbers used in this study are the same throughout; see Table 4 for additional specimen information.

  Specimen Number ID Number LM1 LM2 LM3 LM4 LM5 LM6 Mean of Variances Across LMs
Cavia porcellus  (F) UWBM 72830 80 5.453E-04 1.599E-04 1.096E-05 6.610E-05 1.795E-04 4.135E-05 1.672E-04
Caluromys philander (NA) Argot, 2001, fig. 8 3 3.751E-05 4.613E-05 9.017E-05 2.406E-05 2.586E-05 6.837E-05 4.868E-05
Dipodomys deserti (F) UWBM 78740 95 7.200E-05 1.451E-05 3.171E-05 8.272E-05 1.913E-04 6.401E-06 6.643E-05
Lepus americanus (F) UWBM 21111 62 8.579E-06 4.393E-05 2.749E-04 1.938E-05 4.885E-05 5.885E-04 1.640E-04
Mustela erminea (M) UWBM 72863 51 9.250E-05 1.794E-04 3.547E-05 1.169E-05 7.590E-05 6.506E-05 7.668E-05
Mean of Variances Across Specimens   1.512E-04 8.878E-05 8.864E-05 4.079E-05 1.043E-04 1.539E-04  

APPENDIX 6.

Results from F tests of variances pairwise across all landmarks. Specimens are those used in the repeatability study for measurement error (Appendix 5), variances were calculated across Euclidean distances from the centroid for each landmark (LM), and across all five trials for a single specimen. P-values are reported for each pairwise F test, with significance as follows: * for p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01.

  LM1 LM2 LM3 LM4 LM5 LM6
Cavia porcellus
  LM1 - 0.262 ** 0.065 0.307 *
  LM2 0.262 - * 0.413 0.913 0.219
  LM3 ** * - 0.110 * 0.227
  LM4 0.065 0.413 0.110 - 0.357 0.661
  LM5 0.307 0.913 * 0.357 - 0.184
  LM6 * 0.219 0.227 0.661 0.184 -
Caluromys philander
  LM1 - 0.846 0.416 0.677 0.727 0.575
  LM2 0.846 - 0.532 0.544 0.589 0.712
  LM3 0.416 0.532 - 0.229 0.254 0.795
  LM4 0.677 0.544 0.229 - 0.946 0.336
  LM5 0.727 0.589 0.254 0.946 - 0.369
  LM6 0.575 0.712 0.795 0.336 0.369 -
Dipodomys deserti
  LM1 - 0.150 0.447 0.896 0.367 *
  LM2 0.150 - 0.468 0.120 * 0.447
  LM3 0.447 0.468 - 0.376 0.110 0.150
  LM4 0.896 0.120 0.376 - 0.437 *
  LM5 0.367 * 0.110 0.437 - **
  LM6 * 0.447 0.150 * ** -
Lepus americanus
  LM1 - 0.143 ** 0.449 0.121 **
  LM2 0.143 - 0.103 0.447 0.921 *
  LM3 ** 0.103 - * 0.123 0.479
  LM4 0.449 0.447 * - 0.392 **
  LM5 0.121 0.921 0.123 0.392 - *
  LM6 ** * 0.479 ** * -
Mustela erminea
  LM1 - 0.537 0.376 0.070 0.853 0.741
  LM2 0.537 - 0.145 * 0.425 0.350
  LM3 0.376 0.145 - 0.308 0.479 0.571
  LM4 0.070 * 0.308 - 0.097 0.125
  LM5 0.853 0.425 0.479 0.097 - 0.885
  LM6 0.741 0.350 0.571 0.125 0.885 -

APPENDIX 7.

Means, standard deviations, and percent preservation for multituberculate measurements by morphotype. We include all specimens except for the two specimens tentatively attributed to morphotype MuA (i.e., ?MuA), see text for more details. See Table 1 for measurement descriptions; see Table 2 for data (data excludes minimum values). NA indicates no specimens preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for means) or only one specimen preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for SD). Bold values indicate specimen percent preservation (i.e., the number of specimens that preserve that measurement divided by the total number of specimens in the morphotype) greater than or equal to 80%. We calculate the coefficient of variation (CV) for morphotypes containing more than two specimens. Abbreviations: CV, coefficient of variation; n, number of specimens; SD, standard deviation.

  TDW AW TLW NCW UCW RCW UCL RCL UCD RCD
Full Dataset (n= 28)                    
Mean 6.86 3.55 4.09 2.05 1.68 2.27 2.65 2.48 2.92 2.80
SD 3.86 1.95 2.33 1.02 0.90 1.32 1.46 1.55 1.64 1.44
% Preservation 39.29 57.14 57.14 53.57 89.29 71.43 89.29 78.57 89.29 67.86
MuA (n= 8)                    
Mean 3.884 2.025 2.485 1.185 0.874 1.125 1.363 1.136 1.480 1.494
SD 0.187 0.093 0.140 0.135 0.096 0.083 0.085 0.081 0.121 0.069
% Preservation 62.50 75.00 87.50 62.50 100.00 75.00 100.00 87.50 100.00 62.50
CV 0.048 0.046 0.056 0.114 0.110 0.073 0.063 0.071 0.082 0.046
MuB (n= 1)                    
Mean NA NA NA 1.240 1.080 NA 1.465 NA 1.670 NA
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
% Preservation 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00
MuC (n= 7)                    
Mean 5.875 2.933 3.726 1.640 1.386 1.634 2.200 1.803 2.409 2.226
SD 0.827 0.232 0.400 0.277 0.254 0.246 0.205 0.129 0.252 0.192
% Preservation 28.57 71.43 71.43 42.86 85.71 85.71 100.00 85.71 100.00 85.71
CV 0.141 0.079 0.107 0.169 0.183 0.151 0.093 0.072 0.105 0.086
MuD (n= 1)                    
Mean NA NA NA NA NA 2.160 NA 2.135 NA 2.350
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
% Preservation 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00
MuE (n= 5)                    
Mean 8.275 4.213 5.155 2.475 1.933 2.488 3.076 2.375 3.416 3.053
SD 0.205 0.265 0.106 0.108 0.314 0.110 0.393 0.156 0.337 0.337
% Preservation 40.00 40.00 40.00 60.00 100.00 40.00 80.00 40.00 80.00 60.00
CV 0.025 0.063 0.021 0.044 0.162 0.044 0.128 0.066 0.099 0.110
MuF (n= 6)                    
Mean 13.865 7.192 9.548 3.740 3.174 4.334 5.221 4.826 5.777 5.220
SD 0.226 0.467 0.626 0.420 0.526 0.461 0.282 0.639 0.660 0.928
% Preservation 33.33 50.00 33.33 50.00 83.33 83.33 83.33 100.00 83.33 66.67
CV 0.016 0.065 0.066 0.112 0.166 0.106 0.054 0.133 0.114 0.178

