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A taxonomic guide to modern benthic shelf foraminifera of the western Mediterranean Sea

Yvonne Milker and Gerhard Schmiedl

Plain Language Abstract

We present an illustrated guide to modern benthic shelf foraminifera of the Western Mediterranean Sea. The species are systematically listed, and a synonomy list as well as a short description of the morphological features is given for each species. Most of the species are illustrated by scanning electron microscope photographs.

Resumen en Español

Guía taxonómica de los foraminíferos bentónicos actuales de las plataformas del Mediterráneo occidental

Se estudian y ordenan sistemáticamente un total de 208 foraminíferos bentónicos actuales de tres áreas del Mediterráneo occidental (plataforma de Alborán, golfo de Orán y plataforma sudoccidental de Mallorca). La descripción sistemática incluye una lista de sinónimos, breves indicaciones sobre los caracteres morfólógicos de los taxones y algunas notas sobre taxones con un estatus genérico problemático. La mayor parte de los taxones se ilustran con fotografías de microscopio electrónico.

PALABRAS CLAVE: foraminíferos bentónicos; Mediterráneo occidental; Holoceno; taxonomía; plataforma

Traducción: Miguel Company

Résumé en Français

Guide taxonomique des Foraminifera benthiques modernes de plate-forme de la Mer Méditerranée Occidentale.

Au total 288 Foraminifera benthiques modernes de plate-forme carbonatée de trois régions de la Mer Méditerranée Occidentale (Plate-forme d'Alboran, baie d'Oran et plate-forme sud-ouest de Majorque) sont étudiés et répertoriés systématiquement. Cette description systématique apporte une liste de synonymes, de courtes remarques sur les caractéristiques morphologiques des taxons et des annotations sur les taxons aux statuts génériques problématiques. La plupart des taxons sont illustrés par des photos prises au microscope électronique à balayage.

MOTS-CLÉS : Foraminifera benthique ; Mer Méditerranée Occidentale ; Holocène ; taxonomy ; plate-forme

Translator: Yves Candela

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Diese Arbeit enthält eine systematische Beschreibung von 288 modernen benthischen Foraminiferen, die in drei Karbonatschelfgebieten des westlichen Mittelmeeres (Alboran Plattform, Bucht von Oran und südwestlicher Schelf von Mallorca) untersucht worden sind. Im systematischen Teil sind Synonomielisten sowie kurze Beschreibungen der morphologischen Merkmale der einzelnen Arten aufgeführt. Darüber hinaus werden Anmerkungen zu Arten mit problematischem Status gemacht. Die meisten der beschriebenen Arten sind rasterelektronenmikroskopisch dokumentiert und illustriert.

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER: benthische Foraminiferen; westliches Mittelmeer; Holozän; Taxonomie; Schelf

Translators: Author and Eva Gebauer

Arabic

271 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

Polski Abstrakt

In progress

Translators: Dawid Mazurek and Robert Bronowicz

 

Anke Konietzka
 

TABLE 1. Location and water depth of the surface samples and sediment cores (in bold). Surface samples were taken with box and grab corer (BG, KG) and from top of sediment cores recovered with vibrocorer (VC*). All cores were drilled with vibrocorer (VC).

 

No.

Location

Date

Latitude

Longitude

Depth [m]

Gear

326-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°52.450´N

3°05.150´W

102

BG

327-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°53.890´N

3°05.950´W

115

BG

328-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°55.130´N

3°03.311´W

69

BG

329-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°55.200´N

3°02.820´W

60

BG

330-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°56.200´N

3°00.690´W

63

BG

331-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°59.300´N

2°59.500´W

86

BG

332-2

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°59.510´N

2°57.210´W

83

BG

333-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

36°00,655´N

2°49,732´W

161

BG

334-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°57.500´N

2°56.020´W

97

BG

335-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°58.035´N

2°59.890´W

73

BG

336-1

Alboran Platform

16.08.2006

35°54.450´N

3°05.535´W

91

BG

341-2

Alboran Platform

17.08.2006

35°55.103´N

3°02.194´W

53

VC*

342-1

Alboran Platform

17.08.2006

35°56.400´N

3°00.213´W

64

VC*

342-1

Alboran Platform

17.08.2006

35°56.400´N

3°00.213´W

64

VC

343-2

Alboran Platform

17.08.2006

35°55.588´N

3°01.915´W

38

VC*

351-1

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°48.490´N

0°34.000´W

70

BG

352-1

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°47.500´N

0°33.810´W

48

KG

353-1

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°47.230´N

0°37.650´W

73

BG

354-1

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°45.872´N

0°40.232´W

84

BG

355-1

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°50.696´N

0°35.306´W

127

BG

356-1

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°50.207´N

0°35.000´W

118

BG

357-1

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°51.204´N

0°33.092´W

100

BG

357-2

Oran Bight

19.08.2006

35°51.198´N

0°33.092´W

100

KG

358-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°50.802´N

0°32.700´W

85

BG

359-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°50.200´N

0°32.000´W

78

BG

360-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35.49.890´N

0°31.600´W

83

BG

361-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°49.990´N

0°30.510´W

67

BG

362-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°50.895´N

0°29.496´W

20

KG

363-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°52.110´N

0°30.500´W

97

BG

364-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°52.900´N

0°30.800´W

121

BG

365-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°53.900´N

0°31.297´W

130

BG

367-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°48.000´N

0°33.700´W

63

VC

373-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35.49.664´N

0°34.673´W

90

BG

374-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35°50.005´N

0°34.886´W

100

BG

375-1

Oran Bight

20.08.2006

35.51.105´N

0°35.526´W

115

BG

377-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°18.879´N

2°47.827´E

47

BG

378-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°21.192´N

2°47.810´E

40

BG

379-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°19.601´N

2°46.208´E

48

BG

380-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°18.098´N

2°44.702´E

56

BG

381-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°17.005´N

2°43.300´E

67

BG

382-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°16.101´N

2°42.196´E

74

BG

384-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°18.095´N

2°49.013´E

61

BG

387-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°15.503´N

2°41.498´E

80

BG

388-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°15.214´N

2°41.089´E

94

BG

390-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°14.830´N

2°40.532´E

116

BG

391-1

Mallorca Shelf

24.08.2006

39°13.610´N

2°39.090´E

163

BG

393-1

Mallorca Shelf

25.08.2006

39°10.601´N

2°40.398´E

235

KG

401-1

Mallorca Shelf

25.08.2006

39°17.101´N

2°48.305´E

74

VC

403-1

Mallorca Shelf

25.08.2006

39°14.798´N

2.45.524´E

94

BG

404-1

Mallorca Shelf

25.08.2006

39°13.970´N

2°44.496´E

105

BG

TABLE 2. Recent abundance and water depth distribution and fossil abundance of the described species. Species have been classified, depending on their abundance on the total recent and fossil assemblages in percent in the three investigated areas, into the following categories: (o) = extremely rare; o = very rare (<1%); oo = rare (1-5%); ooo = frequent (5-10%), oooo = abundant (10-25%) and ooooo = dominant (>25%). The distribution of fossil species that are abundant in at least 1/3 of the core samples have been listed into the following time intervals: late Holocene (<3500 cal. years BP), middle Holocene (3500 - 6500 cal. years BP), early Holocene (6500 - 11 700 cal. years BP) and the late glacial period (>11 700 cal. years BP). The distribution of fossil species that are extremely rare and only occur in a few core samples is not given here except for those that have been only found in the fossil assemblages (* summarized to Ammonia spp., ** summarized to Asterigerinata mamilla s.l.) (in PDF only).

