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A description of small gomphotheriid (Mammalia, Proboscidea) manuses from the earliest Pleistocene 111 Ranch Beds, southeast Arizona, USA

Michael R. Pasenko

Plain Language Abstract

Gomphotheriids are a lesser known group of extinct proboscideans than the more familiar mammoths and mastodonts, but comprise a more diverse group with a greater distribution. Gomphotheriids are known from every continent except Australia. However, this greater distribution has not resulted in a greater knowledge of gomphotheriids, especially the postcranial elements. My attempt here is to describe two feet of a gomphotheriid discovered in southeastern Arizona and make comparisons to other proboscideans in hopes this promotes further discussions and comparisons of these elements. Future discussions could reveal whether the morphology of gomphotheriid feet can be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying different gomphotheriids.

Resumen en Español

Descripción de pequeñas manos de gonfoterio (Mammalia, Proboscidea) de los niveles del Pleistoceno más temprano de 111 Ranch, sureste de Arizona, Estados Unidos

Se describen dos manos incompletas de gonfoterio, una izquierda y otra derecha, de los depósitos del Pleistoceno más temprano de 111 Ranch, en el sureste de Arizona, Estados Unidos. El descubrimiento de estas manos bien conservadas ofrece una oportunidad poco común para describir estos elementos de una gonfoterio de América del Norte. Se proporcionan descripciones y mediciones detalladas, así como comparaciones de las manos con los de otros proboscídeos actuales o extintos. Los análisis de las manos indican que el individuo era un gonfoterio pequeño, posiblemente una hembra pequeña, que tenía unas características morfológicas más similares a otros gonfoterios, en menor medida a elefantes y mamuts. Los gonfoterios Stegomastodon y Rhynchotherium se habían encontrado anteriormente en la asociación fósil de 111 Ranch.

Palabras clave: mano; carpiano; metacarpiano; gonfoterios; 111 Ranch

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver

Résumé en Français

Une description des mains d'un petit gomphotheriid (mammifères, proboscidiens) du tout début du Pléistocène, provenant des lits 111 Ranch, au sud-est de l'Arizona, États-Unis

Des manus gauche et droite partiels d'un gomphotheriid provenant de dépôts du tout début du Pléistocène de 111 Ranch en Arizona du sud, Etats-Unis, sont décrits. La découverte de ces manus bien conservés offre une occasion rare pour décrire ces éléments chez un gomphotheriid d'Amérique du Nord. Je donne ici des descriptions et des mesures détaillées ainsi que des comparaisons des manus avec ceux des autres proboscidiens existants et disparus. Les analyses des manus indiquent que c'était un petit gomphotheriid, peut-être une petite femelle, ayant des attributs morphologiques plus similaires aux autres gomphotheriids qu'aux elephantids et mammutids. Les gomphotheriids Stegomastodon et Rhynchotherium ont tous deux été précédemment rapportés à 111 Ranch.

Mots-clés: manus; carpien; métacarpien; gomphotheriid; 111 Ranch

Translator: Kenny J. Travouillon

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Beschreibung kleiner Gomphotherien-Manuum (Mammalia, Proboscidea) aus dem frühesten Pleistozän der 111 Ranch Beds, Südost Arizona, USA

Eine partielle linke und rechte Manus eines Gomphotheren aus den Ablagerungen der 111 Ranch im Südosten von Arizona, USA (frühestes Pleistozän) werden beschrieben. Die Entdeckung dieser gut erhaltenen Manuum bietet eine seltene Gelegenheit diese Elemente eines nordamerikanischen Gomphotheren zu beschreiben. Ich stelle detaillierte Beschreibungen und Messungen zur Verfügung ebenso wie Vergleiche mit den Manuus anderer noch lebender und ausgestorbener Proboscidea. Analysen der Manuum weisen darauf hin, dass es sich um einen kleinen Gomphotheren handelte, möglicherweise ein kleines weibliches Tier, dessen morphologische Attribute anderen Gomphotherien ähnlicher waren als Elephantiden oder Mammutiden. Über die beiden Gomphotherien Stegomastodon und Rhynchotherium wurde kürzlich aus 111 Ranch berichtet.