APPENDIX 8.

Means, standard deviations, and percent preservation for therian measurements by morphotype. We include all specimens except for the specimen in morphotype MeA, which lacked any measureable features. See Table 1 for measurement descriptions; see Table 3 for data (data excludes minimum values). NA indicates no specimens preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for means) or only one specimen preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for SD). Bold values indicate specimen percent preservation (i.e., the number of specimens that preserve that measurement divided by the total number of specimens in the morphotype) greater than or equal to 80%. We calculate the coefficient of variation (CV) for morphotypes containing more than two specimens (i.e., only EuD). Abbreviations: CV, coefficient of variation; n, number of specimens; SD, standard deviation.

  TDW AW TLW NCW TW CW TL CL TD CD
Full Dataset (n = 14)                    
Mean 9.560 7.189 7.414 4.713 2.438 4.836 3.084 3.026 2.708 4.416
SD 0.357 3.926 3.888 2.812 1.351 2.838 2.084 1.824 1.360 2.836
% Preservation 21.43 78.57 78.57 42.86 92.86 78.57 92.86 78.57 71.43 57.14
EuA (n = 1)                    
Mean NA 3.850 3.850 NA 1.330 2.406 1.630 1.579 1.756 1.920
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
% Preservation 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
EuB (n = 1)                    
Mean NA 4.765 5.120 NA 1.705 2.895 1.960 1.945 2.355 NA
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
% Preservation 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.00
EuC (n = 2)                    
Mean 9.520 5.635 5.735 3.918 1.670 3.945 2.680 2.515 3.095 3.310
SD NA NA NA 0.138 NA NA NA NA 0.092 NA
% Preservation 50.00 50.00 50.00 100.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 100.00 50.00
EuD (n = 5)                    
Mean 9.580 5.463 5.780 3.880 1.923 3.510 1.840 2.056 2.279 2.528
SD 0.502 0.223 0.310 0.467 0.168 0.245 0.221 0.221 0.129 0.168
% Preservation 40.00 100.00 100.00 40.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 80.00 60.00
CV 0.052 0.041 0.054 0.120 0.087 0.070 0.120 0.108 0.057 0.066
EuE (n = 2)                    
Mean NA 10.118 10.275 NA 2.795 7.290 4.453 4.845 6.280 6.423
SD NA 0.803 0.813 NA 0.219 0.467 0.173 0.375 NA 1.559
% Preservation 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 50.00 100.00
EuF (n = 1)                    
Mean NA 17.280 17.395 NA 5.480 11.820 6.945 7.280 NA 9.670
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
% Preservation 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00
EuG (n = 1)                    
Mean NA NA NA 10.300 5.095 NA 7.435 NA NA NA
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
% Preservation 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
ThA (n = 1)                    
Mean NA NA NA 2.380 1.210 NA 1.340 NA 1.380 NA
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
% Preservation 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00 100.00 0.00

 

APPENDIX 9.

The results of One-Way ANOVAs of difference for all multituberculate measurements across all morphotypes. Asterisks (****) indicate significant p-values (< 0.0001). Both biozone (b) and residuals (r) values are given for Sum of Squares, df, and Mean Squares. See Table 1 for measurement details; see Table 3 for data.

  TDW AW TLW NCW UCW RCW UCL RCL UCD RCD
  b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r
Sum of Squares 148.368 0.918 56.520 0.764 80.532 1.160 14.012 0.603 17.551 1.889 31.699 1.198 49.847 1.083 48.562 2.192 61.774 2.568 34.327 3.012
df 3 7 3 12 3 12 4 10 4 20 4 15 4 20 4 17 4 20 4 14
Mean Squares 49.456 0.131 18.840 0.064 26.844 0.097 3.503 0.060 4.388 0.094 7.925 0.080 12.462 0.054 12.141 0.129 15.444 0.128 8.582 0.215
F 377.07 295.97 277.59 58.10 46.45 99.19 230.16 94.17 120.27 39.89
p-value **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** **** ****

APPENDIX 10.

Probabilities from Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc test of multituberculate measurements by morphotype. All measurements had significant ANOVA results, and therefore all measurements were subjected to the Tukey HSD test and have results below. Significance indicated by the following: * for p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01; *** for p < 0.001; **** for p < 0.0001. NA indicates the morphotype did not include that particular measurement and therefore could not be subjected to ANOVA or Tukey tests.