TABLE 3. Summary of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in Q-Mode of the dead assemblages in the surface samples from the Alboran Platform, Oran Bight and Mallorca Shelf. Given are the dominant species and the most important associated species with their scores. Further, the explained variance for the principal components (PCs) is listed.

 

Alboran Platform

PC-axis

Variance [%]

Species

Score

1

56.8

Cassidulina obtusa

3.44

 

 

Globocassidulina subglobulosa

2.96

 

 

Gavelinopsis praegeri

1.65

2

16.8

Asterigerinata mamilla s.l.

4.47

 

 

Elphidium complanatum

1.91

 

 

Lobatula lobatula

1.59

3

8.4

Elphidium complanatum

3.28

 

 

Cibicides refulgens

3.18

 

 

Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus

1.36

4

7.7

Cibicidoides pseudungerianus

4.71

 

 

Cassidulina obtusa

1.48

 

 

Asterigerinata mamilla s.l.

1.26

Oran Bight

PC-axis

Variance [%]

Species

Score

1

42.2

Globocassidulina subglobulosa

5.03

 

 

Cassidulina obtusa

2.03

 

 

Spiroplectinella sagittula

1.42

2

15.1

Cassidulina laevigata s.l.

5.59

 

 

Globocassidulina oblonga

2.39

3

11.1

Gaudryina rudis

3.36

 

 

Lobatula lobatula

2.52

 

 

Eponides concameratus

2.20

4

8.0

Asterigerinata mamilla s.l.

5.26

 

 

Rosalina macropora

1.89

 

 

Discorbinella bertheloti

1.64

5

5.8

Lobatula lobatula

4.37

 

 

Neoconorbina terquemi

2.31

 

 

Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus

1.96

Mallorca Shelf

PC-axis

Variance [%]

Species

Score

1

35.1

Neoconorbina terquemi

5.18

 

 

Asterigerinata mamilla s.l.

3.71

 

 

Lobatula lobatula

1.45

2

25.9

Cassidulina laevigata s.l.

5.72

 

 

Bulimina elongata

2.10

 

 

Hyalinea balthica

1.45

3

14.2

Spiroplectinella sagittula

5.34

 

 

Asterigerinata mamilla s.l.

1.66

 

 

Lobatula lobatula

1.54

4

7.9

Gavelinopsis praegeri

5.23

 

 

Globocassidulina subglobulosa

1.91

 

 

Cassidulina obtusa

1.86

5

7.4

Lobatula lobatula

4.62

 

 

Textularia calva

1.71

 

 

Gaudyrina rudis

1.38

TABLE 4. Statistical output of the Redundancy Analysis (RDA) applied on the dead fauna in the surface samples. For the analysis, binary “dummy” variables for Alboran Platform, Oran Bight and Mallorca Shelf were used as covariables (see Milker et al., 2009).

 

 

Axis 1

Axis 2

Axis 3

Axis 4

Captured variance (%)

F value

p value

eigenvalues

0.141

0.042

0.011

0.009

 

 

 

species-environment correlations

0.778

0.619

0.595

0.553

 

 

 

cumulative percentage variance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of species data

19.0

24.7

26.2

27.4

 

 

 

of species-environment relation

67.1

87.2

92.4

96.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Correlation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

water depth

0.8071

-0.2602

0.1625

0.0757

12.9

6.25

<0.0002

salinity

-0.7063

-0.1551

-0.0939

0.0479

9.9

4.62

<0.0002

>1000 µm

-0.4778

-0.6811

0.3586

-0.3236

7.3

3.33

<0.0058

chlorophyll a

-0.5153

0.4498

0.6924

-0.0721

6.9

3.13

<0.0058

<63 µm

0.4628

0.3682

-0.4030

-0.4219

5.4

2.39

<0.0276

temperature

-0.2025

0.4289

0.2573

-0.6046

2.5

1.10

<0.3348

TABLE 5. Summary of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in Q-Mode of the fossil assemblages in the sediment cores from the Alboran Platform, Oran Bight and Mallorca Shelf. Given are the dominant species and the most important associated species with their scores. Further, the explained variance for the principal components (PCs) is listed.

Core 342-1 (Alboran Platform)

PC Axis

Variance [%]

Species

Score

1

37.8

Asterigerinata mamilla

5.894

 

 

Elphidium complanatum

5.732

 

 

Spirillina vivipara

2.389

 

 

Brizalina difformis

1.372

2

33.7

Lobatula lobatula

7.448

 

 

Elphidium sp. 1

4.296

 

 

Elphidium complanatum forma tyrrhenianum

1.883

 

 

Elphidium aculeatum

1.243

3

14.0

Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus

6.409

 

 

Globocassidulina subglobosa

2.724

 

 

Globocassidulina obtusa

2.434

 

 

Lobatula lobatula

2.331

Core 367-1 (Oran Bight)

PC Axis

Variance [%]

Species

Score

1

50.9

Asterigerinata mamilla

4.740

 

 

Lobatula lobatula

3.895

 

 

Quinqueloculina stelligera

1.944

 

 

Rosalina macropora

1.792

2

44.9

Asterigerinata mamilla

5.085

 

 

Globocassidulina subglobosa

2.874

 

 

Discorbinella bertheloti

2.826

 

 

Elphidium complanatum

2.096

Core 401-1 (Mallorca Shelf)

PC Axis

Variance [%]

Species

Score

1

33.6

Neoconorbina terquemi

9.783

 

 

Tretomphalus sp. 1

2.406

2

34.1

Tretomphalus concinnus

7.798

 

 

Sigmoilinita costata

2.564

 

 

Spirorbina sp. 1

2.412

 

 

Quinqueloculina stelligera

2.369

3

17.5

Cassidulina laevigata s.l.

