Articles

Juan Rofes
rofesDepartamento de Estratigrafía y Paleontología
Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología
Universidad del País Vasco
Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa
Spain
and
Grupo Aragosaurus-IUCA
Área de Paleontología
Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra
Universidad de Zaragoza
50009 Zaragoza
Spain
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His career started fifteen years ago in Perú, in the field of archaeozoology, with permanent supervision of Dr. Jane C. Wheeler. On 1998 he defended a license thesis on the archaeological faunal assemblage from an extreme south Peruvian site. In 1999 he was awarded with the “Reina Sofía” grant for master studies at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain), under the direction of Dr. Arturo Morales-Muñíz. JR is an active member of the Atapuerca Research Team since 2001.

From 2004 to 2010 he worked on small mammals from Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) at the Universidad de Zaragoza, under the direction of Dr. Gloria Cuenca-Bescós. His main aim there was the study of fossil Insectivora (Mammalia) from the Early and Middle Pleistocene deposits of Atapuerca. Thanks to the concession of two more research grants he defended a doctoral thesis on June 2009.

He was awarded with a “Juan de la Cierva” post doctoral contract on 2010 and moved to Universidad del País Vasco/EHU (Bilbao). His current research there mainly deals with palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on the small mammal archaeo-palaeontological records from the Cantabrian range. However, his is still involved with the Atapuerca Team, and has started a new line of collaboration with the IMEDEA-CSIC of Mallorca (Balearic Islands) on insular fossil soricids.

He has published more than 30 scientific papers on renowned national and international journals and books, 16 of which belong to the JCR-SCI. His main interests are taxonomy, phylogeny, palaeoecology, palaeobiogeography and the reconstruction of past environments through small mammals, especially from the Pliocene, Pleistocene and Holocene records.

Pere Bover
boverInstitut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats
Cr Miquel Marqués 21
07190 Esporles
Mallorca, Balearic Islands
and
Division of Vertebrate Zoology/Mammalogy
American Museum of Natural History
Central Park West at 79th Street
10024 New York
USA
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Pere is a biologist working at the Department of Biodiversity and Conservation of the Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies in Mallorca (Balearic Islands). He is also a Research Associate at the Division of Vertebrate Zoology/Mammalogy of the American Museum of Natural Histoy of New York (USA) where he stayed with a MEC-Fubright postdoctoral fellowship.

His scientific interests are related with the study of the fossil faunas from insular environments and the past and present impact of humans on these ecosystems. His research is focused in taxonomy, functional morphology, extinction and phylogeny of vertebrates from the Plio-Quaternary of the Balearic Islands and other islands around the world.

Gloria Cuenca-Bescós
cuencaGrupo Aragosaurus-IUCA
Área de Paleontología
Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra
Universidad de Zaragoza
50009 Zaragoza
Spain
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Education
I was born in Lagunillas del Zulia, Venezuela (1958), where I grew up until my mid-teens. My interest in natural sciences started then. The Geology was the closest education training in natural sciences I had the opportunity to achieve in Zaragoza, the city my parents had chosen for living in Spain. I obtained my MSc in Geology in 1981, and after two Doctoral grants MAE in the Netherlands and Prague, I presented my PhD, with Cum Laude qualification, in 1987, at the University of Zaragoza.

Professional Positions
1987. Assistant Professor Contract in Paleontology, University of Zaragoza, giving lectures in General Paleontology, Paleobiology and Micropaleontology.
1992. Associate Professor at the department of Earth Sciences, University of Zaragoza, Micropaleontology, Vertebrate Paleontology, Field Geology, Geology for teachers, for undergraduate and graduate students, and leading the study of fossil vertebrates (mammals and dinosaurs) of 18 MSc’s, and 7 PhD’s.
Honors, Awards, and Professional service
1997. Principe de Asturias Award as member of the Atapuerca Research Team.
1997. Investigación Científica Castilla y León Award, Atapuerca Research Team.
1997. Award Academy of Sciences of Zaragoza
2004-present. National Evaluation and Foresight Agency (ANEP). Advisor.
2005. III Certamen InterCampus 2005, University of Zaragoza, Research on Web: www.aragosaurus.com
2007. Salvador de Madariaga research fellow, Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
2009-present. Agencia Calidad del Sistema Universitario de Castilla y León, advisor.
2010-present. Proyectos de la Consellería de Economía e Industria. Dirección Xeral de Investigación, Desenvolvemento e Innovación. Xunta de Galicia. Advisor.
2011. Ramon y Cajal contracts. Advisor.
University Service
1987-1989. Earth Sciences field work commision.
2002-2004. Vice-Dean of Foreign Relationships. Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza.