Measurement   MuA MuB MuC MuD MuE MuF
TDW MuA - NA ** NA **** ****
  MuB NA - NA NA NA NA
  MuC ** NA - NA ** ****
  MuD NA NA NA - NA NA
  MuE **** NA ** NA - ****
  MuF **** NA **** NA **** -
AW MuA - NA *** NA **** ****
  MuB NA - NA NA NA NA
  MuC *** NA - NA *** ****
  MuD NA NA NA - NA NA
  MuE **** NA *** NA - ****
  MuF **** NA **** NA **** -
TLW MuA - NA *** NA **** ****
  MuB NA - NA NA NA NA
  MuC *** NA - NA *** ****
  MuD NA NA NA - NA NA
  MuE **** NA *** NA - ****
  MuF **** NA **** NA **** -
NCW MuA - 1.000 0.158 NA *** ****
  MuB 1.000 - 0.635 NA ** ****
  MuC 0.158 0.635 - NA * ****
  MuD NA NA NA - NA NA
  MuE *** ** * NA - ***
  MuF **** **** **** NA *** -
UCW MuA - 0.968 * NA *** ****
  MuB 0.968 - 0.885 NA 0.123 ****
  MuC * 0.885 - NA 0.056 ****
  MuD NA NA NA - NA NA
  MuE *** 0.123 0.056 NA - ****
  MuF **** **** **** NA **** -
RCW MuA - NA * * *** ****
  MuB NA - NA NA NA NA
  MuC * NA - 0.451 * ****
  MuD * NA 0.451 - 0.874 ****
  MuE *** NA * 0.874 - ****
  MuF **** NA **** **** **** -
UCL MuA - 0.993 **** NA **** ****
  MuB 0.993 - 0.054 NA **** ****
  MuC **** 0.054 - NA *** ****
  MuD NA NA NA - NA NA
  MuE **** **** *** NA - ****
  MuF **** **** **** NA **** -
RCL MuA - NA * 0.114 ** ****
  MuB NA - NA NA NA NA
  MuC * NA - 0.908 0.329 ****
  MuD 0.114 NA 0.908 - 0.981 ****
  MuE ** NA 0.329 0.981 - ****
  MuF **** NA **** **** **** -
UCD MuA - 0.986 *** NA **** ****
  MuB 0.986 - 0.335 NA ** ****
  MuC *** 0.335 - NA ** ****
  MuD NA NA NA - NA NA
  MuE **** ** ** NA - ****
  MuF **** **** **** NA **** -
RCD MuA - NA 0.123 0.473 ** ****
  MuB NA - NA NA NA NA
  MuC 0.123 NA - 0.999 0.141 ****
  MuD 0.473 NA 0.999 - 0.688 ***
  MuE ** NA 0.141 0.688 - ***
  MuF **** NA **** *** *** -

APPENDIX 11.

Boxplots for all multituberculate measurement with significant ANOVA results according to morphotype. Boxplots include minimum, quartiles, median, and maximum values. See Table 1 for measurements, Table 2 for data, and Appendix 9-Appendix 10 for ANOVA and Tukey HSD results, respectively. Specimens tentatively attributed to morphotype MuA (i.e., ?MuA), were not included in ANOVA and Tukey tests.

appendix 11 

 

APPENDIX 12.

Variances for all multituberculate measurement with significant ANOVA results according to morphotype. See Appendix 2 for means, maxima, minima, and quartiles. See Table 1 for measurements, Table 2 for data, and Appendix 9-Appendix 10 for ANOVA and Tukey HSD results, respectively.

 

 

APPENDIX 13.

Principal Components 1 and 2 on the full set of variables (i.e., measurements; excluding TDW, AW, and TLW; n = 10 specimens). All measurements are standardized to (i.e., “relative to”) RCW. The first and second principal components explain 64% and 20% of the variation, respectively. See Appendix 14 for all principal component loadings and variances. Plotted multituberculate morphotypes include: MuA (blue), MuC (red), MuE (orange), and MuF (green). See Table 1 for measurements and Table 2 for data.

appendix 13

 

 

APPENDIX 14.

Measurement loading and variance results of Principal Components Analysis on linear measurements of multituberculate specimens from our assemblage (n = 10). Measurements include NCW, RCL, RCD, UCL, UCD, and UCW, all standardized to RCW (Table 1; Appendix 13). Loadings in bold represent dominant loadings for each principal component (i.e., values greater than (1/(number of columns)2).

  PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6
Loadings  
relUCD 0.490 0.069 0.120 0.354 -0.130 0.774
relRCL 0.470 -0.196 -0.096 -0.236 0.822 -0.019
relRCD 0.441 0.311 -0.206 0.597 -0.044 -0.556
relUCL 0.438 -0.083 -0.537 -0.527 -0.485 -0.027
relNCW 0.121 0.839 0.329 -0.413 0.050 -0.004
relUCW 0.372 -0.387 0.733 -0.122 -0.261 -0.303
Variance  
Percent Variance 0.637 0.199 0.085 0.048 0.022 0.009
Cumulative Variance 0.637 0.836 0.921 0.969 0.991 1.000

 

APPENDIX 15.

Principal Components 1 and 2 on measurements NCW, RCL, UCL, and UCW, and standardized to (i.e., “relative to”) RCW. The first and second principal components explain 61% and 23% of the variation, respectively. See Appendix 16 for all principal component loadings and variances. Plotted multituberculate morphotypes include: MuA (blue), MuC (red), MuE (orange), and MuF (green). This dataset is similar to that of Appendix 13, but excludes measurement RCD and includes one additional specimen (n = 11). See Table 1 for measurements and Table 2 for data.

appendix 15

 

APPENDIX 16.

Measurement loading and variance results of Principal Components Analysis on linear measurements of multituberculate specimens from our assemblage (n = 11). Measurements include NCW, RCD, UCL, UCD, and UCW, all standardized to RCW (Table 1; Appendix 15). Loadings in bold represent dominant loadings for each principal component.

  PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5
Loadings          
relUCD 0.556 0.022 0.092 -0.309 -0.766
relRCD 0.519 -0.232 -0.201 -0.557 0.571
relUCL 0.474 0.183 -0.602 0.615 0.030
relNCW 0.223 -0.798 0.366 0.423 0.012
relUCW 0.382 0.524 0.674 0.196 0.294
Variance          
Percent Variance 0.608 0.231 0.099 0.052 0.010
Cumulative Variance 0.608 0.839 0.938 0.990 1.000

 

APPENDIX 17.

