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Additions to the latest Paleocene Buckman Hollow local fauna, Chappo Member of the Wasatch Formation, Lincoln County, southwestern Wyoming

Patricia A. Holroyd and Brian D. Rankin

Plain Language Abstract

Late Paleocene (approximately 57 to 55.7 million years ago) mammals from North America remain poorly known. Most fossils mammals from this age have been recovered from a single area in north-central Wyoming. Here we describe new fossils from a series of localities in southwest Wyoming called Buckman Hollow and document several species previously unknown in that area. These new discoveries include the multituberculate Neoliotomus conventus (a small plant-eating mammal), the oxyaenid creodont Dipsaladictis (a carnivorous mammal), and a rare phenacodontid condylarth Ectocion sp., cf. E. major (a plant eating hoofed mammal). Although fossils from the Buckman Hollow localities are sparse, they are important to understanding the biogeography and the stratigraphic relationships of mammals during this time period.

Resumen en Español

Información adicional sobre la fauna local del Paleoceno tardío de Buckman Hollow, Miembro Chappo de la Formación Wasatch, Condado de Lincoln, suroeste de Wyoming

Salvo unas pocas excepciones notables, las faunas de mamíferos del Paleoceno tardío de Norte América (Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, 57 a 55.7 M.a. aproximadamente) son poco conocidas, siendo que la mayoría del registro se ha recuperado de una única área, la Cuenca Bighorn en el suroeste de Wyoming. Las faunas de edad comparable presentes en otros lugares son escasas. En el presente estudio describimos nuevos ejemplares, incluyendo algunas especies no documentadas hasta ahora, provenientes de la fauna local de Buckman Hollow en la Cuenca Green River del suroeste de Wyoming. Los nuevos hallazgos incluyen al multituberculado Neoliotomus conventus, el creodonto oxiaénido Dipsaladictis, y el raro fenacodóntido condilartro Ectocion cf. E. major. Aunque escasas, estas adiciones ofrecen la oportunidad de reevaluar los patrones bioestratigráficos y biogeográficos observados entre las faunas del Paleoceno tardío, las cuales incluyen diferentes patrones de co-ocurrencia de mamíferos en estas faunas más meridionales respecto a los observados en la Cuenca Bighorn.

Palabras clave: Paleoceno; Clarkforkiense; Mammalia; Bioestratigrafía; Biogeografía

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver

Résumé en Français

Ajouts à la faune locale de Buckman Hollow de la fin du Paléocène, Membre Chappo de la formation de Wasatch, comté de Lincoln, sud-ouest du Wyoming

Avec quelques exceptions notables, les faunes de mammifères de la fin du Paléocène de l'Amérique du Nord (Clarkforkien, âge des Mammifères nord-américain, environ 57 à 55,7 Ma) sont mal connus, la grande majorité récupéré à partir d'une seule région, le bassin de Bighorn au nord-ouest du Wyoming. Il y a très peu de faunes de cet âgés. Nous décrivons ici de nouveaux fossiles, y compris plusieurs nouvelles espèces, provenant de la faune locale de Buckman Hollow du bassin de Green River au sud-ouest du Wyoming. Nous documentons de nouvelle présence, comme le multituberculé Neoliotomus conventus, le creodont oxyaenide Dipsaladictis, et un rare condylarth phenacodontide Ectocion cf . E. majeur. Bien que rares, ces ajouts offrent la possibilité de réévaluer les modèles biostratigraphiques et biogéographiques observées chez les faunes de la fin du Paléocène, qui comprennent des modèles différents de coprésence de mammifères dans les faunes plus au sud que ceux observés dans le bassin de Bighorn.