Publications
Nearly 200: Gloria Cuenca-Bescós in www.aragosaurus.com page.

Josep Antoni Alcover
alcoverInstitut Mediterrani d'Estudis Avançats
Cr Miquel Marqués 21
07190 Esporles
Mallorca, Balearic Islands
Spain
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Josep Antoni Alcover, zoologist and palaeontologist of IMEDEA (Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avançats - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies) is leading a research team devoted to the study of the insular fossil vertebrates from the Balearic Islands. Recent research concerns the description of extinct vertebrates from the Balearic and the Macaronesian Islands, emphasizing causes of extinction of endemic vertebrates. Author/Editor of different books, such as “Les Quimeres del Passat”, Palma de Mallorca, 1981), “Life History of the Mallorcan Midwife Toad” (Palma de Mallorca, 1983), “Biogeography and Ecology of the Pityusic Islands” (The Hague 1984), “Ecologia de les illes” (Palma de Mallorca, 1999), “Les Balears abans dels humans” (Palma de Mallorca, 2000), “ Proceedings of the International Symposium ‘Insular Vertebrate Evolution: the Palaeontological Approach’, September 16-19 2003 (Palma de Mallorca, 2005).

 
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Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov., the earliest shrew (Mammalia, Soricidae) from the Balearic Islands, Spain

Juan Rofes, Pere Bover, Gloria Cuenca-Bescós, and Josep Antoni Alcover

Plain Language Abstract

We describe the earliest shrew from the Balearic Islands, Spain (earliest Early Pliocene), which also happens to be the earliest representative of the genus Nesiotites known to date. It comes from a fossiliferous bone breccia near to Caló den Rafelino (Mallorca). The new species combines primitive dental traits with a relatively large size, and it integrates the faunal assemblage that arrived to Mallorca during the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

Resumen en Español

Nesiotites rafelinensis, sp. nov., la musaraña (Mammalia, Soricidae) más antigua de las Islas Baleares, España

Este artículo describe una nueva especie de musaraña que procede de una brecha fosilífera cercana al Caló den Rafelino (Mallorca, España). El yacimiento ha sido estratigráfica y paleontológicamente asignado al Plioceno Temprano inicial (MN13-14). Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov. (Mammalia, Soricidae) es el representante más antiguo conocido hasta la fecha de Nesiotites, un clado restringido a las Islas Baleares. La nueva especie combina caracteres dentales primitivos con un tamaño relativamente grande. Los rasgos primitivos relacionan a N. rafelinensis con Asoriculus gibberodon, el posible ancestro de Nesiotites, más que con cualquier otro representante del género. Su gran tamaño interrumpe una tendencia, de otro modo regular, de aumento de la talla corporal, desde el comparativamente pequeño A. gibberodon hasta el reciente y muy grande N. hidalgo. El conjunto faunístico del Caló den Rafelino representa la evidencia más antigua de la fauna que llegó a Mallorca durante la Crisis de
Salinidad del Mesiniense.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Nueva especie; anatomía; Caló den Rafelino; Mallorca; Plioceno; Crisis de Salinidad del Mesiniense

Traducción: los autores

Resum en català

Nesiotites rafelinensis, sp. nov., la musaranya (Mammalia, Soricidae) més antiga de les Balears, Espanya