9.227

 

 

Tretomphalus sp. 1

2.374

 

 

Reussella spinulosa

1.642

 

 

Spirillina vivipara

1.033

 

FIGURE 1. Overview of the Western Mediterranean Sea, showing the sampling areas Alboran Platform, Oran Bight and southwest shelf off Mallorca (see also Table 1). For detailed maps with sample and sediment core locations see Figures 2-4.

fig1

FIGURE 2. Map of the Alboran Platform region, showing the locations of the surface samples (blue diamonds) and sediment core 342-1 (blue square). Surface samples were taken from 38 to 161 m water depth, and the core was drilled at 64 m water depth.

fig2

FIGURE 3. Map of the Oran Bight region, showing the locations of the surface samples (red diamonds) and sediment core 367-1 (red square). Surface samples were taken from 20 to 130 m water depth, and the core was drilled at 63 m water depth.

fig3

FIGURE 4. Map of the southwest Mallorca Shelf, showing the locations of the surface samples (green diamonds) and sediment core 401-1 (green square). Surface samples were taken from 40 to 235 m water depth, and the core was drilled at 74 m water depth.

fig4

FIGURE 5. Standing stocks per 10 cm3 in the first centimetre of the sediment, number of individual taxa and Shannon diversity (H) for the Rose Bengal-stained foraminiferal assemblages (top) and benthic foraminiferal number (BFN) per 10 cm3, number of taxa and Shannon diversity for the dead foraminiferal assemblages (bottom) in the studied areas versus water depth.

fig5

FIGURE 6. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in Q-Mode for the Alboran Platform (top), Oran Bight (middle) and Mallorca Shelf (bottom) dead assemblages in the surface samples. PC loadings higher than 0.5 are defined as significant as suggested by Malmgren and Haq (1982) and are filled. See also Table 3.

fig6

FIGURE 7. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) for the dead assemblages in the surface samples (excluding sample 362-1) (blue triangles: Alboran Platform samples, red diamonds: Oran Bight samples and green up triangles: Mallorca Shelf samples) (see also Table 4). "Location parameters" were included as binary "dummy variables" into analysis and used as covariables to avoid local effects and to extract environmental parameters exerting a similar influence on the benthic foraminiferal variability in all areas (see also Milker et al., 2009). Names from species with very short gradients were removed from the plot for better illustration.

fig7

FIGURE 8. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in Q-Mode for the Alboran Platform (top), Oran Bight (middle) and Mallorca Shelf (bottom) fossil assemblages in the sediment cores. PC loadings higher than 0.5 are defined as significant as suggested by Malmgren and Haq (1982) and are filled. See also Table 5.

fig8

FIGURE 9. 1 Rhabdamminella cylindrica (Brady), 149x, lateral view, 2 Psammosphaera fusca Schulze, 367x, lateral view; 3 P. fusca Schulze, 295x, lateral view; 4 Lagenammina difflugiformis (Brady), 476x, lateral view; 5 Ammolagena clavata (Parker and Jones), 226x, lateral view; 6 Repmanina charoides (Jones and Parker), 510x, apertural edge view; 7 R. charoides (Jones and Parker), 552x, side view; 8 Reophax scorpiurus de Montfort, 119x, lateral view; 9 Cribrostomoides jeffreysii (Williamson), 635x, side view; 10 C. jeffreysii (Williamson), 538x, peripheral view; 11 Labrospira subglobosa (Sars), 355x, side view; 12 L. subglobosa (Sars), 288x, peripheral view; 13 Glaphyrammina americana (Cushman), 269x, side view, 14 G. americana (Cushman), 245x, apertual edge view; 15 Ammosphaeroidina sphaeroidiniformis (Brady), 242x, two chamber side; 16 A. sphaeroidiniformis (Brady), 137x, three chamber side; 17 Alveolophragmium scitulum (Brady), 320x, side view; 18 A. scitulum (Brady), 425x, peripheral view; 19 Spiroplectinella sagittula s.l. (Defrance), 331x, lateral view; 20 S. sagittula s.l. (Defrance), 339x, lateral view; 21 S. sagittula s.l. (Defrance), 587x, lateral view; 22 Spiroplectinella sp. 1, 884x, lateral view; 23 Spiroplectinella sp. 2, 344x, lateral view; 24 Spiroplectinella sp. 2, 374x, lateral view; 25 Ammoglobigerina globigeriniformis (Parker and Jones), 707x, spiral side; 26 A. globigeriniformis (Parker and Jones), 578x, umbilical side;

fig9

FIGURE 10. 1 Deuterammina dublinensis Broennimann and Whittaker, 890x, spiral side; 2 D. dublinensis Broennimann and Whittaker, 858x, umbilical side; 3 Polystomammina nitida (Brady), 939x, spiral side; 4 P. nitida (Brady), 539x, peripheral view; 5 P. nitida (Brady), 580x, umbilical side; 6 Gaudryina rudis Wright, 275x, lateral view; 7 Gaudryina siciliana Cushman, 1020x, oblique edge view; 8 G. siciliana Cushman, 405x, basal view; 9 Eggerelloides scabrus (Williamson), 626x, lateral view; 10 Bigenerina nodosaria d'Orbigny, 315x, lateral view, juvenile specimen; 11 B. nodosaria d'Orbigny, 207x, lateral view; 12 B. nodosaria d'Orbigny, 242x, lateral view; 13 Sahulia cf. kerimbaensis (Said), 317x, lateral view; 14 S. cf. kerimbaensis (Said), 356x, edge view; 15 Textularia agglutinans d'Orbigny, 157x, lateral view; 16 T. agglutinans d'Orbigny, 256x, lateral view; 17 Textularia calva Lalicker, 246x, lateral view; 18 Textularia conica d'Orbigny, 477x, lateral view; 19 Textularia gramen d'Orbigny, 389x, lateral view; 20 Textularia gramen d'Orbigny, 246x, oblique lateral view; 21 Textularia pala Czjzek, 503x, lateral view; 22 T. pala Czjzek, 366x, lateral view; 23 Textularia pseudorugosa Lacroix, 149x, lateral view, atypical specimen; 24 T. pseudorugosa Lacroix, 278x, lateral view; 25 Siphotextularia concava (Karrer), 360x, lateral view; 26 S. concava (Karrer), 1120x, apertural face.

fig10

FIGURE 11. 1 Siphotextularia flintii (Cushman), 368x, oblique lateral view; 2 S. flintii (Cushman), 590x, lateral view; 3 S. flintii Cushman, 252x, peripheral view; 4 Pseudoclavulina crustata Cushman, 254x, lateral view, juvenile specimen; 5 Pseudoclavulina crustata Cushman, 291x, lateral view, juvenile specimen; 6 P. crustata Cushman, 399x, lateral view; 7 Clavulina cylindrica (Cushman), 165x, lateral view; 8 Trocholinopsis ornata Sidebottom, 607x, spiral side; 9 T. ornata Sidebottom, 771x, umbilical side; 10 Spirillinid sp. 1, 480x, convex side; 11 Sejunctella cf. lateseptata (Terquem), 683x, spiral side; 12 S. cf. lateseptata (Terquem), 925x, umbilical side; 13 Spirillina limbata Brady, 383x, side view; 14 S. limbata Brady, 415x, side view; 15 Spirillina vivipara Ehrenberg, 684x, side view; 16 S. vivipara Ehrenberg, 655x, side view; 17 Spirillina wrightii Heron-Allen and Earland, 361x, side view; 18 S. wrightii Heron-Allen and Earland, 396x, side view; 19 Spirillina sp. 1, 807x, side view; 20 Spirillina sp. 1, 801x, side view; 21 Patellina corrugata Williamson, 783x, spiral side; 22 P. corrugata Williamson, 685x, spiral side; 23 P. corrugata Williamson, 655x, umbilical side; 24 Cornuspira foliacea (Philippi), 318x, peripheral view; 25 C. foliacea (Philippi), 192x, side view.

