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smithDepartment of Earth Sciences
The Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London SW7 5BD
United Kingdom 

Andrew B Smith is a merit researcher at the Natural History Museum (London) who has studied the fossil record of echinoderms for over 35 years. His first degree was from Edinburgh University in Geological Sciences and his Ph. D. was in Biological Sciences from Exeter University. He is best known for his work on echinoid evolution, but has also worked extensively on the early evolutionary history of echinoderms and on the fidelity of the fossil record.

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mikeGeowissenschaftliches Zentrum der Universität Göttingen Museum
Sammlungen & Geopark
Goldschmidtstr. 1-5
D37077 Göttingen
Germany

Mike Reich is a Senior Lecturer in Palaeontology and Curator of the Geoscience collections at the Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany. He studied geology and palaeontology (major) and zoology and chemistry (minor) at the University of Greifswald, Germany and graduated in 1998 with a diploma thesis on Late Cretaceous microfossils. He finished his PhD on Cretaceous sea cucumbers (Echinodermata) at the University of Innsbruck, Austria in 2002, and after several short term museum positions at Greifswald, Stralsund and Hannover, he moved to Göttingen 9 years ago, where he has been ever since. Mike’s research interest range across palaeobiology, phylogeny, palaeoecology and taxonomy, primarily centred around microscopic remains of macrofossils (e.g. echinoderms, octocorals, polychaetes, tunicates…) and their extant relatives. His current research focuses on fossil Lagerstätten yielding exceptional preservation, such as the Hunsrück Slate and Mazon Creek, which also include different documentation techniques and computer applications, especially scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction techniques.

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zamoraDepartment of Earth SciencesThe Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road
London SW7 5BD
United Kingdom

Samuel Zamora is a post-doctoral researcher at the Natural History Museum (London) who is a specialist on the early evolutionary history of Echinoderms. He completed his PhD in 2009 at the University of Zaragoza (Spain) base on Cambrian echinoderm faunas from North Spain. He has published extensively on the morphology and phylogenetic relationships of a broad range of Cambrian and Ordovician echinoderms and is currently researching the origins of the echinoderm body plan.

 
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Comment on supposed holothurian body fossils from the middle Ordovician of Wales (Botting and Muir, Palaeontologia Electronica: 15.1.9A)

Andrew B. Smith, Mike Reich, and Samuel Zamora

Plain Language Abstract

SEM study of body fossils from the Middle Ordovician of Wales recently described as the oldest articulated holothurians by Botting and Muir (Palaeontologia Electronica Article number: 15.1.9A) finds no traits that allow them to be assigned to the Echinodermata.

Resumen en Español

Comentario sobre los supuestos restos fósiles de holoturias del Orodvícico medio de Gales (Botting y Muir, Palaeontologia Electronica: 15.1.9A)

El estudio mediante microscopio óptico y electrónico de barrido de los restos fósiles procedentes del Ordovícico medio de Gales y descritos como los holturoideos articulados más antiguos por Botting y Muir (Palaeontologia Electronica, artículo 15.1.9A) no revela ningún rasgo que permita asignarlos a los Echinodermata.

Palabras clave: Echinodermata; Porifera; Ordovícico; afinidades taxonómicas

Traducción: Miguel Company

Résumé en Français

Commentaire sur les corps holothuriens fossiles supposés de l'Ordovicien de Wales (Botting et Muir, Palaeontologia Electronica: 15.1.9A)

L'étude optique et par MEB des corps fossiles de l'Ordovicien de Wales récemment décrits comme les plus anciens holothuriens articulés par Botting et Muir (Palaeontologia Electronica Article numéro: 15.1.9A) ne montrent aucun caractère qui permette de les assigner à Echinodermata.

Mots clés : Echinodermata; Porifera; Ordovicien; affinités taxonomiques

Translator: Olivier Maridet

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Kommentar zu den vermeintlichen Holothurien-Körperfossilien aus dem Mittel-Ordovizium von Wales (Botting und Muir, Palaeontologia Electronica: 15.1.9A)

Rasterelektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen von Körperfossilien aus dem Mittel-Ordovizium von Wales, welche kürzlich von Botting und Muir (Palaeontologia Electronica Article number: 15.1.9A) als älteste artikulierte Holothurien beschrieben wurden, zeigen keinerlei Hinweise darauf, dass diese den Echinodermata zugeordnet werden können.