Mots-clés: Paléocène; Clarkforkien; Mammalia; Biostratigraphie; Biogéographie

Translator: Kenny J. Travouillon

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Ergänzungen zur spätpaläozänen Buckman Hollow Lokalfauna, Chappo Member der Wasatch Formation, Lincoln County, Südwest-Wyoming

Mit wenigen bemerkenswerten Ausnahmen sind Säugetierfaunen aus dem spätesten Paläozän von Nordamerika (Clarkforkian North American Land Mammal Age, ungefähr 57 bis 55.7 Mio. Jahre) wenig bekannt. Die überwiegende Mehrheit dieser Faunen wurde in einem einzigen Gebiet entdeckt, dem Bighorn Becken von Nordwest-Wyoming. Andernorts gibt es nur wenige Faunen mit einem vergleichbaren Alter. Hier beschreiben wir neues Material einschließlich einiger bisher undokumentierter Arten aus der Buckman Hollow Lokalfauna des Green River Beckens von Südwest-Wyoming. Neu aufgenommene Vorkommen beinhalten den Multituberculaten Neoliotomus conventus, den oxyaniden Creodonten Dipsaladictis und den seltenen phenacodontiden Condylarthren Ectocion cf. E. major. Obwohl sie selten sind, bieten diese Ergänzungen die Gelegenheit biostratigraphische und biogeographische Muster, welche in spätpaläozänen Faunen beobachtet worden waren, zu re-evaluieren. Diese mehr südlicheren Faunen weisen von denen aus dem Bighorn Becken abweichende Säugetier-Kookkurenz-Muster auf.

Keywords: Paläozän; Clarkforkian; Mammalia; Biostratigraphie; Biogeographie

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

432 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

TABLE 1. Measurements of the upper dentition of phenacodontids from the middle Clarkforkian (Cf2) Buckman Hollow local fauna, southwestern Wyoming.

 

Taxon

Specimen Number

P3L

P3W

P4L

P4W

M1L

M1W

M2L

M2W

M3L

M3W

Phenacodus vortmani

USNM 16693

7.9

7.3

 

UCMP 173516

8.6

 

USNM 21286 (R, except M3)

8.6

8.0

9.0

9.0

10.1

8.7

12.1

8.7

10.0

 

USNM 16691 (L)

8.4

7.5

8.5

8.5

9.0

8.3

9.0

11.5

 

USNM 16691 (R)

8.3

7.8

8.1

8.5

9.1

9.9

8.0

10.2

 

USNM 406166

7.8

9.5

9.4

12.0

9.3

11.6

7.8

9.6

 

USNM 20651

8.8

8.7

11.5

 

USNM 16694

7.4

10.4

 

USNM 20639

8.2

10.6

 

USNM 406160

7.3

9.1

 

USNM 406161

8.8

12.5

Phenacodus intermedius

USNM 406156

9.6

8.3

 

UCMP 170704

10.2

9.3

9.8

11.3

 

USNM 409474

11.0

11.8

 

USNM 20649

9.9

10.9

11.0

14.0

Ectocion sp., cf. E. major

UCMP 173496

10.3

12.2

Ectocion osbornianus

USNM 406151

5.7

 

USNM 20736 (L)

5.8

5.5

6.0

7.6

6.1

8.5

6.1

8.9

4.9

7.4

 

USNM 20736 (R)

5.9

5.4

6.2

7.2

8.5

8.4

4.9

7.2

 

USNM 406154

6.5

8.8

 

 

TABLE 2. Measurements of the lower dentition of phenacodontids from the middle Clarkforkian (Cf2) Buckman Hollow local fauna, southwestern Wyoming.

