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X-ray micro-CT reconstruction reveals eight antennomeres in a new fossil taxon that constitutes a sister clade to Dundoxenos and Triozocera (Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae)

Hans Henderickx, Jan Bosselaers, Elin Pauwels, Luc Van Hoorebeke, and Matthieu Boone

Plain Language Abstract

A remarkable fossil twisted-wing parasite (Strepsiptera) was found as a partially visible fossil in Baltic amber. The characteristics where examined with X-ray scans and the results were analysed with cladistic software. The fossil specimen turned out to represent a new species and a new genus. The re-appearance of an ancestral characteristic in this otherwise quite evolved genus is remarkable.

Samenvatting

Een nieuwe soort en genus Strepsiptera uit Baltische amber, Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp. nov. wordt beschreven. De positie van het nieuwe genus binnen de Strepsiptera is gebaseerd op een cladistische analyse van morfologische gegevens. De meeste kenmerken van het fossiel werden geobserveerd door middel van 3D micro-CT scan reconstructies. Uit de cladistische analyse blijkt dat het nieuwe taxon stevig gepositioneerd is als zustergroep van de Dundoxenos-Triozocera clade in de familie Corioxenidae. Het eocene taxon combineert een aantal afgeleide kenmerken die typisch zijn voor Corioxenidae, met het bezit van 8 antennomeres met 5 lange flabella, een herwonnen ancestrale eigenschap.

Translation: Authors

Resumen en Español

La reconstrucción mediante microtomografía computarizada de rayos X revela le existencia de ocho antenómeros en un nuevo taxón fósil que constituye un clado hermano de Dundoxenos y Triozocera (Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae)

Se describe Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp.nov., un nuevo taxón fósil del orden Strepsiptera en ámbar del Eoceno del Báltico. La posición sistemática del nuevo género se basa en análisis cladísticos de series de datos morfológicos. La mayor parte de esos datos se obtuvieron a partir de reconstrucciones tridimensionales mediante microtomografía computarizada. El nuevo taxón se sitúa inequívoxcamente como un grupo hermano del clado Dundoxenos-Triozocera, dentro de la familia Corioxenidae, y combina caracteres derivados típicos de la familia con la presencia de ocho antenómeros con cinco largas flabelas, un carácter ancestral recuperado.

PALABRAS CLAVE: Strepsiptera; nuevo género; nueva especie; microtomografía computarizada; ámbar fósil del Báltico

Traducción: Miguel Company

Résumé en Français

Une reconstruction de scan au rayon X micro-CT révèle huit antennomères dans un nouveau taxon fossile qui constitue un groupe frère à Dundoxenos et Triozocera (Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae)

Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp. nov., un nouveau taxon de strepsipterien fossile provenant d'ambre Baltique est décrit. La position du nouveau genre est basée sur des analyses cladistiques d'ensembles de données morphologiques. La plupart des données du fossile ont été récupéré aux avec reconstructions 3D de scans micro-CT. Le nouveau taxon est clairement situé comme un groupe frère du clade Dundoxenos-Triozocera dans la famille Corioxenidae. Le taxon de l'Eocène combine des caractéristiques typiquement dérivés de Corioxenidae avec la possession de huit antennomères avec cinq longues flabella, une caractéristique ancestrale reconquise.

MOTS CLÉS: Strepsiptera; nouveau genre, nouvelle espèce; scan micro-CT; ambre Baltique fossiles

Translator: Kenny J. Travouillon

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Röntgencomputertomographie–Rekonstruktion enthüllt acht Anntennomere bei einem fossilen Taxon das die Schwestergruppe zu Dundoxenos und Triozocera (Strepsiptera: Corioxenidae) darstellt

Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp.nov., ein neues fossiles Taxon der Strepsiptera aus dem Baltischen Bernstein wird beschrieben. Die Stellung der neuen Gattung basiert auf cladistischer Analyse von morphologischen Datensätzen. Die meisten Daten wurden durch 3D Mikro-CT-Scan-Rekonstruktionen gewonnen. Das neue Taxon ist unzweifelhaft die Schwestergruppe der Dundoxenos-Triozocera Klade innerhalb der Corioxenidae. Das eozäne Taxon vereint abgeleitete Merkmale, typisch für die Corioxenidae mit dem Vorhandensein von acht Antennomeren mit fünf langen Flabella, ein wiedererlangtes basales Merkmal.

SCHLÜSSELWÖRTER: Strepsiptera; neue Gattung ; neue Art; Mikro-CT Scan; Fossil aus dem Baltischen Bernstein

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

370 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

FIGURE 1.Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp.nov. 1.1: inclusion in amber, left lateral view, 1.2: micro-CT scan, reconstruction in VGL, ventral view.

figure 1

FIGURE 2. Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp.nov. 2.1: head with antenna, right lateral view. 2.2: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 3D model with fused depositioning modeling (10 cm large, layers of 0.254mm). 2.3: prothoracic leg. 2.4: mesothoracic leg. 2.5: metathoracic leg. 2.6: micro-CT scan reconstruction of right antenna, ventral view, with numbered antennomeres. 2.7: micro-CT scan reconstruction of left antenna, ventral view, with numbered antennomeres.

figure 2

FIGURE 3.Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp.nov. (holotype). 3.1: head with antenna, dorsal view, in amber. 3.2: black 3D model with polyjet modelling (5,5 cm large, layers of 0.028 mm, VeroBlack Plus), dorsal view. 3.3: Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) 3D model with fused depositioning modeling (10 cm large, layers of 0.254 mm), ventral view. 3.4: as 3.2, dorso-lateral view.