Principal Components 1 and 2 on measurements NCW, RCL, UCL, and UCW, and standardized to (“relative to”) RCW, see Table 1 for measurements. The first and second principal components explain 44% and 24% of the variation, respectively. See Appendix 18 for all principal component loadings and variances. Plotted multituberculate morphotypes include: MuA (blue), MuC (red), MuE (orange), and MuF (green; Table 2); published specimens include: ?Cimexomys minor, UMVP 1404 (Deischl 1964); Microcosmodon conus, UALVP 42816 (Fox 2005); Mesodma formosa, UMVP 1405 (Deischl 1964); M. thompsoni (A), UMVP 1406 (Deischl 1964); M. thompsoni (B), UMVP 1403 (Deischl 1964); Multituberculata, AMNH 118267 (Kielan-Jaworowska and Gambaryan 1994); Stygimys kuszmauli (C), UA 11994 (Krause and Jenkins 1983); and S. kuszmauli (D), UMVP 1407 (Deischl 1964; Krause and Jenkins 1983); see Appendix 3 for additional details on published material.

appendix 17 

 

APPENDIX 18.

Measurement loading and variance results of Principal Components Analysis on linear measurements of multituberculate specimens. Measurements include NCW, RCL, UCL, and UCW, all standardized to RCW (Table 1; Appendix 17). Specimens include nine specimens from our assemblage and seven specimens from the published literature (see Appendix 17 for more details). Loadings in bold represent dominant loadings for each principal component.

  PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4
Loadings        
relRCL 0.652 -0.191 -0.100 -0.727
relUCL 0.610 -0.379 -0.182 0.672
relNCW 0.285 0.843 -0.446 0.095
relUCW 0.348 0.331 0.871 0.106
Variance        
Percent Variance 0.435 0.238 0.224 0.103
Cumulative Variance 0.435 0.673 0.897 1.000

 

APPENDIX 19.

The results of One-Way ANOVAs of difference for all therians measurements across all morphotypes. Significance indicated by the following: * for p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01; *** for p < 0.001; **** for p < 0.0001. Both biozone (b) and residuals (r) values are given for Sum of Squares, df, and Mean Squares. See Table 1 for measurement details; see Table 3 for data.

  TDW AW TLW NCW UCW RCW UCL RCL UCD RCD
  b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r
Sum of Squares 0.002 0.252 153.315 0.844 150.124 1.047 39.311 0.237 21.757 0.161 80.078 0.459 51.904 0.225 32.942 0.336 16.590 0.059 53.800 2.487
df 1 1 5 5 5 5 3 2 7 5 5 5 7 5 5 5 5 4 4 3
Mean Squares 0.002 0.252 30.663 0.169 30.025 0.209 13.104 0.118 3.108 0.032 16.016 0.092 7.415 0.045 6.588 0.067 3.318 0.015 13.450 0.829
F 0.010 181.730 143.440 110.667 96.810 174.614 164.692 98.036 226.415 16.223
p-value 0.938 **** **** ** **** **** **** **** **** *

APPENDIX 20.

Probabilities from Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc test of therian measurements by morphotype. Measurements subjected to the Tukey HSD test are those with significant ANOVA results (i.e., all measurements except TDW); see Table 1 for measurements and Table 3 for data. Significance indicated by the following: * for p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01; *** for p < 0.001; **** for p < 0.0001. NA indicates the morphotype did not include that particular measurement and therefore could not be subjected to ANOVA or Tukey tests.

    EuA EuB EuC EuD EuE EuF EuG ThA
AW EuA - 0.643 0.155 0.094 *** **** NA NA
  EuB 0.643 - 0.681 0.655 *** **** NA NA
  EuC 0.155 0.681 - 0.998 ** **** NA NA
  EuD 0.094 0.655 0.998 - *** **** NA NA
  EuE *** *** ** *** - *** NA NA
  EuF **** **** **** **** *** - NA NA
  EuG NA NA NA NA NA NA - NA
  ThA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA -
                   
TLW EuA - 0.463 0.182 0.073 *** **** NA NA
  EuB 0.463 - 0.916 0.769 ** **** NA NA
  EuC 0.182 0.916 - 1.000 ** *** NA NA
  EuD 0.073 0.769 1.000 - *** **** NA NA
  EuE *** ** ** *** - *** NA NA
  EuF **** **** *** **** *** - NA NA
  EuG NA NA NA NA NA NA - NA
  ThA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA -
                   
NCW EuA - NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
  EuB NA - NA NA NA NA NA NA
  EuC NA NA - 0.999 NA NA * 0.162
  EuD NA NA 0.999 - NA NA * 0.169
  EuE NA NA NA NA - NA NA NA
  EuF NA NA NA NA NA - NA NA
  EuG NA NA * * NA NA - **
  ThA NA NA 0.162 0.169 NA NA ** -
                   
TW EuA - 0.794 0.852 0.219 * *** *** 0.999
  EuB 0.794 - 1.000 0.929 * *** *** 0.574
  EuC 0.852 1.000 - 0.872 * *** *** 0.638
  EuD 0.219 0.929 0.872 - * *** *** 0.126
  EuE * * * * - *** ** **
  EuF *** *** *** *** *** - 0.776 ***
  EuG *** *** *** *** ** 0.776 - ***
  ThA 0.999 0.574 0.638 0.123 ** *** *** -
                   
CW EuA - 0.847 0.093 0.121 *** **** NA NA
  EuB 0.847 - 0.289 0.511 *** **** NA NA
  EuC 0.093 0.289 - 0.771 ** *** NA NA
  EuD 0.121 0.511 0.771 - *** **** NA NA
  EuE *** *** ** *** - *** NA NA
  EuF **** **** *** **** *** - NA NA
  EuG NA NA NA NA NA NA - NA
  ThA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA -
                   