Schlüsselwörter: manus; Carpael; Metacarpale; Gomphotherien; 111 Ranch

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

421 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

authorMichael R. Pasenko
Environmental Planning Group
4141 North 32nd Street, Suite 102
Phoenix, Arizona, 85018
USA
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

His professional career in paleontology began in 2000 with his completion of a Master's degree in Quaternary Studies from Northern Arizona University. His thesis was on the description of a skeleton of Rhynchotherium from Arizona and a taxonomic discussion on that genus. However, his work in paleontology actually began in 1980 as a field crew for the Illinois State Museum during work on a Pleistocene spring deposit in southwestern Missouri.
Since 2000 he has performed research on proboscideans in the southwestern USA, morphology of postcranial elements of proboscideans, Cenozoic mammals, and fossil trackways. He currently works as a paleontologist for an environmental consulting firm managing paleontology projects in 5 states. Mr. Pasenko volunteers at the Arizona Museum of Natural History and the Sharlot Hall Museum. Mr. Pasenko has over 12 peer-reviewed publications

 

APPENDIX 1. Illustrations showing examples of how measurements were taken.1, proximal view of cuneiform; 2, medial-volar view of cuneiform; 3, proximal view of lunar; 4, lateral view of lunar; 5, medial view of scaphoid; 6, lateral view of scaphoid; 7, distal view of unciform; 8, lateral view of magnum; 9, dorsal view of 1st phalanx; 10, medial view of MC I; 11, dorsal view of metacarpal. D equals greatest dorsal-volar depth; W equals greatest transverse width; H equals proximal-distal height (length); PDV equals proximal dorsal-volar diameter; MDV equals minimum dorsal-volar diameter; DDV equals distal dorsal-volar diameter; PT equals proximal transverse diameter; DT equals distal transverse diameter; MT equals minimum transverse diameter; LF equals length of facet; WF equals width of facet.

appendix a

APPENDIX 2. Illustrations showing examples of how measurements were taken. A, proximal view of cuneiform; B, medial-volar view of cuneiform; C, proximal view of lunar; D, lateral view of lunar; E, medial view of scaphoid; F, lateral view of scaphoid; G, distal view of unciform; H, lateral view of magnum; I, dorsal view of 1st phalanx; J, medial view of MC I; K, dorsal view of metacarpal. D equals greatest dorsal-volar depth; W equals greatest transverse width; H equals proximal-distal height (length); PDV equals proximal dorsal-volar diameter; MDV equals minimum dorsal-volar diameter; DDV equals distal dorsal-volar diameter; PT equals proximal transverse diameter; DT equals distal transverse diameter; MT equals minimum transverse diameter; LF equals length of facet; WF equals width of facet. (This corresponds with letters assigned to drawings).

 

Measurement

AZMNH p7487

Rhynchotherium (Frick, 1933; Pasenko, 2007; Pasenko, 2011)

Stegomastodon (Ferretti 2008; Alberdi et al. 2009; Lucas et al. 2011 )

Haplomastodon chimborazi (Ferretti 2010)

Mammuthus primigenius (Toepfer 1957; Ziegler 2001)

Mammut americanum (Graham et al., 1983; Miller, 1987)

Lunar

Greatest width

93.4

100

140

144

118, 137, 142, 164

113, 126

Greatest depth

99.2

-

148

137

109, 130, 136, 153

137

Greatest height

60.3

-

82

78

67, 78, 83, 100

66, 72

Width of articular facet for radius

79.7

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for radius

85.7

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for trapezoid, magnum, & unciform

93.9

-

-

-

-

-

Right Cuneiform (Pyramidal)

Greatest width

107.7

98

128, 118, 187

157

117, 170, 154, 181

146

Greatest depth

86.4+

-

109, 123, 133

124

-

129

Greatest height

53.5

49

59, 51, 61

55

60, 65, 75, 76

-

Width of articular facet for ulna

92.4

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for ulna

72.5

-

-

-

-

-

Right Cuneiform (Pyramidal)

Depth of articular facet for unciform

78.8

-

-

-

-

-

Right Magnum

Greatest depth

105.4

-

109, 102

104, 127

-

130

Greatest height

84.9

-

96, 112

82, 87

-

96, 87, 100

Height of articular facet for unciform

43.3

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for unciform

81

-

-

-

-

-

Right unciform

Greatest width

94

105

103, 110

88, 132

107, 133, 130

134,130

Greatest depth

99.2

-

106, 141

102, 130

122, 135, 158

107,109

Greatest height

86.5

70

91, 110

78, 92

100, 107, 133

-

Width of articular facet for lunar and cuneiform

86.3

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for lunar and cuneiform

78

-

-

-

-

-

             