figure 3

FIGURE 4. Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp.nov. male holotypus. (Figure 4.1- 4.5: micro-CT scan reconstruction). 4.1: tarsi of left prothoracic leg, position of sensorial spots indicated, latero-dorsal view. 4.2: left prothoracic leg, terminal tarsal segments. 4.3: left prothoracic leg, latero-ventral view, sensorial spots indicated. 4.4.: left mesothoracic leg, latero-ventral view, sensorial spots indicated. 4.5: left metathoracic leg, latero-ventral view, sensorial spots indicated. 4.6: left metathoracic leg, optical view in amber, ventral, sensorial spots indicated.

figure 4

FIGURE 5.Eocenoxenos palintropos gen. nov. et sp.nov. male holotypus. 5.1: habitus, reconstruction; 5.2: head, frontal view, 5.3: abdominal segments with penis.

figure 5

FIGURE 6. Strict consensus tree of the 12 fittest trees obtained under implied weighting. State changes are indicated on the tree for 44 characters (see Appendix). Non-homoplasious character state changes are in black, homoplasious state changes in white. Nodes are numbered on the tree and Goloboff fit Bremer support values, as calculated in both TNT and PAUP/TreeRot, are indicated in italics below branches.

figure 6

FIGURE 7. Character state distribution of four characters on the consensus tree. 7.1: Char. 19, ACCTRAN; 7.2: Char. 28, UNAMB; 7.3: Char. 62, DELTRAN; 7.4: Char. 67, UNAMB.

figure 7

 

 

APPENDIX

Character-taxon matrix. Abbreviations: * = non-homoplasious character, ? = unknown or unapplicable character state, a = 0 or 1, b=1 or 2, A = character optimization ambiguous, ci = consistency index, F = illustrated on tree in Figure 6, ri = retention index, U = parsimony uninformative character. 

Appendix available in PDF format.

 

henderickxHans Henderickx
Department of Biology
Universiteit Antwerpen
Groenenborgerlaan 171
2020 Antwerpen, Belgium
(Address for correspondence: Hemelrijkstraat 4, B-2400 Mol)
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Hans Henderickx is born in Mol, Belgium in 1961. He started as early as 1984 as researcher in the Life Sciences electron microscope department of Janssen Pharmaceutica (Johnson & Johnson). Initially he was trained in spearpoint technology for digital medical imaging. In 2003 he became department manager. Under the influence of Dr Narcisse Leleup (Brussels, Belgium) he focused on invertebrate morphology and faunistics and in 2012 he was author of 66 publications on invertebrate palaeontology, biospeleology and faunistics. He described 17 new species from different invertebrate groups, extant and fossil. Already in 2006 he published a study with the technique to describe a new arachnid and its external and internal morphology in opaque amber using X-ray micro-CT.
Up to today he is connected as a researcher to the University Antwerp and to the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences.

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bosselaersJan Bosselaers
Section of invertebrates
Royal Museum for Central Africa
B-3080 Tervuren
Belgium
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Jan Bosselaers obtained a master in botany (1974) from KU leuven and subsequently did research on photosynthesis at Hasselt University. In 1984 he started working in the pharmaceutical industry, mainly doing research on antifungal compounds.

The taxonomic study of spiders, which started as a hobby, led to a PhD from KU Leuven on the Afrtropical genus Hortipes in 2001. Jan became an external collaborator of the Royal Museum for Central Africa and the focus of his taxonomic work is on biodiversity studies and cladistic analysis of morphological datasets. Through a professional project on the protection of organic cultural heritage relics against fungal degradation, he developed an interest in the possibilities of high resolution X-ray computed tomography.

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pauwelsElin Pauwels
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Gent University
Proeftuinstraat 86
B-9000 Gent
Belgium
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Elin Pauwels is born in Bruges, Belgium in 1987. She obtained a Bachelor degree and a Master degree in Physics and Astronomy in 2008 and 2010, respectively, and a Bachelor degree in Medicine in 2012. Currently, she is working on a PhD in Physics at the Centre for X-ray Tomography of the Ghent University (UGCT), for which she started in October 2010. Her research topics include dual energy CT, simulation of CT imaging processes and the use of contrast agents for soft tissue visualization by means of high resolution X-ray CT. Meanwhile, she is also doing a Master degree in Medicine.

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hoorebekeLuc Van Hoorebeke
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Gent University
Proeftuinstraat 86
B-9000 Gent
Belgium
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Luc Van Hoorebeke is born in Ghent, Belgium in 1963. He received the Licentiate in Physics degree and the Ph.D. in Physics degree at the Ghent University, Belgium, in 1985 and 1991, respectively. During 1993 and 1994 he was a researcher at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), working in the field of positron annihilation spectroscopy. Afterwards, he worked at Ghent University as a postdoctoral fellow of the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) in the field of experimental hadron physics. In 2003 he became a professor in physics at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of the Ghent University, and also became the head of the Radiation Physics research group. In 2006, he co-founded the Centre for X-Ray Tomography (UGCT) of the Ghent University. His current research topic is high resolution X-ray tomography.

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booneMatthieu Boone
Department of Physics and Astronomy
Gent University
Proeftuinstraat 86
B-9000 Gent
Belgium
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Matthieu N. Boone is born on December 28, 1984 in Asse, Belgium. He obtained his Bachelor degree in civil engineering and his Master degree in civil engineering: applied physics from Ghent University in 2005 and 2007, respectively. In november 2007, he started his PhD research at the Centre for X-ray Tomography of the Ghent University, which he is currently finalizing. During his PhD research, he worked on topics such X-ray phase retrieval and correction, energy-sensitive X-ray detectors and software development for CT scanner control and image processing.