Es descriu una nova espècie de musaranya procedent d’una bretxa fossilífera propera al Caló den Rafelino (Manacor, Mallorca). El jaciment s’ha assignat al Pliocè Inferior inicial (MN13-14). Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov. (Mammalia, Soricidae) és el representant més antic conegut fins a la data de Nesiotites, un clade restringit a les illes Balears. La nova espècie combina caràcters dentals primitius amb una mida relativament gran. Els trets primitius relacionen N. rafelinensis amb Asoriculus gibberodon, el seu probable ancestre, més que amb altres espècies del gènere. La seva mida gran trenca una tendència, d’altra forma regular, d’increment de la talla corporal des de A. gibberodon, relativament petit, fins al recent N. hidalgo, de mida gran. El conjunt faunístic del Caló den Rafelino representa l’evidència disponible més antiga de la fauna arribada a Mallorca durant la Crisi de Salinitat del Messinià.

PARAULES CLAU: Nova espècie; Anatomia; Caló den Rafelino; Mallorca; Pliocè; Crisi de Salinitat del Messinià.

Traducció: els autors.

Résumé en Français

Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov., la plus ancienne musaraigne  (Mammalia, Soricidae) des Baléares, Espagne

Ce papier décrit une nouvelle espèce de musaraigne provenant d’une brèche à os fossiles proche de Caló den Rafelino (Mallorca, Espagne). Le site est daté stratigraphiquement et paléontologiquement du début du Pliocène inférieur (MN13-14). Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov. (Mammalia, Soricidae) est possiblement le plus ancien représentant du genre Nesiotites connu à ce jour, un clade restreint aux Baléares. La nouvelle espèce combine de traits dentaires primitifs avec une relativement grande taille. Les caractères primitifs rapprochent plutôt N. rafelinensis de Asoriculus gibberodon, l’ancêtre possible de Nesiotites, plutôt que des autres représentants du genre. Par ailleurs, la grande taille interrompt une tendance régulière d’augmentation de la taille depuis le petit A. gibberodon jusqu’au récent et très large N. hidalgo. L’assemblage faunique de Caló den Rafelino représente la plus ancienne preuve de la faune qui arriva sur l’île de Majorque pendant la crise de salinité messinienne.

MOTS CLES : nouvelle espèce ; anatomie ; Caló den Rafelino; Majorque; Pliocène; crise de salinité messinienne.

Translator: Olivier Maridet

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov., die älteste Spitzmaus (Mammalia, Soricidae) der Balearen, Spanien

Im Folgenden wird eine neue Spitzmaus-Art aus einer fossilführenden Knochenbreccie in der Nähe von Caló den Rafelino (Mallorca, Spanien) beschrieben. Die Fundstelle ist stratigraphisch und paläontologisch auf das früheste Unterpliozän (MN13-14) datiert. Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov. (Mammalia, Soricidae) ist wohl der bis dato älteste bekannte Vertreter der Nesiotites, eine Klade, die auf die Balearen beschränkt ist. Die neue Art vereint primitive Zahnmerkmale mit einer relativ großen Körpergröße. Die ursprünglichen Merkmale stellen N. rafelinensis eher in die Verwandtschaft von Asoriculus gibberodon, dem möglichen Vorfahren von Nesiotites, als zu einem anderen Vertreter dieser Gattung. Die beträchtliche Größe unterbricht den andernfalls regulären Trend der Größenzunahme von dem vergleichsweise kleinen A. gibberodon zum heute lebenden sehr großen N. hidalgo. Die Faunenassemblage von Caló den Rafelino repräsentiert den frühesten Nachweis der Fauna, die während der Messinischen Salinitätskrise nach Mallorca gelangte.