 

Taxon

Specimen Number

p3L

p3W

p4L

p4L

m1L

m1W

m2L

m2W

m3L

m3W

Phenacodus vortmani

USNM 406161

8.4

4.9

 

USNM 20642

9.2

5.9

 

USNM 20653

9.7

7.3

 

USNM 20643

9.6

6.4

9.0

7.2

 

UCMP 173495

9.0

7.3

 

USNM 20654

9.0

7.9

9.9

8.2

 

USNM 20638

9.4

8.7

9.5

7.8

10.0

6.7

 

USNM 20650

9.5

7.9

9.8

8.0

7.4

 

USNM 21286

9.3

9.4

 

USNM 20637

10.8

7.7

 

USNM 409469

10.4

6.9

Phenacodus intermedius

USNM 21287

12.0

7.7

12.6

10.0

12.5

11.4

13.2

12.7

 

USNM 20644

11.8

7.9

12.1

9.8

 

UCMP 170704

12.3

10.7

12.1

11.3

11.8

8.8

Ectocion osbornianus

USNM 20736 (R)

5.6

3.5

6.6

4.2

6.6

5.2

6.4

5.4

6.3

4.5

 

USNM 20736 (L)

5.5

3.4

6.8

4.2

7.1

5.2

6.8

5.4

7.1

4.5

 

USNM 16695

6.1

4.6

 

USNM 20645

7.4

5.1

6.8

5.8

7.0

6.7

 

USNM 20646

7.4

5.4

 

UCMP 173493

6.7

5.9

 

USNM 20648

6.7

5.3

6.6

5.7

 

UCMP 173401

4.8

6.9

5.1

4.4

 

USNM 20640

7.0

5.3

7.0

5.7

8.2

5.3

 

USNM 406146

8.1

4.7

 

TABLE 3. Descriptive summary statistics of the upper dentition of phenacodontids from Buckman Hollow and other Clarkforkian and other earliest Wasatchian assemblages from the Western Interior of North America. Comparative data from Thewissen (1990), Burger (2012), and Rose et al. (2012).

 

Taxon

Sedimentary Basin

 

P3L

P3W

P4L

P4W

M1L

M1W

M2L

M2W

M3L

M3W

Phenacodus vortmani

Buckman Hollow

n

3

5

4

4

5

4

4

4

7

7

   

Mean

8.2

8.0

8.1

8.9

9.1

10.1

8.9

11.7

8.0

10.4

   

SD

0.2

0.6

0.3

0.5

0.2

1.6

0.3

0.3

0.6

1.1

   

SE

0.1

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.8

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.4

   

Minimum

7.9

7.3

7.8

8.5

8.8

8.3

8.7

11.5

7.3

9.1

   

Maximum

8.4

8.6

8.5

9.5

9.4

12.0

9.3

12.1

8.8

12.5

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf 2

n

     

1

2

2

2

2

4

4

   

Mean

     

9.6

9.4

11.2

9.8

10.5

9.5

8.9

   

SD

         

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.1

0.7

   

SE

         

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.1

0.4

   

Minimum

       

9.0

10.9

9.5

10.4

8.6

7.7

   

Maximum

       

9.8

11.4

10.0

10.6

10.3

9.6

                         

Phenacodus intermedius

Buckman Hollow

n

2

2

3

3

   

1

1

   
   

Mean

9.9

8.8

10.2

11.3

   

11.0

14.0

   
   

SD

0.5

0.7

0.7

0.5

           
   

SE

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.3

           
   

Minimum

9.6

8.3

9.8

10.9

           
   

Maximum

10.2

9.3

11.0

11.8

           
                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

12

14

21

24

20

22

29

29

38

40

   

Mean

10.7

9.9

10.7

11.5

12.3

13.9

13.2

14.3

11.7

11.0

   

SD

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.9

0.9

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.9

1.0

   

SE

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.2

   

Minimum

9.5

8.9

9.2

9.0

10.7

11.8

10.9

12.4

10.2

8.8

   

Maximum

12.1

11.4

11.6

13.1

14.5

16.3

16.1

15.7

14.0

14.2

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Wa0

n

1

1

1

1

           
   

Mean

8.0

8.4

8.3

9.2

           
   

SD

                   
   

SE

                   
   

Minimum

                   
   

Maximum

                   
                         

Ectocion sp., cf. E. major

Buckman Hollow

n

           

1

1

   
   

Mean

           

10.3

12.2

   
   

SD

                   
   

SE

                   
   