fig11

FIGURE 12. 1 Cornuspira involvens (Reuss), 954x, side view; 2 Trisegmentina compressa Wiesner, 729x, side view; 3 Vertebralina striata d'Orbigny, 543x, side view; 4 Wiesnerella auriculata (Egger), 1130x, side view; 5 Nubecularia lucifuga Defrance, 541x, dorsal side; 6 N. lucifuga Defrance, 631x, dorsal side; 7 Nubeculina divaricata (Brady), 685x, lateral view; 8 N. divaricata (Brady), 383x, lateral view; 9 Spirophthalmidium acutimargo (Brady) var. concava (Wiesner), 635x, lateral view; 10 S. acutimargo (Brady) var. concava (Wiesner), 396x, peripheral view; 11 Spirophthalmidium acutimargo (Brady) var. concava (Wiesner), 470x, lateral view; 12 Spirophthalmidium sp. 1, 757x, lateral view; 13 Spirophthalmidium sp. 2, 970x, lateral view; 14 Adelosina dubia (d'Orbigny), 638x, lateral view; 15 Adelosina colomi (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 103x, four chamber side; 16 A. colomi (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 137x, apertural view; 17 A. colomi (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 96x, three chamber side; 18 Adelosina laevigata d'Orbigny, 867x, side view; 19 A. laevigata d'Orbigny, 394x, side view; 20 Adelosina longirostra (d'Orbigny), 233x, four chamber side; 21 A. longirostra (d'Orbigny), 426x, peripheral view; 22 Adelosina mediterranensis (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 169x, four chamber side; 23 A. mediterranensis (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 284x, apertural view; 24 A. mediterranensis (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 408x, side view; 25 A. mediterranensis (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 268x, side view; 26 A. mediterranensis (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 422x, side view; 27 A. mediterranensis (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 153x, three chamber side; 28 A. mediterranensis (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 163x, peripheral view; 29 Adelosina sp. 1, 293x, side view.

fig12

FIGURE 13. 1 Spiroloculina dilatata d'Orbigny, 153x, lateral view; 2 S. dilatata d'Orbigny, 250x, apertural edge view; 3 Spiroloculina excavata d'Orbigny, 196x, lateral view; 4 S. excavata d'Orbigny, 473x, apertural edge view; 5 Spiroloculina cf. rostrata Reuss, 234x, lateral view; 6 S. cf. rostrata Reuss, 261x, apertural edge view; 7 Spiroloculina tenuiseptata Brady, 355x, lateral view; 8 S. tenuiseptata Brady, 209x, apertural edge view; 9 Spiroloculina sp. 1, 1080x, lateral view; 10 Spiroloculina sp. 2, 204x, lateral view; 11 Spiroloculina sp. 2, 270x, apertural edge view; 12 Spiroloculina sp. 3, 322x, lateral view; 13 Spiroloculina sp. 3, 627x, apertural edge view; 14 Miliolid sp. 1, 1000x, side view; 15 Miliolid sp. 1, 952x, side view; 16 Miliolid sp. 2, 832x, side view; 17 Miliolid sp. 2, 1190x, apertural edge view; 18 Siphonaperta agglutinans (d'Orbigny), 341x, side view; 19 S. agglutinans (d'Orbigny), 242x, apertural view; 20 Siphonaperta aspera (d'Orbigny), 599x, side view; 21 S. aspera (d'Orbigny), 449x, apertural view; 22 Siphonaperta dilatata (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 436x, side view; 23 S. dilatata (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 365x, apertural view; 24 Siphonaperta horrida (Cushman), 479x, side view; 25 Siphonaperta irregularis (d'Orbigny), 339x, side view; 26 S. irregularis (d'Orbigny), 556x, apertural edge view; 27 Siphonaperta sp. 1, 455x, side view; 28 Siphonaperta sp. 1, 582x, side view; 29 Siphonaperta sp. 1, 456x, apertural edge view.

fig13

FIGURE 14. 1 Siphonaperta sp. 2, 1050x, side view; 2 Siphonaperta sp. 2, 982x, side view; 3 Siphonaperta sp. 2, 818x, side view; 4 Siphonaperta sp. 2, 3040x, enlargement of aperture; 5 Cycloforina contorta (d'Orbigny), 1680x, enlargement of aperture; 6 C. contorta (d'Orbigny), 454x, four chamber side; 7 C. contorta (d'Orbigny), 969x, three chamber side; 8 Cycloforina? tenuicollis (Wiesner), 592x, four chamber side; 9 Cycloforina villafranca (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 281x, four chamber side; 10 C. villafranca (Le Calvez and Le Calvez), 281x, apertural face; 11 Cycloforina sp. 1, 566x, four chamber side; 12 Cycloforina sp. 1, 603x, three chamber side; 13 Cycloforina sp. 1, 451x, four chamber side; 14 Cycloforina sp. 1, 451x, peripheral view; 15 Cycloforina sp. 1, 644x, three chamber side; 16 Cycloforina? sp. 2, 835x, four chamber side; 17 Cycloforina? sp. 2, 570x, peripheral view; 18 Lachlanella bicornis ((Walker and Jacob) emend. Haynes), 297x, four chamber side; 19 Lachlanella bradyana (Cushman), 360x, side view; 20 L. bradyana (Cushman), 525x, side view; 21 L. bradyana (Cushman), 283x, peripheral view; 22 Lachlanella carinata (d'Orbigny), 463x, side view; 23 L. carinata (d'Orbigny), 430x, side view; 24 Lachlanella undulata (d'Orbigny), 207x, side view; 25 L. undulata (d'Orbigny), 150x, apertural edge view; 26 L. undulata (d'Orbigny), 376x, side view; 27 Lachlanella sp. 1, 185x, side view; 28 Lachlanella sp. 1, 190x, apertural edge view; 29 Quinqueloculina agglutinata Cushman, 254x, four chamber side; 30 Q. agglutinata Cushman, 258x, apertural view.