TL EuA - 0.932 0.139 0.972 ** *** *** 0.962
  EuB 0.932 - 0.391 0.999 ** *** *** 0.524
  EuC 0.139 0.391 - 0.125 * *** *** 0.059
  EuD 0.972 0.999 0.125 - *** **** **** 0.487
  EuE ** ** * *** - ** *** ***
  EuF *** *** *** **** ** - 0.724 ***
  EuG *** *** *** **** *** 0.724 - ****
  ThA 0.962 0.524 0.059 0.487 *** *** **** -
                   
CL EuA - 0.901 0.261 0.592 ** *** NA NA
  EuB 0.901 - 0.653 0.998 ** *** NA NA
  EuC 0.261 0.653 - 0.623 ** *** NA NA
  EuD 0.592 0.998 0.623 - *** *** NA NA
  EuE ** ** ** *** - ** NA NA
  EuF *** *** *** *** ** - NA NA
  EuG NA NA NA NA NA NA - NA
  ThA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA -
                   
TD EuA - 0.128 ** 0.096 *** NA NA 0.393
  EuB 0.128 - * 0.989 *** NA NA *
  EuC ** * - ** *** NA NA **
  EuD 0.096 0.989 ** - *** NA NA *
  EuE *** *** *** *** - NA NA ***
  EuF NA NA NA NA NA - NA NA
  EuG NA NA NA NA NA NA - NA
  ThA 0.393 * ** * *** NA NA -
                   
CD EuA - NA 0.810 0.970 0.101 * NA NA
  EuB NA - NA NA NA NA NA NA
  EuC 0.810 NA - 0.932 0.235 0.060 NA NA
  EuD 0.970 NA 0.932 - 0.069 * NA NA
  EuE 0.101 NA 0.235 0.069 - 0.215 NA NA
  EuF * NA 0.060 * 0.215 - NA NA
  EuG NA NA NA NA NA NA - NA

APPENDIX 21.

Boxplots for all therian measurement with significant ANOVA results according to morphotype (i.e., all measurement except TDW). Boxplots include minimum, quartiles, median, and maximum values. See Table 1 for measurements, Table 3 for data, and Appendix 19-Appendix 20 for ANOVA and Tukey HSD results, respectively. The specimen attributed to morphotype MeA was not included in ANOVA and Tukey tests because it lacked any morphologies preserving our measurements.

appendix 21

 

 

APPENDIX 22.

Variances for therian measurements with significant ANOVA results according to morphotype (i.e., all measurements except TDW) and preserving at least two specimens (i.e., only EuC, EuD, and EuE; see Appendix 8). See Appendix 21 for means, maxima, minima, and quartiles. See Table 1 for measurements, Table 3 for data, and Appendix 19-Appendix 20 for ANOVA and Tukey HSD results, respectively.

 

appendix 22

 

APPENDIX 23.

Means and standard deviations for multituberculate measurements for entire dataset and by biozone. For measurement descriptions see Table 1; for data see Table 2. NA indicates no specimens preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for mean) or only one specimen preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for SD). Bold values indicate specimen percent preservation (i.e., the number of specimens that preserve that measurement divided by the total number of specimens) greater than or equal to 80%. Abbreviations: BCA, Bug Creek Anthills specimens of mixed age (see text for details); n, number of specimens; Pu1, early Puercan 1 biozone; Pu3, late Puercan biozone; SD, standard deviation.

  TDW AW TLW NCW UCW RCW UCL RCL UCD RCD
Full Dataset (n = 30)
Mean 6.859 3.551 4.089 2.049 1.639 2.219 2.576 2.482 2.826 2.801
SD 3.864 1.954 2.334 1.022 0.903 1.302 1.472 1.555 1.607 1.440
% Preservation 36.67 53.33 53.33 50.00 86.67 70.00 86.67 73.33 90.00 63.33
Lancian (n = 11)
Mean 10.475 5.232 6.199 3.066 2.243 3.151 3.627 3.587 4.145 3.650
SD 5.874 2.709 3.891 1.390 1.194 1.474 1.950 1.687 2.018 1.806
% Preservation 27.27 45.45 36.36 36.36 81.82 81.82 81.82 90.91 81.82 72.73
BCA (n = 12)
Mean 5.366 2.686 3.194 1.723 1.220 1.530 1.844 1.438 2.009 2.135
SD 2.054 1.006 1.177 0.637 0.485 0.621 0.732 0.586 0.828 0.800
% Preservation 58.33 66.67 75.00 66.67 100.00 66.67 91.67 66.67 91.67 66.67
Pu1 (n = 4)
Mean 6.460 3.090 4.250 1.960 1.965 1.470 2.653 1.858 2.595 2.335
SD NA NA NA NA 0.559 0.325 0.764 0.039 0.970 NA
% Preservation 25.00 25.00 25.00 25.00 50.00 50.00 75.00 50.00 100.00 25.00
Pu3 (n = 3)  
Mean NA 3.038 3.818 1.360 1.285 1.530 2.033 1.760 2.177 2.300
SD NA 0.004 0.004 0.170 0.213 0.156 0.511 0.007 0.447 0.007
% Preservation 0.00 66.67 66.67 66.67 100.00 66.67 100.00 66.67 100.00 66.67

APPENDIX 24.

Means and standard deviations for therian measurements by biozone. We include all specimens except for the specimen in morphotype MeA, which lacked any measureable features. For measurement descriptions see Table 1; for data see Table 3 (data excludes minimum values). NA indicates no specimens preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for means) or only one specimen preserved the measurement (i.e., NA for SD). Bold values indicate specimen percent preservation (i.e., the number of specimens that preserve that measurement divided by the total number of specimens) greater than or equal to 80%. Abbreviations: BCA, Bug Creek Anthills specimens of mixed age (see text for details); n, number of specimens; Pu1, early Puercan 1 biozone; Pu3, late Puercan biozone; SD, standard deviation.