Minimum

                   
   

Maximum

                   
                         

Ectocion osbornianus

Buckman Hollow

n

2

3

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

3

   

Mean

5.9

5.5

6.0

6.9

6.7

8.5

6.1

8.7

5.4

7.8

   

SD

0.1

0.1

 

1.0

0.8

0.0

 

0.4

0.9

0.9

   

SE

0.1

0.1

 

0.7

0.5

0.0

 

0.3

0.5

0.5

   

Minimum

5.8

5.4

 

6.2

6.1

8.5

 

8.4

4.9

7.2

   

Maximum

5.9

5.7

 

7.6

7.2

8.5

 

8.9

6.5

8.8

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

45

46

53

54

85

88

96

108

63

66

   

Mean

6.2

6.2

6.6

7.8

7.2

8.7

7.6

8.9

6.2

7.0

   

SD

0.3

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.0

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

5.2

4.9

5.8

5.6

6.4

7.3

6.2

7.7

5.2

5.6

   

Maximum

6.7

6.9

7.2

8.8

8.0

10.0

8.9

10.1

7.5

8.0

                         

Ectocion parvus

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

2

2

2

2

4

4

8

7

5

5

   

Mean

5.2

5.1

5.6

6.6

5.7

7.4

6.3

7.3

5.2

6.1

   

SD

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.1

0.4

0.5

0.7

0.5

   

SE

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.2

   

Minimum

5.0

5.0

5.5

6.3

5.6

7.3

5.7

6.7

4.4

5.5

   

Maximum

5.4

5.3

5.7

6.8

6.2

7.4

7.0

7.8

5.8

6.6

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Wa0

n

2

2

3

4

7

7

15

15

9

9

   

Mean

4.7

4.7

5.4

6.5

5.6

6.8

5.6

7.2

4.9

6.2

   

SD

0.3

0.6

0.2

0.4

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.5

0.8

0.8

   

SE

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.3

   

Minimum

4.6

4.3

5.2

6.0

5.3

6.1

4.9

6.4

4.1

4.9

   

Maximum

4.9

5.1

5.5

6.9

6.0

7.5

6.2

7.9

6.6

7.2

                         
 

Piceance Creek

n

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

4

   

Mean

5.4

4.9

5.4

6.1

5.8

7.5

5.6

7.5

4.9

7.0

   

SD

               

0.1

0.1

   

SE

               

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

               

4.9

6.8

   

Maximum

               

5.2

7.1

TABLE 4. Descriptive summary statistics of the lower dentition of phenacodontids from Buckman Hollow and other Clarkforkian and other earliest Wasatchian assemblages from the Western Interior of North America. Comparative data from Thewissen (1990), Burger (2012), and Rose et al. (2012).

 

Taxon

 Assemblage    p3L  p3W  p4L  p4W  m1L  m1W  m2L  m2W  m3L  m3W

Phenacodus vortmani

Buckman Hollow

n

1

1

3

3

5

5

4

3

4

4

   

Mean

8.4

4.9

9.5

6.5

9.2

7.8

9.6

8.0

10.2

7.2

   

SD

   

0.3

0.7

0.2

0.6

0.3

0.2

0.6

0.5

   

SE

   

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.3

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.2

   

Minimum

   

9.2

5.9

9.0

7.2

9.3

7.8

9.4

6.7

   

Maximum

   

9.7

7.3

9.5

8.7

9.9

8.2

10.8

7.7

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

3

3

6

6

4

3

5

7

7

7

   

Mean

8.5

5.6

9.5

6.5

9.6

7.7

9.7

8.1

9.8

6.9

   

SD

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.8

0.6

   

SE

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.2

   

Minimum

8.1

5.4

9.1

5.7

9.0

7.2

9.5

7.7

8.5

6.3

   

Maximum

8.8

5.7

9.8

7.1

10.0

7.9

10.0

8.4

11.0

7.6

                         