fig14

FIGURE 15. 1 Quinqueloculina auberiana d'Orbigny, 260x, side view; 2 Q. auberiana d'Orbigny, 217x, apertural edge view; 3 Quinqueloculina berthelotiana d'Orbigny, 489x, four chamber side; 4 Q. berthelotiana d'Orbigny, 276x, peripheral view; 5 Q. berthelotiana d'Orbigny, 271x, four chamber side; 6 Q. berthelotiana d'Orbigny, 309x, apertural edge view; 7 Quinqueloculina bosciana d'Orbigny, 267x, four chamber side; 8 Q. bosciana d'Orbigny, 529x, three chamber side; 9 Q. bosciana d'Orbigny, 637x, apertural view; 10 Quinqueloculina disparilis d'Orbigny, 259x, four chamber side; 11 Q. disparilis d'Orbigny, 163x, apertural view; 12 Q. disparilis d'Orbigny, 313x, three chamber side; 13 Quinqueloculina laevigata d'Orbigny, 361x, four chamber side; 14 Q. laevigata d'Orbigny, 390x, three chamber side; 15 Q. laevigata d'Orbigny, 156x, peripheral view; 16 Quinqueloculina lata Terquem, 911x, side view; 17 Quinqueloculina limbata d'Orbigny, 162x, four chamber side; 18 Q. limbata d'Orbigny, 228x, three chamber side; 19 Q. limbata d'Orbigny, 129x, peripheral view; 20 Quinqueloculina neapolitana Sgarrella and Moncharmont Zei, 322x, four chamber side; 21 Q. neapolitana Sgarrella and Moncharmont Zei, 323x, three chamber side; 22 Q. neapolitana Sgarrella and Moncharmont Zei, 370x, apertural edge view; 23 Quinqueloculina padana Perconig, 880x, four chamber side; 24 Q. padana Perconig, 628x, peripheral view; 25 Quinqueloculina parvula Schlumberger, 609x, four chamber side; 26 Q. parvula Schlumberger, 939x, four chamber side; 27 Q. parvula Schlumberger, 719x, apertural edge view; 28 Quinqueloculina pseudobuchiana Luczowksa, 763x, four chamber side; 29 Q. pseudobuchiana Luczowksa, 892x, four chamber side; 30 Quinqueloculina seminula (Linné), 257x, side view; 31 Q. seminula (Linné), 113x, peripheral view.

fig15

FIGURE 16. 1 Quinqueloculina stelligera Schlumberger, 779x, four chamber side; 2 Q. stelligera Schlumberger, 717x, four chamber side; 3 Q. stelligera Schlumberger, 777x, peripheral view; 4 Q. stelligera Schlumberger, 576x, enlargement of aperture; 5 Quinqueloculina viennensis Le Calvez and Le Calvez, 489x, four chamber side; 6 Q. viennensis Le Calvez and Le Calvez, 535x, four chamber side; 7 Q. viennensis Le Calvez and Le Calvez, 246x, four chamber side; 8 Quinqueloculina sp. 1, 938x, four chamber side; 9 Affinetrina gualtieriana (d'Orbigny), 560x, three chamber side; 10 A. gualtieriana (d'Orbigny), 789x, apertural edge view; 11 Affinetrina ucrainica (Serova), 1070x, three chamber side; 12 A. ucrainica (Serova), 1100x, two chamber side; 13 A. ucrainica (Serova), 920x, peripheral view; 14 Affinetrina sp. 1, 398x, three chamber side; 15 Affinetrina sp. 1, 291x, peripheral view; 16 Affinetrina sp. 2, 386x, three chamber side; 17 Affinetrina sp. 2, 370x, two chamber side; 18 Affinetrina sp. 2, 272x, peripheral view; 19 Biloculinella globula (Bornemann), 497x, lateral view; 20 Biloculinella inflata (Wright), 1100x, lateral view; 21 Biloculinella labiata (Schlumberger), 331x, lateral view; 22 B. labiata (Schlumberger), 347x, peripheral view; 23 Miliolinella elongata Kruit, 1640x, oblique side view; 24 M. elongata Kruit, 552x, side view; 25 Miliolinella cf. hybrida (Terquem), 555x, side view; 26 M. cf. hybrida (Terquem), 452x, apertural edge view; 27 Miliolinella irregularis (d'Orbigny), 770x, oblique side view; 28 Miliolinella labiosa (d'Orbigny), 534x, side view; 29 M. labiosa (d'Orbigny), 365x, side view; 30 Miliolinella semicostata (Wiesner), 576x, side view; 31 Miliolinella subrotunda (Montagu), 809x, side view; 32 M. subrotunda (Montagu), 996x, side view.

fig16

FIGURE 17. 1 Miliolinella webbiana (d'Orbigny), 263x, side view; 2 M. webbiana (d'Orbigny), 241x, side view; 3 Pseudotriloculina sp. 1, 901x, three chamber side; 4 Pseudotriloculina sp. 1, 930x, two chamber side; 5 Ptychomiliola separans? (Brady), 512x, lateral view; 6 P. separans? (Brady), 338x, lateral view; 7 Pyrgoella sphaera (d'Orbigny), 427x, lateral view; 8 Pyrgo anomala (Schlumberger), 310x, side view; 9 P. anomala (Schlumberger), 305x, apertural edge view; 10 Pyrgo depressa (d'Orbigny), 314x, side view; 11 P. depressa (d'Orbigny), 229x, peripheral view; 12 Pyrgo elongata (d'Orbigny), 360x, side view; 13 Pyrgo oblonga (d'Orbigny), 420x, side view; 14 Pyrgo sp. 1, 307x, lateral view; 15 Pyrgo sp. 2, 753x, lateral view; 16 Pyrgo sp. 2, 853x, lateral view; 17 Triloculina marioni Schlumberger, 602x, profile view; 18 T. marioni Schlumberger, 574x, apertural edge view; 19 Triloculina oblonga (Montagu), 177x, three chamber side; 20 T. oblonga (Montagu), 317x, apertural edge view; 21 Triloculina plicata Terquem, 754x, profile view; 22 T. plicata Terquem, 424x, apertural edge view; 23 Triloculina tricarinata d'Orbigny, 778x, profile view; 24 T. tricarinata d'Orbigny, 701x, apertural edge view; 25 Triloculina sp. 1, 348x, profil view; 26 Triloculina sp. 1, 870x, apertural egde view; 27 Nummoloculina sp. 1, 437x, side view; 28 Nummoloculina sp. 1, 397x, peripheral view; 29 Pseudoschlumbergerina ovata (Sidebottom), 686x, side view; 30 P. ovata (Sidebottom), 725x, apertural edge view.