Schlüsselwörter: Echinodermata; Porifera; Ordovizium; taxonomische Zugehörigkeiten

Translator:Mike Reich

Arabic

349 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

FIGURE 1. Oesolcucumaria eostre Botting and Muir, 2012, Darriwilian, middle Ordovician of Bach-y-Graig, Llandrindod, Wales. 1-4, NHM EE8734, latex cast of showing the structure of the oral ring. 2, SEM micrograph of the body wall showing fine acicular cruciform spicules. 3, SEM micrograph of body fossil. 4, SEM micrograph of part of the perioral ring (inset shows the complete ring); note the lack of regular structure. 5, NHM EE8739, SEM micrograph of the perioral ring; general view and detail showing granular microstructure. All specimens housed in the Natural History Museum, London. Scale bars: 1=1 mm; 4 = 200 μm.

figure 1 

FIGURE 2. Comparison of rod- and cruciform-like sclerites of sponges (1, 11-12) and holothurians (2-10); 1, fossil isolated tylostyl (Demospongea), Eocene: Ypresian, Wobbanz, Isle of Rügen, Germany, GZG.001251/19 [from Ansorge and Reich, 2004]; 2, 4, 6, 8, Recent Laetmogone violacea Théel (Elasipodida: Laetmogonidae), North Atlantic Ocean, water depth 1,015 m, SMNH.110035/110036; 3, Recent Echinocucumis hispida (Barrett) (Dactylochirotida: Ypsilothuriidae), Norwegian Sea, water depth 100-300 m, SMNH.110122/110124; 5, Recent Trochodota purpurea (Lesson) (Apodida: Chiridotidae), southern Atlantic Ocean, water depth 11-13 m, SMNH.110131/110132; 7, Recent Chiridota pisanii Ludwig (Apodida: Chiridotidae), South Atlantic Ocean, water depth 10 m, SMNH.110126/110128; 9, Recent Elpidia heckeri Baranova (Elasipodida: Elpidiidae), Arctic Ocean, water depth 2,700 m, SMNH.110012/10013; 10, fossil cross-shaped table of Tribrachiodemas ordovicicus Reich (Aspidochirotida: Synallactidae), Late Ordovician (Katian/Hirnantian), Sweden, GZG.INV.20072 [from Reich, 2010b]; 11-12, fossil isolated pentactines (Hexactinellida), early Silurian (Telychian), Sweden, GZG.INV.24436, 24706 [from Maletz and Reich, 1997]. Abbreviations: GZG, Geoscience Centre, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Germany; MHI, Muschelkalk-Museum Ingelfingen, Germany; ROM, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada; SMNH, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.

 figure 2

FIGURE 3. Holothurian body fossils, showing the preserved calcareous ring of 'standard architecture' with 5 radial and 5 interradial plates, and stereom structure of single elements. 1-2, Undescribed apodid holothurian body fossil with calcareous ring and body wall ossicles in situ, late Pennsylvanian Mazon Creek fossil Lagerstätte, Illinois, USA; 1, GZG.INV.50000 showing the calcareous ring and the body outline, 2, ROM.58481 showing the calcareous ring with stereom structure; 3, Undescribed aspidochirotid calcareous ring (Holothuriidae) with well-preserved radial and interradial elements, from a Triassic obrution deposit Lagerstätte in southern Germany, Upper Muschelkalk (Ladinian) MHI.1230 [from Reich, 2004, detail]. Abbreviations as in Figure 2.

 figure 3

 

FIGURE 4. Morphology of modern and fossil holothurian calcareous ring elements showing the typical stereo architecture; 1, outer view of right dorsolateral radial element, Recent Myriotrochus rinkii Steenstrup (Apodida: Myriotrochidae), Arctic Ocean, water depth 22 m, SMNH.110016/110019; 2, inner oblique view of an radial element, Recent Laetmogone violacea Théel (Elasipodida: Laetmogonidae), North Atlantic Ocean, water depth 1,015 m, SMNH.110035/110037; 3, outer view of an radial (left) and interradial element (right), Recent Chiridota pisanii Ludwig (Apodida: Chiridotidae), South Atlantic Ocean, water depth 10 m, SMNH.110126/110128; 4, inner view of an interradial element Eupyrgus scaber Lütken (Molpadiida: Eupyrgidae), North Atlantic Ocean, water depth 30-80 m, SMNH.110029/110031; 5, undescribed fossil radial element (stem group Apodida), inner view, middle Ordovician (early Darriwilian), Germany/Sweden, GZG.INV.20001; 6, undescribed fossil radial element (Apodida), outer view, late Silurian (Ludfordian), Gotland, Sweden, GZG.INV.13251; 7, undescribed fossil interradial element (stem group Apodida), inner view, late Silurian (Ludfordian), Gotland, Sweden, GZG.INV.40710; 8, undescribed fossil radial element (Aspidochirotida), inner view, late Silurian (Ludfordian), Gotland, Sweden, GZG.INV.13255. Scale: 1.0 mm (1-2); 0.5 mm (3-8). Abbreviations as in Figure 2.

figure 4