  TDW AW TLW NCW TW CW TL CL TD CD
Full Dataset (n = 14)
Mean 9.560 7.189 7.414 4.713 2.438 4.836 3.084 3.026 2.708 4.416
SD 0.357 3.926 3.888 2.812 1.351 2.838 2.084 1.824 1.360 2.836
% Preservation 21.43 78.57 78.57 42.86 92.86 78.57 92.86 78.57 71.43 57.14
Lancian (n = 2)
Mean NA 4.765 5.120 2.380 1.458 2.895 1.650 1.945 1.868 NA
SD NA NA NA NA 0.350 NA 0.438 NA 0.689 NA
% Preservation 0.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 100.00 50.00 100.00 50.00 100.00 0.00
BCA (n = 6)
Mean 9.560 5.492 5.773 3.860 1.881 3.583 1.980 2.133 2.429 2.724
SD 0.357 0.212 0.278 0.332 0.182 0.282 0.396 0.272 0.354 0.414
% Preservation 50.00 100.00 100.00 50.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 83.33 66.67
Pu1 (n = 2)
Mean NA 10.685 10.850 4.015 2.950 7.620 4.575 5.110 4.720 7.525
SD NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA 2.206 NA
% Preservation 0.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 50.00 100.00 50.00
Pu3 (n = 4)
Mean NA 10.227 10.315 10.300 3.636 7.062 5.085 4.480 1.756 5.637
SD NA 6.741 6.793 NA 1.987 4.708 2.676 2.852 NA 3.885
% Preservation 0.00 75.00 75.00 25.00 100.00 75.00 100.00 75.00 25.00 75.00

APPENDIX 25.

The results of One-Way ANOVAs of difference for all multituberculate measurements across all biozones. Asterisk indicates significant p-values (< 0.05). Both biozone (b) and residuals (r) values are given for Sum of Squares, df, and Mean Squares. See Table 1 for measurement details; see Table 2 for data and Appendix 26 for Tukey HSD results.

  TDW AW TLW NCW UCW RCW UCL RCL UCD RCD
  b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r
Sum of Squares 54.980 94.306 20.851 36.433 25.180 56.513 5.946 8.669 5.972 14.405 13.689 20.215 16.729 37.464 22.739 28.015 24.477 42.655 10.034 27.305
df 2 8 3 12 3 12 3 11 3 22 3 17 3 22 3 18 3 23 3 15
Mean Squares 27.490 11.788 6.950 3.036 8.393 4.709 1.982 0.788 1.991 0.655 4.563 1.189 5.576 1.703 7.580 1.556 8.159 1.855 3.345 1.820
F 2.332 2.289 1.782 2.515 3.040 3.837 3.275 4.870 4.399 1.837
p-value 0.159 0.130 0.130 0.112 0.050 * * * * 0.184

APPENDIX 26.

Probabilities from Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc test of multituberculate measurements by biozones. Measurements subjected to the Tukey HSD test are those with significant ANOVA results: radial condyle width (RCW), ulnar condyle length (UCL), radial condyle length (RCL), and ulnar condyle depth (UCD). Significance indicated by the following: * for p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01.

Measurement   Lancian BCA Pu1 Pu3
RCW Lancian - * 0.237 0.264
  BCA * - 1.000 1.000
  Pu1 0.237 1.000 - 1.000
  Pu3 0.264 1.000 1.000 -
 
UCL Lancian - * 0.682 0.286
  BCA * - 0.777 0.996
  Pu1 0.682 0.777 - 0.936
  Pu3 0.286 0.996 0.936 -
 
RCL Lancian - ** 0.310 0.267
  BCA ** - 0.973 0.988
  Pu1 0.310 0.973 - 1.000
  Pu3 0.267 0.988 1.000 -
 
UCD Lancian - * 0.258 0.162
  BCA * - 0.881 0.998
  Pu1 0.258 0.881 - 0.977
  Pu3 0.162 0.998 0.977 -

APPENDIX 27.

Boxplots (above) and variances (below) for each multituberculate measurement with significant ANOVA results according to biozone. Boxplots include minimum, quartiles, median, and maximum values. See Table 1 for measurements, Table 2 for data, Appendix 7 for means, and Appendix 25-Appendix 26 for ANOVA and Tukey HSD results, respectively. Asterisks indicate pairs of significantly different values in Tukey tests (i.e., Lancian specimens are significantly larger than BCA specimens for all measurements).

 

appendix 27

 

APPENDIX 28.

The results of One-Way ANOVAs of difference for all therians measurements across all biozones (for all measurements with specimens in at least three biozones, i.e., excluding TDW). Significance is as follows: * for p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01. Both biozone (b) and residuals (r) values are given for Sum of Squares, df, and Mean Squares. See Table 1 for measurement details and Table 3 for data.

  AW TLW NCW TW CW TL CL TD CD
  b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r b r
Sum of Squares 63.066 91.093 58.483 92.688 39.327 0.220 9.791 12.127 35.811 44.726 29.665 22.464 16.641 16.637 10.805 5.844 25.591 30.696
df 3 7 3 7 3 2 3 9 3 7 3 9 3 7 3 6 2 5
Mean
Squares
21.022 13.013 19.494 13.241 13.109 0.110 3.264 1.347 11.937 6.389 9.888 2.496 5.547 2.377 3.602 0.974 12.795 6.139
F 1.615 1.472 119.066 2.422 1.868 3.962 2.334 3.698 2.084
p-value 0.270 0.302 ** 0.133 0.223 * 0.160 0.081 0.220

APPENDIX 29.

Probabilities from Tukey honest significant difference (HSD) post hoc test of therian measurements by biozones. Measurements subjected to the Tukey HSD test are those with significant ANOVA results, only entepicondyle condyle width (NCW) and trochlea depth (TL). Significance is as follows: * for p < 0.05; ** for p < 0.01.