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER: Neue Art; Anatomie; Caló den Rafelino; Mallorca; Pliozän; Messinische Salinitätskrise

Translators: Eva Gebauer and Anke Konietzka

Arabic

282 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

Polski Abstrakt

Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov., najstarszy ryjówkowaty (Mammalia, Soricidae) z Balearów, Hiszpania

W tym artykule opisany jest nowy gatunek ryjówkowatego z brekcji kostnych okolic Calo den Rafelino (Majorka, Hiszpania). Stratygraficznie i paleontologicznie stanowisko to datowane jest na najwcześniejszy dolny pliocen (MN13-14). Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov. (Mammalia, Soricidae) jest prawdopodobnie najwcześniejszym do tej pory poznanym przedstawicielem Nesiotites; kladu ograniczonego do Balearów. Nowy gatunek łączy w sobie prymitywne cechy zębów ze stosunkowo dużymi rozmiarami ciała. Prymitywne cechy bardziej łączą N. rafelinensis z Asoriculus gibberodon, możliwym przodkiem Nesiotites, niż którykolwiek inny przedstawiciel tego rodzaju. Ów duże rozmiary przerywają ogólną tendencję stopniowo wzrastających rozmiarów; od stosunkowo małego A. gibberodon do dzisiejszego, dużego N. hidalgo. Zespół faunistyczny Caló den Rafelino reprezentuje najwcześniejsze ślady przybycia fauny na Majorkę podczas Messyńskiego Kryzysu Solnego.

SŁOWA KLUCZOWE: nowy gatunek, anatomia, Caló den Rafelino, Majorka, pliocen, Messyński Kryzys Solny

Translators: Dawid Mazurek and Robert Bronowicz

Riassunto in Italiano

Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov., la più antica specie di soricide (Mammalia, Soricidae) delle isole Baleari, Spagna

Viene qui descritta una nuova specie di soricide proveniente da una breccia ossifera situata vicina a Caló den Rafelino (Maiorca, Spagna). Il sito è datato stratigraficamente e paleontologicamente alla base del Pliocene inferiore (MN13-14). Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov. (Mammalia, Soricidae) è probabilmente il più antico rappresentante finora noto del genere Nesiotites, un clade limitato alle isole Baleari. La nuova specie è caratterizzata da tratti dentari primitivi e una taglia relativamente grande. Le sue caratteristiche dentarie primitive mettono in relazione N. rafelinensis con Asoriculus gibberodon (il probabile antenato di Nesiotites) più di ogni altro rappresentante del genere. La grande taglia di N. rafelinensis interrompe una tendenza verso l’aumento della taglia che va da A. gibberodon (relativamente piccolo) al recente N. hidalgo (molto grande). L’associazione faunistica di Caló den Rafelino rappresenta la più antica testimonianza della fauna che popolò l’isola di Maiorca durante la crisi di salinità messiniana.

PAROLE CHIAVE: nuova specie; anatomia; Caló den Rafelino; Maiorca; Pliocene; crisi di salinità messiniana.

Translator: Chiara Angelone

Anke Konietzka
 

TABLE 1. Measurements of the mandible and lower teeth of the Nesiotites and Asoriculus specimens used in the morphometric analysis. Lm1, length of m1; TAWm1, talonid width of m1; Hm2, height below m2; Lm1-m3, length of m1 to m3.


Species

Site

Age

Lm1

TAWm1

Hm2

Lm1-m3

Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov.

Caló den Rafelino

Early Pliocene

1.93

1.22

1.79

4.68

Nesiotites ponsi

Cruis de Cap Farrutx

Late Pliocene

1.88

1.22

1.69

4.63

 

 

 

1.8

1.19

1.61

4.3

 

 

 

1.95

1.24

1.65

4.47

 

 

 

1.88

1.22

1.65

4.47

Nesiotites aff. ponsi

Pedrera de s'Onix

Early Pleistocene

2.1

1.32

2.02

4.93

 

 

 

1.9

1.3

1.79

4.76

 

 

 

2.1

1.34

1.9

5.05

 

 

 

2.14

1.28

2.03

5

 

 

 

2.11

1.33

1.93

4.95

 

 

 

2.14

1.26

2.02

5.12

Nesiotites meloussae

Barranc de Binigaus

Early Pleistocene

2.11

1.54

1.99

5.31

Nesiotites hidalgo

Cova de Llenaire

Late Pleistocene

2.27

1.39

2.07

5.43

 

 

 

2.14

1.36

1.93

5.2

 

 

 

2.4

1.4

1.92

5.47

 

Cova Estreta

Late Pleis/Holocene

2.37

1.51

1.96

5.63

 

 

 