Phenacodus intermedius

Buckman Hollow

n

1

1

2

2

3

3

2

2

1

1

   

Mean

12.0

7.7

12.2

9.0

12.3

10.6

12.7

12.0

11.8

8.8

   

SD

   

0.6

1.5

0.2

0.8

0.78

1.0

   
   

SE

   

0.4

1.1

0.1

0.5

0.56

0.7

   
   

Minimum

   

11.8

7.9

12.1

10.0

12.1

11.3

   
   

Maximum

   

12.6

10.0

12.5

11.4

13.2

12.7

   
                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

18

22

33

34

44

40

44

47

41

41

   

Mean

10.9

6.9

11.9

8.6

12.4

10.3

12.8

11.3

13.1

9.8

   

SD

0.6

0.6

0.8

0.7

0.7

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.6

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

10.2

5.4

10.2

7.5

11.1

9.3

11.2

9.6

11.4

8.4

   

Maximum

12.1

8.1

13.5

10.1

14.0

11.6

14.3

12.9

15.2

10.7

                         
 

Bighorn Basin (Wa0)

n

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

2

2

   

Mean

9.0

5.6

9.7

6.4

10.6

8.6

10.4

9.4

10.4

8.0

   

SD

0.2

0.4

0.9

0.4

0.1

     

0.7

0.6

   

SE

0.2

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.1

     

0.5

0.5

   

Minimum

8.8

5.3

9.1

6.2

10.5

     

9.9

7.5

   

Maximum

9.1

5.8

10.3

6.7

10.7

     

10.9

8.4

                         

Ectocion osbornianus

Buckman Hollow

n

2

2

4

4

6

7

7

7

4

5

   

Mean

5.6

3.4

6.7

4.5

6.9

5.3

6.8

5.7

7.4

4.7

   

SD

0.1

0.1

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.2

0.5

0.9

0.4

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.5

0.2

   

Minimum

5.5

3.4

6.1

4.2

6.6

4.8

6.4

5.4

6.3

4.4

   

Maximum

5.6

3.5

7.4

5.1

7.4

5.9

7.0

6.7

8.2

5.3

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

49

52

98

103

173

181

178

187

91

105

   

Mean

6.6

3.7

6.7

4.7

6.6

5.2

6.7

5.6

7.2

4.8

   

SD

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.4

0.4

0.4

0.3

   

SE

0.1

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.1

0.0

   

Minimum

5.7

3.0

5.8

4.1

5.8

4.5

5.6

4.5

6.3

4.1

   

Maximum

7.3

4.3

7.7

5.8

7.5

6.4

7.6

6.6

8.2

6.1

                         

Ectocion parvus

Bighorn Basin Cf2

n

3

4

14

14

11

9

10

14

6

8

   

Mean

5.8

3.1

5.8

3.8

5.5

4.4

5.5

4.6

5.9

3.8

   

SD

0.3

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.3

   

SE

0.2

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.1

   

Minimum

5.5

2.8

5.1

3.4

5.2

3.8

4.6

4.2

5.1

3.4

   

Maximum

6.0

3.2

6.3

4.2

5.9

4.8

5.9

5.2

6.2

4.3

                         
 

Bighorn Basin Wa0

n

8

8

15

15

19

18

26

27

19

18

   

Mean

5.5

3.0

5.7

3.8

5.5

4.4

5.7

4.6

5.9

3.8

   

SD

0.4

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.3

   

SE

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.1

   

Minimum

4.9

2.6

4.8

2.7

5.1

4.0

3.8

4.2

5.5

3.4

   

Maximum

5.9

3.3

6.1

4.3

6.2

4.9

6.7

5.3

6.6

4.6

                         
 

Piceance Creek

n

   

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

3

   

Mean

   

5.6

3.4

5.4

4.1

6.2

4.9

6.6

4.3

   

SD

               

0.2

0.3

   

SE

               

0.1

0.2

   

Minimum

               

6.4

4.0

   

Maximum

               