Measurement   Lancian BCA Pu1 Pu3
NCW Lancian - 0.147 0.176 **
  BCA 0.147 - 0.973 **
  Pu1 0.176 0.973 - *
  Pu3 ** ** * -
 
TL Lancian - 0.994 0.470 0.125
  BCA 0.994 - 0.465 0.056
  Pu1 0.470 0.465 - 0.991
  Pu3 0.125 0.056 0.991 -

APPENDIX 30.

Boxplot (left) and variance (right) for eutherian NCW measurement, which had significant ANOVA results according to biozone. Boxplot includes minimum, quartiles, median, and maximum values; variance shown for biozones with n > 1. See Table 1 for measurements, Table 3 for data, Appendix 8 for means, and Appendix 28-Appendix 29 for ANOVA and Tukey HSD results, respectively. Asterisks indicate pairs of significantly different values in Tukey tests (i.e., Pu3 specimens are significantly larger than Lancian and BCA specimens).

appendix 30

 

APPENDIX 31.

Eigenvalues, proportion of variance, and cumulative variance explained from PCAs. We conducted PCAs on two separate datasets: one “full dataset” that included all modern taxa (Table 4), and one “reduced dataset” of eutherians that excluded carnivorans and lagomorphs (see text for more details). Of the 40 total principal components in each PCA, we report only PCs that explained at least 1% of the variance.

  Eigenvalues Proportion of
Variance
Cumulative
Variance
Full Dataset
  PC1 0.0067938 46% 46%
  PC2 0.0018609 13% 59%
  PC3 0.0016220 11% 70%
  PC4 0.0011623 8% 78%
  PC5 0.0007075 5% 83%
  PC6 0.0004502 3% 86%
  PC7 0.0003615 2% 88%
  PC8 0.0003264 2% 91%
  PC9 0.0003162 2% 93%
  PC10 0.0002115 1% 94%
  PC11 0.0001540 1% 95%
Reduced Dataset
  PC1 0.0042641 37% 37%
  PC2 0.0021872 19% 56%
  PC3 0.0015529 13% 69%
  PC4 0.0007259 6% 75%
  PC5 0.0007226 6% 82%
  PC6 0.0004394 4% 85%
  PC7 0.0003591 3% 89%
  PC8 0.0003120 3% 91%
  PC9 0.0002451 2% 93%
  PC10 0.0001782 2% 95%
  PC11 0.0001404 1% 96%

APPENDIX 32.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all modern taxa with specimens labeled. PC1 and PC2 explain 46% and 13% of the total variance, respectively (Appendix 31). Partial warp shapes indicate the minimum and maximum of PC1 on a right humerus in distal view. Black circles are metatherians, gray circles are eutherians. See Table 4 for specimen information. We note the orientation of the maximum and minimum of PC1 is reversed here compared to Figure 3, Figure 20-Figure 21); this is a function of the arbitrary assignment of maximum and minimum in PC space, and it does not affect the shape interpretation.

appendix 32

 

 

 

APPENDIX 33.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all modern taxa with specimens labeled. PC2 and PC3 explain 13% and 11% of the total variance, respectively (Appendix 31). Partial warp shapes indicate the minimum and maximum of PC2. Black circles are metatherians, gray circles are eutherians. See Table 4 for specimen information.

appendix 33

APPENDIX 34.

LDA results for the reduced dataset of extant mammals with known locomotion. LDA analyses used all significant principal components (i.e., those which represented at least 1% of the variation).

Locomotor Group Means
  A F G S Sa Sc Sf T
PC1 0.01276 -0.00884 0.06054 0.05556 -0.01318 -0.03556 -0.01427 0.02452
PC2 0.02255 -0.02874 0.03102 -0.01765 -0.07145 0.05872 0.00177 0.01686
PC3 0.01071 -0.00397 -0.00655 -0.00441 0.00296 0.04311 -0.01621 0.00011
PC4 -0.00049 -0.01497 0.00582 0.00888 0.01229 0.00693 0.00257 0.02051
PC5 0.00474 -0.00238 -0.03417 0.00849 -0.00719 -0.00493 0.00250 0.00677
PC6 0.01928 -0.00531 0.00733 -0.02232 -0.00779 -0.01032 -0.00525 -0.01245
PC7 -0.00652 -0.00415 0.01422 -0.00893 0.01796 0.02135 -0.01010 0.01034
PC8 -0.00155 0.00139 0.01861 0.00473 0.00458 -0.00357 0.00581 -0.00768
PC9 0.00265 0.00418 0.00749 -0.00980 0.00657 -0.01905 -0.00713 0.00275
PC10 0.00117 -0.00358 -0.00796 0.00495 0.00051 -0.00717 0.00358 -0.00140
PC11 0.00427 0.00338 0.00415 0.00051 -0.00679 0.00198 -0.00687 -0.00108

Coefficients of Linear Discriminants
  LD1 LD2 LD3 LD4 LD5 LD6
PC1 2.94717 2.27578 2.17796 9.41316 -6.31096 -4.86250
PC2 26.91399 13.17848 -4.77661 4.56211 2.92216 0.42556
PC3 7.31164 6.68984 1.18431 -11.66506 2.81487 -1.24342
PC4 -5.70621 22.80368 -3.22197 4.88143 -18.81627 11.10793
PC5 2.06893 -3.58513 -21.96368 -10.27321 -13.82449 -4.63802
PC6 48.82373 -21.34994 19.54012 -11.13995 -10.35859 23.00979
PC7 -20.15756 43.27913 29.14487 -15.39684 0.14397 3.82854
PC8 -6.88752 -9.20087 17.93410 29.18532 19.67257 17.61627
PC9 -3.79714 -16.85835 37.88225 -4.34904 -33.12376 -12.11852
PC10 -4.01667 -13.76100 -24.49836 5.73548 -20.80180 21.90751
PC11 44.60443 -8.70142 17.22111 -4.55220 6.04990 -51.18676
Proportions
of Trace
50.42% 21.25% 13.29% 5.64% 4.95% 3.18%

APPENDIX 35.