Right scaphoid

Greatest width

43.8

-

53

67

48, 65, 74

-

Greatest depth

79.6

-

96

130

93, 115, 108, 103

-

Greatest height

85.9

-

98

109

122, 140, 145, 159

107

Depth of articular facet for radius

53.6

-

-

-

-

-

Width of articular facet for radius

28.2

-

-

-

-

-

Depth of articular facet for lunar

39.2

-

-

-

-

-

Width of articular facet for lunar

14.6

-

-

-

-

-

Right Metacarpal I

Greatest length

57

70, 132

84, 129, 118

-

-

-

Proximal D-V diameter

43

61, 93

43

-

-

-

Proximal transverse diameter

36

42, 66

57

-

-

-

Distal D-V diameter

31

43, 64

58

-

-

-

Distal transverse diameter

25

46, 64

50

-

-

-

Right Metacarpal I

Minimum transverse diameter

20

30, 41

30, 79

-

-

-

Right and Left Metacarpal II

Minimum transverse diameter

45, 44

-

79.6

47, 54, 56

-

-

Minimum D-V diameter

33, 35

-

-

48, 50, 55

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx I, 2nd digit

Greatest length

53, 59

56

79, 78

-

-

-

Minimum transverse diameter

55, 55

-

-

-

-

-

Right Phalanx 2, 2nd digit

Greatest length

44

-

-

-

-

-

Right Phalanx 3, 2nd digit

Greatest length

30

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Metacarpal III

Minimum transverse diameter

53, 55

-

77

63, 68, 74

-

-

Minimum D-V diameter

42, 40

-

-

45, 43, 55

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 1, 3rd digit

Greatest length

58

-

80, 85

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 1, 3rd digit

Minimum transverse diameter

52, 55

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 2, 3rd digit

Greatest length

50, 50

-

-

-

-

-

Right Phalanx 3, 3rd digit

Greatest length

23, 28

-

-

-

-

-

Right and left Metacarpal IV

Minimum transverse diameter

52, 49

-

72

54

-

-

Minimum D-V diameter

41, 37

-

-

71

-

-

Right and left Phalanx 1, 4th digit

Greatest length

59, 56

63

81, 74

-

-

-

Minimum transverse diameter

31, 32

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 2, 4th digit

Greatest length

50, 46

-

-

-

-

-

Right and Left Phalanx 3, 4th digit

Greatest length

27, 30

-

-

-

-

-

Right Metacarpal V

Greatest length

82

90

124, 139

130

-

-

Right Metacarpal V

Proximal D-V diameter

49

-

61

70

-

-

Proximal transverse diameter

50

-

77

40

-

-

Distal D-V diameter

44

-

67

52

-

-

Distal transverse diameter

49

-

73

83

-

-

Minimum transverse diameter

45

-

52

66

-

-

 

FIGURE 1. 1.1, Location of 111 Ranch (modified from Tomida, 1987) showing site of manuses (m); 1.2, Stratigraphic column at 111 Ranch showing location (arrow) of manuses within the column and elevation (in feet) (modified after Galusha et al., 1984).

figure1

FIGURE 2.The carpals of the right manus for AZMNH p7487 and their articular facets. 2.1, Proximal view of right cuneiform; 2.2, Distal view of right cuneiform; 2.3, Medial-volar view of right cuneiform; 2.4, Proximal view of right lunar; 2.5, distal view of right lunar; 2.6, Lateral view of right lunar; 2.7, Medial view of right scaphoid; 2.8, Lateral view of right scaphoid; 2.9, View of distal end of scaphoid; 2.10, View of proximal end of scaphoid; 2.11, Proximal view of unciform, 2.12, Distal view of unciform; 2.13, Dorsal view of unciform; 2.14, Lateral view of magnum; 2.15, Proximal view of magnum; 2.16, medial view of magnum. The scale bar equals 10 cm (U, articular facet for ulna; Pi, articular facet for pisiform; Uc, articular facet for unciform; C, articular facet for cuneiform; L, articular facet for lunar; Mc, articular facet for metacarpal; R, articular facet for radius; Mg, articular facet for magnum; Td, articular facet for trapezoid; Tz, articular facet for trapezium).

figure2

FIGURE 3. Representative metacarpals and phalanges for AZMNH p7487. 3.1.1, lateral side of Mc1; 3.1.2, medial side of Mc1; 3.2, dorsal view of 2nd digit, 3.3, dorsal view of 3rd digit, 3.4, dorsal view of 4th digit; 3.5, dorsal view of Mc5. The scale bar equals 10 cm.

figure3