fig17

FIGURE 18. 1 Sigmoilinita costata (Schlumberger), 460x, side view; 2 S. costata (Schlumberger), 315x, peripheral view; 3 Sigmoilinita distorta (Phleger and Parker), 722x, side view; 4 S. distorta (Phleger and Parker), 396x, peripheral view; 5 Sigmoilinita sp. 1, 413x, side view; 6 Sigmoilinita sp. 1, 434x, peripheral view; 7 Sigmoilopsis schlumbergeri (Silvestri), 274x, side view; 8 S. schlumbergeri (Silvestri), 278x, apertural edge view; 9 Sigmoilopsis sp. 1, 172x, side view; 10 Articulina mucronata (d'Orbigny), 592x, side view; 11 Peneroplis pertusus (Forskal), 388x, side view; 12 P. pertusus (Forskal), 370x, peripheral view; 13 Dentalina guttifera d'Orbigny, 259x, lateral view; 14 Laevidentalina sp. 1, 1100x, lateral view; 15 Pyramidulina catesbyi (d'Orbigny), 586x, lateral view; 16 P. catesbyi (d'Orbigny), 516x, lateral view; 17 Lenticulina calcar (Linné), 438x, side view; 18 L. calcar (Linné), 201x, peripheral view; 19 Lenticulina orbicularis (d'Orbigny), 293x, side view; 20 L. orbicularis (d'Orbigny), 206x, peripheral view; 21 Neolenticulina peregrina (Schwager), 261x, side view; 22 Amphicoryna scalaris (Batsch), 242x, lateral view (macrospheric specimen); 23 A. scalaris (Batsch), 322x, lateral view (microspheric specimen); 24 A. scalaris (Batsch), 293x, lateral view (microspheric specimen); 25 A. scalaris (Batsch), 397x, lateral view (microspheric specimen); 26 Marginulina costata (Batsch), 304x, side view; 27 Hemirobulina sp.1, 137x, lateral view; 28 Hemirobulina sp.1, 229x, lateral view; 29 Vaginulina cf. americana Cushman, 97x, lateral view; 30 Hyalinonetrion gracillimum (Costa), 419x, lateral view; 31 Lagena doveyensis Haynes, 720x, lateral view; 32 Lagena hispida Reuss var. crispata Matthes, 560x, lateral view; 33 Lagena striata (d'Orbigny), 376x, lateral view; 34 Lagena strumosa Reuss, 356x, lateral view; 35 Globulina gibba var. punctata D'Orbigny, 193x, side view; 36 G. gibba var. punctata D'Orbigny, 162x, side view, specimen with fistulose overgrowth.

fig18

FIGURE 19. 1 Globulina myristiformis (Williamson), 374x, lateral view; 2 Favulina foveolata (Seguenza), 446x, lateral view; 3 F. foveolata (Seguenza), 510x, apertural view; 4 Favulina hexagona (Williamson), 592x, lateral view; 5 Lagnea sp. 1, 588x, lateral view; 6 Oolina acuticosta (Reuss), 634x, lateral view; 7 Fissurina crebra (Matthes), 1040x, lateral view; 8 Fissurina fasciata (Egger), 1020x, lateral view; 9 F. fasciata (Egger), 749x, oblique lateral view; 10 Fissurina lacunata (Burrows and Holland), 506x, lateral view; 11 F. lacunata (Burrows and Holland), 826x, oblique lateral view; 12 Fissurina marginata (Montagu), 505x, lateral view; 13 Fissurina orbignyana Seguenza, 882x, lateral view; 14 Parafissurina lateralis (Cushman) var. carinata (Buchner), 892x, oblique lateral view; 15 Hoeglundina elegans (d'Orbigny), 295x, umbilical side; 16 H. elegans (d'Orbigny), 242x, peripheral view; 17 Robertina translucens Cushman and Parker, 828x, lateral view; 18 R. translucens Cushman and Parker, 433x, lateral view; 19 Bolivina cistina Cushman, 1020x, lateral view; 20 B. cistina Cushman, 1390x, apertural face; 21 Bolivina plicatella Cushman, 910x, lateral view; 22 Bolivina pseudoplicata Heron-Allen and Earland, 1070x, lateral view; 23 B. pseudoplicata Heron-Allen and Earland, 946x, lateral view; 24 Bolivina subspinescens Cushman, 1110x, lateral view; 25 Bolivina variabilis (Williamson), 549x, lateral view; 26 B. variabilis (Williamson), 732x, lateral view; 27 Bolivina sp. 1, 735x, lateral view; 28 Brizalina difformis (Williamson), 904x, lateral view; 29 B. difformis (Williamson), 722x, lateral view; 30 Brizalina dilatata (Reuss), 824x, lateral view.

fig19

FIGURE 20. 1 Brizalina spathulata (Williamson), 599x, lateral view; 2 B. spathulata (Williamson), 572x, lateral view; 3 Brizalina striatula (Cushman), 429x, lateral view; 4 Brizalina sp. 1, 695x, lateral view; 5 Cassidulina carinata Silvestri, 655x, apertural side; 6 C. laevigata s.s. d'Orbigny, 1050x, apertural side; 7 Cassidulina obtusa Williamson, 829x, apertural side; 8 C. obtusa Williamson, 930x, apertural side; 9 Cassidulinoides bradyi (Norman), 864x, lateral view; 10 Globocassidulina oblonga (Reuss), 1220x, apertural side; 11 G. oblonga (Reuss), 650x, apertural side; 12 G. oblonga (Reuss), 771x, apertural side; 13 Globocassidulina subglobosa (Brady), 1010x, apertural side; 14 G. subglobosa (Brady), 1150x, apertural side; 15 Floresina sp. 1, 770x, apertural side; 16 Stainforthia complanata (Egger), 735x, lateral view; 17 Rectuvigerina bononiensis (Fornasini), 854x, lateral view; 18 Rectuvigerina phlegeri Le Calvez, 686x, lateral view; 19 Bulimina aculeata d'Orbigny, 427x, lateral view; 20 Bulimina costata d'Orbigny, 771x, lateral view; 21 Bulimina elongata d'Orbigny, 407x, lateral view; 22 Bulimina gibba Fornasini, 509x, lateral view; 23 Bulimina marginata d'Orbigny, 766x, lateral view; 24 Globobulimina affinis (d'Orbigny), 355x, lateral view; 25 Neouvigerina ampullacea (Brady), 644x, lateral view; 26 N. ampullacea (Brady), 642x, apertural view; 27 Siphouvigerina? sp. 1, 576x, lateral view; 28 Uvigerina mediterranea Hofker, 321x, lateral view; 29 Uvigerina peregrina Cushman, 385x, lateral view.

fig20

FIGURE 21. 1 Uvigerina sp. 1, 1280x, lateral view; 2 Angulogerina angulosa (Williamson), 902x, lateral view; 3 A. angulosa (Williamson), 877x, lateral view; 4 A. angulosa (Williamson), 993x, lateral view; 5 Trifarina fornasinii (Selli), 411x, lateral view; 6 Reussella spinulosa (Reuss), 804x, lateral view; 7 R. spinulosa (Reuss), 770x, lateral view; 8 Trimosina sp. 1, 1010x, lateral view; 9 Trimosina sp. 1, 690x, lateral view; 10 Fursenkoina acuta (d'Orbigny), 593x, lateral view; 11 F. acuta (d'Orbigny), 816x, lateral view; 12 Sigmavirgulina tortuosa (Brady), 657x, lateral view; 13 Sigmavirgulina sp. 1, 923x, lateral view; 14 Cancris auriculus (Fichtel and Moll), 371x, spiral side; 15 C. auriculus (Fichtel and Moll), 653x, umbilical side; 16 Valvulineria complanata (d'Orbigny), 388x, spiral side; 17 V. complanata (d'Orbigny), 370x, umbilical side; 18 Valvulineria minuta Parker, 1220x, spiral side; 19 V. minuta Parker, 1190x, umbilical side; 20 Eponides concameratus (Williamson), 188x, spiral side; 21 E. concameratus (Williamson), 262x, umbilical side; 22 Eponides sp. 1, 200x, spiral side; 23 Eponides sp. 1, 145x, umbilical side; 24 Stomatorbina concentrica (Parker and Jones), 339x, spiral side; 25 S. concentrica (Parker and Jones), 295x, umbilical side; 26 Mississipina sp. 1, 702x, spiral side; 27 Mississipina sp. 1, 774x, umbilical side