2.39

1.5

2.17

5.58

 

 

 

2.37

1.43

1.94

5.56

 

Cova de Canet

Late Pleis/Holocene

2.23

1.48

1.94

5.47

 

 

 

2.32

1.47

2.02

5.5

 

 

 

2.35

1.44

2.16

5.63

Asoriculus similis

Sardinia

Late Pleistocene

2.23

1.23

1.67

5.11

 

 

 

2.32

1.32

1.66

5.29

 

 

 

2.31

1.33

1.76

5.34

Asoriculus gibberodon

Vceláre 3

Late Pliocene

1.42

0.9

1.35

3.7

 

Monte La Mesa

Early Pleistocene

1.58

1.02

1.54

3.64

 

Sima del Elefante

Early Pleistocene

1.6

0.97

1.41

3.92

Asoriculus thenii

Podumci 1

Early Pleistocene

1.71

1.08

1.87

4.19

 

Tatinja Draga

Early Pleistocene

1.86

1.12

1.99

4.46

 

TABLE 2.Results of the PCA performed with the measurements of the mandible and the lower dentition. Jolliffe cut-off: 0.7.

 

 

PC1

PC2

PC3

PC4

Eigenvalue

3.535

0.339

0.109

0.017

% variance

88.376

8.487

2.717

0.420

Loadings

 

 

 

 

L m1

0.510

-0.364

0.527

0.574

TAW m1

0.510

-0.154

-0.822

0.204

H m2

0.456

0.88

0.127

0.037

L m1-m3

0.522

-0.263

0.176

-0.792

 

FIGURE 1. Chronological frame of the Nesiotites species described in the Balearic Islands. The Quaternary chronology follows Gibbard et al. (2010). MN zones according to Agustí et al. (2001). (*): The taxonomical identity of N. meloussae and the presence of a separate phylogenetic lineage of the genus in Menorca are controversial and are currently under discussion.

 fig1

FIGURE 2. Location map (left) and topographic survey (right) of the palaeontological deposit from Caló den Rafelino. Arrows and grey colored zone indicate the exact location of the fossiliferous breccia.

 fig2

FIGURE 3. Nesiotites rafelinensis sp. nov. Holotype IMEDEA 91950, incomplete left mandible from the earliest Early Pliocene site of Caló den Rafelino, in (1) buccal, (2) occlusal, and (3) lingual views.

 fig3

FIGURE 4. Bivariate diagram of the m1's L and TAW measurements. Measurements of Asoriculus gibberodon taken from Fejfar and Horácek (1983), Marchetti et al. (2000), and Rofes and Cuenca-Bescós (2006). Measurements of Asoriculus thenii taken from Malez and Rabeder (1984). Nesiotites ponsi specimens are from the site of Cruis de Cap Farrutx, Mallorca (Late Pliocene); Nesiotites aff. ponsi specimens from Pedrera de s'Onix, Mallorca (Early Pleistocene); Nesiotites hidalgo specimens from Cova de Llenaire, Cova de Canet, and Cova Estreta, Mallorca (Late Pleistocene/Holocene); N. meloussae specimen from Barranc de Binigaus, Menorca (Early Pleistocene); Asoriculus similis specimens from Sardinia (Late Pleistocene); Asoriculus gibberodon specimens from Vceláre 3, Slovakia (Late Pliocene), Monte La Mesa, Italy (Early Pleistocene), and Sima del Elefante, Spain (Early Pleistocene); Asoriculus thenii specimens from Podumci 1 and Tatinja Draga, Croatia (Early Pleistocene). Convex hulls, distribution; Ellipses, 95% confidence.

 fig4

FIGURE 5. Principal component analysis (PCA) showing plot of components 1 against 2. Measurements of the lower teeth and the mandible used: Lm1, TAWm1, Hm2, and Lm1-m3. Measurements of Asoriculus gibberodon and A. thenii taken from the same sources as in Figure 4. Specimens other than that of Caló den Rafelino are from the same locations as in Figure 4. Details can be found in Table 2. Convex hulls, distribution; Ellipses, 95% confidence.

fig5