LDA predictions for locomotor mode for modern specimens in this study. LDA correctly predicts locomotor mode of modern specimens with an accuracy of 74.19%. Published locomotor mode (LM) is indicated, as well as predicted locomotor mode; asterisks indicate specimens whose locomotor mode was incorrectly predicted. See Table 4 for additional specimen information.

Specimen Genus species Family Order Code LM LM Prediction
S2008 Potamogale velox Potamogalidae Afrosoricida 21 Sa T*
39039 Dendrohyrax arboreus Procaviidae Afrosoricida 22 A A
39038 Dendrohyrax arboreus Procaviidae Afrosoricida 23 A Sf*
S2008 Limnogale mergulus Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 24 Sa F*
34168 Echinops telfairi Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 25 Sc Sc
S2008 Echinops telfairi Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 26 Sc T*
S2008 Hemicentetes semispinosus Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 27 Sf T*
S2008 Oryzorictes sp. Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 28 Sf Sf
S2008 Setifer setosus Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 29 T T
S2008 Tenrec ecaudatus Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 30 T T
S2008 Microgale cowani Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 31 T T
S2008 Microgale dobsoni Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 32 T T
S2008 Microgale talazaci Tenrecidae Afrosoricida 33 T Sc*
34167 Cabassous centralis Dasypodidae Cingulata 55 F Sa*
20735 Dasypus novemcinctus Dasypodidae Cingulata 56 F F
22458 Dasypus novemcinctus Dasypodidae Cingulata 57 F F
35468 Euphractus sexcinctus Dasypodidae Cingulata 58 F F
S2008 Echinosorex gymnurus Erinaceidae Erinaceomorpha 59 T T
S2008 Solenodon paradoxus Solenodontidae Soricomorpha 60 Sf Sf
S2008 Petrodromus tetradactylus Macroscelididae Macroscelidea 67 S T*
35475 Elephantulus rufescens Macroscelididae Macroscelidea 68 T T
34189 Elephantulus rufescens Macroscelididae Macroscelidea 69 T T
39003 Callithrix pygmaea Cebidae Primates 70 A A
39005 Callithrix pygmaea Cebidae Primates 71 A A
75541 Leontopithecus chrysomela Cebidae Primates 72 A A
35406 Saguinus oedipus Cebidae Primates 73 A A
35405 Saguinus oedipus Cebidae Primates 74 A A
82302 Saimiri sciureus Cebidae Primates 75 A A
39014 Saimiri sciureus Cebidae Primates 76 A A
34071 Aplodontia rufa Aplodontiidae Rodentia 77 F Sf*
34058 Aplodontia rufa Aplodontiidae Rodentia 78 F Sf*
34116 Castor canadensis Castoridae Rodentia 79 Sa Sa
34588 Castor canadensis Castoridae Rodentia 80 Sa Sa
72830 Cavia porcellus Caviidae Rodentia 81 T T
72831 Cavia porcellus Caviidae Rodentia 82 T T
76622 Microtus pennsylvanicus Cricetidae Rodentia 83 F F
34326 Microtus pennsylvanicus Cricetidae Rodentia 84 F F
34324 Ondatra zibethicus Cricetidae Rodentia 85 Sa Sa
72879 Ondatra zibethicus Cricetidae Rodentia 86 Sa Sa
66559 Synaptomys borealis Cricetidae Rodentia 87 Sf F*
66561 Synaptomys borealis Cricetidae Rodentia 88 Sf Sf
76721 Zapus princeps Dipodidae Rodentia 89 S Sf*
75136 Zapus princeps Dipodidae Rodentia 90 S S
34176 Coendou prehensilis Erethizontidae Rodentia 91 Sc Sc
44624 Thomomys bottae Geomyidae Rodentia 92 F F
38261 Thomomys bottae Geomyidae Rodentia 93 F F
47378 Chaetodipus fallax Heteromyidae Rodentia 94 F S*
47379 Chaetodipus fallax Heteromyidae Rodentia 95 F A*
78740 Dipodomys deserti Heteromyidae Rodentia 96 S F*
48984 Octodon degus Octodontidae Rodentia 97 Sf A*
39501 Octodon degus Octodontidae Rodentia 98 Sf Sf
35278 Sciurus aberti Sciuridae Rodentia 99 A A
82349 Sciurus aberti Sciuridae Rodentia 100 A A
20646 Sciurus carolinensis Sciuridae Rodentia 101 A A
30010 Sciurus carolinensis Sciuridae Rodentia 102 A A
36334 Glaucomys sabrinus Sciuridae Rodentia 103 G G
35129 Glaucomys sabrinus Sciuridae Rodentia 104 G G
43897 Glaucomys volans Sciuridae Rodentia 105 G G
32254 Glaucomys volans Sciuridae Rodentia 106 G G
75774 Cynomys ludovicianus Sciuridae Rodentia 107 Sf Sf
34227 Tupaia glis Tupaiidae Scandentia 108 A A
34225 Tupaia glis Tupaiidae Scandentia 109 A A

APPENDIX 36.

LDA results and predicted locomotor mode for fossil specimens in this study. Prediction probabilities that are in bold are the top ranked locomotor mode (i.e., rank of 1); all ranks are shown for predictions probabilities, but percentages are shown only for > 0.00%. Abbreviations: Spec. Number, specimen number; Loc. locality; M. morphotype; Bioz., biozone.

Spec.
Number
  Prediction Probabilities Rank
Loc. M. Bioz. A F G S Sa Sc Sf T 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
97114 C1115 EuB La 99.39% 0.17%         0.44%   A Sf F T Sc S G Sa
151991 V71203 EuC BCA 27.10% 9.44% 0.02% 0.17%   0.16% 61.01% 2.10% Sf A F T S Sc G Sa
151964 V65127 EuD BCA 0.82% 93.29%   0.04%     5.85%   F Sf A S Sa T G Sc
153036 V65127 EuD BCA 25.36% 23.94%   0.07%     50.54% 0.09% Sf F A T S Sc Sa G