fig21

FIGURE 22. 1 Discorbis williamsoni Chapman and Parr, 635x, spiral side; 2 D. williamsoni Chapman and Parr, 1060x, umbilical side; 3 Gavelinopsis praegeri (Heron Allen and Earland), 758x, spiral side; 4 G. praegeri (Heron Allen and Earland), 987x, umbilical side; 5 Neoconorbina terquemi (Rzehak), 545x, spiral side; 6 N. terquemi (Rzehak), 732x, umbilical side; 7 Planodiscorbis rarescens (Brady), 341x, spiral side; 8 P. rarescens (Brady), 281x, umbilical side; 9 Rosalina anomala Terquem, 376x, spiral side; 10 R. anomala Terquem, 432x, umbilical side; 11 Rosalina bradyi Cushman, 782x, spiral side; 12 R. bradyi Cushman, 768x, umbilical side; 13 R. bradyi Cushman, 370x, spiral side; 14 R. bradyi Cushman, 324x, umbilical side; 15 Rosalina globularis d'Orbigny, 829x, spiral side; 16 R. globularis d'Orbigny, 824x, umbilical side; 17 Rosalina macropora (Hofker), 766x, spiral side; 18 R. macropora (Hofker), 407x, umbilical side; 19 Rosalina sp. 1, 243x, spiral side; 20 Rosalina sp. 1, 345x, umbilical side; 21 Rosalina sp. 1, 348x, umbilical side; 22 Spirorbina? sp. 1, 707x, spiral side; 23 Spirorbina? sp. 1, 886x, umbilical side; 24 Tretomphalus concinnus (Brady), 671x, spiral side; 25 T. concinnus (Brady), 573x, umbilical side.

fig22

FIGURE 23. 1 Tretomphalus sp. 1, 990x, spiral side; 2 Tretomphalus sp. 1, 1060x, umbilical side; 3 Sphaeroidina bulloides d'Orbigny, 345x, side view; 4 S. bulloides d'Orbigny, 589x, side view; 5 Conorbella pulvinata (Brady), 936x, spiral side; 6 C. pulvinata (Brady), 931x, umbilical side; 7 Discorbinoides sp. 1, 657x, spiral side; 8 Discorbinoides sp. 1, 556x, umbilical side; 9 Discorbinoides sp. 1, 493x, peripheral side; 10 Discorbinoides? sp. 2, 466x, spiral side; 11 Discorbinoides? sp. 2, 481x, umbilical side; 12 Glabratella erecta (Sidebottom), 699x, oblique lateral view; 13 G. erecta (Sidebottom), 760x, top view; 14 Glabratella hexacamerata Seiglie and Bermudez, 907x, spiral side; 15 G. hexacamerata Seiglie and Bermudez, 727x, umbilical side; 16 Glabratella patelliformis (Brady), 1230x, spiral side; 17 G. patelliformis (Brady), 1020x, umbilical side; 18 Planoglabratella opercularis (d'Orbigny), 386x, spiral side; 19 P. opercularis (d'Orbigny), 555x, umbilical side; 20 Schackoinella imperiatoria (d'Orbigny), 1090x, spiral side; 21 S. imperiatoria (d'Orbigny), 755x, umbilical side; 22 Heronallenia lingulata (Burrows and Holland), 543x, spiral side; 23 H. lingulata (Burrows and Holland), 570x, umbilical side; 24 Siphonina reticulata (Czjzek), 633x, side view; 25 S. reticulata (Czjzek), 474x, peripheral view; 26 S. reticulata (Czjzek), 586x, side view; 27 Siphoninella soluta (Brady), 1020x, side view; 28 S. soluta (Brady), 925x, side view; 29 Discorbinella bertheloti (d'Orbigny), 603x, spiral side; 30 D. bertheloti (d'Orbigny), 500x, umbilical side.

fig23

FIGURE 24. 1 Hyalinea balthica (Schroeter), 493x, spiral side; 2 H. balthica (Schroeter), 468x, umbilical side; 3 Planulina ariminensis d'Orbigny, 263x, spiral side; 4 P. ariminensis d'Orbigny, 257x, umbilical side; 5 Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus (Cushman), 531x, umbilical side; 6 C. pseudoungerianus (Cushman), 394x, umbilical side; 7 C. pseudoungerianus (Cushman), 409x, spiral side; 8 C. pseudoungerianus (Cushman), 373x, peripheral view; 9 C. pseudoungerianus (Cushman), 306x, peripheral view; 10 Cibicides cf. mayori (Cushman), 589x, umbilical side; 11 C. cf. mayori (Cushman), 674x, peripheral view; 12 Cibicides pseudolobatulus Perelis and Reiss, 528x, umbilical side; 13 C. pseudolobatulus Perelis and Reiss, 1060x, peripheral view; 14 Cibicides refulgens de Montfort, 246x, umbilical side; 15 C. refulgens de Montfort, 284x, spiral side; 16 C. refulgens de Montfort, 283x, peripheral view; 17 Lobatula lobatula (Walker and Jacob), 244x, umbilical side; 18 L. lobatula (Walker and Jacob), 184x, peripheral view; 19 L. lobatula (Walker and Jacob), 500x, umbilical side; 20 L. lobatula (Walker and Jacob), 455x, oblique peripheral view; 21 Planorbulina mediterranensis d'Orbigny, 580x, unattached side; 22 P. mediterranensis d'Orbigny, 767x, unattached side; 23 P. mediterranensis d'Orbigny, 790x, unattached side, juvenile specimen; 24 P. mediterranensis d'Orbigny, 909x, unattached side, juvenile specimen; 25 Cibicidella variablis (d'Orbigny), 193x, spiral view; 26 C. variablis (d'Orbigny), 314x, umbilical side

fig24

FIGURE 25. 1 Cymbaloporetta bulloides (d'Orbigny), 796x, spiral side; 2 C. bulloides (d'Orbigny), 926x, umbilical side; 3 Acervulina inhaerens Schultze, 386x, unattached side; 4 Sphaerogypsina globula (Reuss), 181x, top view; 5 Miniacina miniacea (Pallas), 56x, side view; 6 M. miniacea (Pallas), 97x, side view; 7 Asterigerinata adriatica Haake, 970x, spiral side; 8 A. adriatica Haake, 1010x, umbilical side; 9 A. adriatica Haake, 1040x, peripheral view; 10 Asterigerinata mamilla (Williamson), 561x, spiral side; 11 A. mamilla (Williamson), 1070x, oblique peripheral view; 12 A. mamilla (Williamson), 427x, umbilical side; 13 A. mamilla (Williamson), 673x, peripheral view; 14 Asterigerinata mariae Sgarrella, 1260x, spiral side; 15 A. mariae Sgarrella, 1440x, peripheral view; 16 A. mariae Sgarrella, 1650x, umbilical side; 17 Haynesina depressula (Walker and Jacob), 683x, side view; 18 H. depressula (Walker and Jacob), 680x, side view; 19 Haynesina simplex (Cushman), 500x, oblique peripheral view; 20 H. simplex (Cushman), 756x, side view; 21 Haynesina sp. 1, 1170x, side view; 22 Nonion fabum (Fichtel and Moll), 548x, side view; 23 N. fabum (Fichtel and Moll), 489x, side view; 24 N. fabum (Fichtel and Moll), 571x, peripheral view.

fig25

FIGURE 26. 1 Nonionella turgida (Williamson), 852x, side view; 2 N. turgida (Williamson), 493x, side view; 3 N. turgida (Williamson), 1020x, face view; 4 N. turgida (Williamson), 811x, side view; 5 N. turgida (Williamson), 739x, side view; 6 N. turgida (Williamson), 620x, face view; 7 Astrononion stelligerum (d'Orbigny), 350x, peripheral view; 8 A. stelligerum (d'Orbigny), 372x, side view; 9 Melonis affinis (Reuss), 454x, apertural view; 10 M. affinis (Reuss), 446x, side view; 11 Melonis barleeanum (Williamson), 597x, apertural view; 12 M. barleeanum (Williamson), 538x, side view; 13 Pullenia quadriloba Reuss, 598x, side view; 14 P. quadriloba (Reuss), 552x, peripheral view; 15 Svratkina sp. 1, 988x, spiral side; 16 Svratkina sp. 1, 981x, umbilical side; 17 Anomalinoides sp. 1, 298x, umbilical side; 18 Anomalinoides sp. 1, 314x, spiral side; 19 Anomalinoides sp. 1, 272x, peripheral view; 20 Gyroidinoides soldanii (d'Orbigny), 409x, spiral side; 21 G. soldanii (d'Orbigny), 624x, peripheral view; 22 Gyroidinoides umbonata (Silvestri), 549x, spiral side; 23 G. umbonata (Silvestri), 776x, peripheral view; 24 Discanomalina semipunctata (Bailey), 230x, umbilical side; 25 D. semipunctata (Bailey), 234x, peripheral view; 26 Buccella granulata (Di Napoli Alliata), 423x, spiral side; 27 B. granulata (Di Napoli Alliata), 377x, umbilical side.

fig26

FIGURE 27. 1 Ammonia beccarii (Linné), 496x, spiral side; 2 A. beccarii (Linné), 431x, umbilical side; 3 Ammonia parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny), 703x, spiral side; 4 A. parkinsoniana (d'Orbigny), 591x, umbilical side; 5 Elphidium aculeatum (d'Orbigny), 245x, oblique side view; 6 E. aculeatum (d'Orbigny), 425x, side view; 7 Elphidium advenum (Cushman), 301x, side view; 8 E. advenum (Cushman), 330x, peripheral view; 9 Elphidium complanatum (d'Orbigny), 295x, side view; 10 E. complanatum (d'Orbigny), 396x, peripheral view; 11 Elphidium complanatum (d'Orbigny) var. tyrrhenianum Accordi, 1070x, side view; 12 E. complanatum (d'Orbigny) var. tyrrhenianum Accordi, 548x, peripheral view; 13 Elphidium crispum (Linné), 194x, side view; 14 E. crispum (Linné), 234x, peripheral view; 15 Elphidium decipiens (Costa), 889x, side view; 16 E. decipiens (Costa), 469x, peripheral view; 17 Elphidium granosum (d'Orbigny), 635x, side view; 18 E. granosum (d'Orbigny), 648x, peripheral view; 19 Elphidium incertum (Williamson), 705x, side view; 20 Elphidium incertum (Williamson), 996x, peripheral view; 21 Elphidium macellum (Fichtel and Moll), 418x, side view; 22 E. macellum (Fichtel and Moll), 446x, peripheral view; 23 Elphidium margaritaceum (Cushman), 333x, side view; 24 E. margaritaceum (Cushman), 452x, peripheral view; 25 Elphidium sp. 1, 274x, side view; 26 Elphidium sp. 1, 266x, peripheral view; 27 Parrellina verriculata (Brady), 1020x, side view; 28 P. verriculata (Brady), 761x, peripheral view.

fig27

 

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Yvonne MilkerDepartment of Geosciences
University of Tuebingen
Hölderlinstrasse 12
D-20146 Tübingen,
Germany

Educational and academic career:
Since July 2011: PostDoc position at the University of Tübingen, Germany
2010: PhD in Palaeontology at the University of Hamburg, Germany
2006-2011: Research associate/ PhD student at the University of Hamburg, Germany
2006: Diploma (M.Sc. equivalent) in Geology at the University of Leipzig, Germany
2001-2006: Study of Geosciences at the University of Leipzig, Germany

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This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Department of Geosciences
Bundesstrasse 55
D-20146 Hamburg,
Germany

Educational and academic career:

Since 2006: Professor of micropaleontology, University of Hamburg
2002-2006: Heisenberg fellow, University of Leipzig
2001-2002: Assistant professor, University of Leipzig
1999-2001: Research associate, University of Tübingen
1998-1999: Postdoctoral fellow, The Ohio State University, Columbus (Ohio)
1995-1998: Research associate, University of Tübingen
1991-1994: Ph.D. student, AWI Bremerhaven, Germany
1985-1991: Study of geology and paleontology (Diploma), University of Würzburg

 

Note: all appendix files are Excel spreadsheets available in one zipped file.

APPENDIX 1. Census counts live (Rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera in the surface samples from Alboran Platform, Oran Bight and Mallorca Shelf, with sample splits and sample volumens.

APPENDIX 2. Census counts dead benthic foraminifera, sum benthic and planktonic foraminifera in the surface samples from Alboran Platform, Oran Bight and Mallorca Shelf, with sample splits and sample weights.

APPENDIX 3. Census counts dead benthic foraminifera, sum benthic and planktonic foraminifera in sediment-core 342-1 from Alboran Platform with sample splits and sample weights.

APPENDIX 4. Census counts dead benthic foraminifera, sum benthic and planktonic foraminifera in sediment-core 367-1 from Oran Bight with sample splits and sample weights.

APPENDIX 5. Census counts dead benthic foraminifera, sum benthic and planktonic foraminifera in sediment-core 401-1 from Mallorca Shelf with sample splits and sample weights.