6.7

4.6

 

TABLE 5. Chart comparing current faunal lists for Clarkforkian faunas of southwestern Wyoming and northern Colorado. Solid circles indicate taxa referred to a fauna based on figured or published voucher specimens; open circles indicate taxa known only from faunal lists. Primary references for each locality are as follows: 1) Buckman Hollow – Gazin 1942, 1956; Dorr and Gingerich, 1980; Rose 1981, Gingerich 1976, Thewissen 1990; this paper; 2) Piceance Creek Clarkforkian composite – Patterson, 1933, 1934, 1937, 1939; Patterson and West, 1973; Kihm, 1984; Lucas, 1998; Burger and Honey, 2008; Burger, 2012; 3) Great Divide Basin – Anemone and Dirks, 2009; 4) Big Multi Quarry – Wilf et al., 1998; Dawson and Beard, 1996; Chester and Beard, 2012; 5) Togwotee Pass or lower variegated sequence Cf composite fauna in Purdy Basin – McKenna, 1980; Rose, 1981.

 
    Buckman Hollow Piceance Creek Clarkforkian composite Great Divide Basin Big Multi Purdy Basin Cf

Multituberculata

           

Eucosmodontidae

Neoliotomus conventus

Microcosmodontidae

Microcosmodon conus

Neoplagiaulacidae

Parectypodus sp.

Neoplagiaulacidae

Ectypodus sp.

Ptilodontidae

Prochetodon sp.

Marsupialia

           

Didelphidae

Peradectes sp.

Arctostylopida

           

Arctostylopidae

Arctostylops steini

"Condylarthra"

           

Arctocyonidae

Anacodon nexus

Arctocyonidae

Lambertocyon ischyrus

 

Arctocyonidae

Chriacus sp.

Oxyclaenidae

Thryptacodon sp.

Phenacodontidae

Ectocion osbornianus

Phenacodontidae

Ectocion parvus

Phenacodontidae

Ectocion major

cf

Phenacodontidae

Phenacodus intermedius

Phenacodontidae

Phenacodus vortmani

Apheliscidae

Haplomylus simpsoni

Apheliscidae

Apheliscus nitidus

Apheliscidae

Aletodon sp.

Creodonta

           

Oxyaenidae

Oxyaena transiens

Oxyaenidae

Oxyaena platypus

Oxyaenidae

Dipsalidictis krausei

Hyaenodontidae

cf. Prolimnocyon atavus

Hyaenodontidae

?Dipsalodon matthewi

Hyaenodontidae

Dipsalodon n. sp.

Dinocerata

           

Prodinoceratidae

Probathyopsis harrisorum

Mesonychia

           

Mesonychidae

Dissacus navajovius

Palaeanodonta

           

Epoicotheriidae

Palaeanodon cf. parvulus

 

Cimolesta

           

Barylambdidae

Barylambda faberi

Coryphodontidae

Coryphodon

Cyriacotheriidae

Cyriacotherium psamminum

Titanoideidae

Titanoides primaevus

 

Pantolesta

           

Pantolestidae

Palaeosinopa sp.

Proteutheria

           

Palaeoryctidae

Palaeoryctes cf. punctatus

Carnivora

           

Viverravidae

Protictis proteus

Viverravidae

Viverravus sp.

?

Viverravidae

Didymictis sp.

Dermoptera

           
 

Planetetherium sp.

Primates

           

Microsyopidae

Arctodontomys sp.

Microsyopidae

Arctodontomys simplicidens

Plesiadapidae

Chiromyoides caesor

Plesiadapidae

Plesiadapis dubius

Plesiadapidae

Plesiadapis cookei

Plesiadapidae

cf. Plesiadapis

Paromomyidae

Phenacolemur cf. pagei

Paromomyidae

Phenacolemur cf. simonsi

Paromomyidae

cf. Ignacius sp.

Carpolestidae

Carpolestes nigridens

Micromomyidae

Dryomomys dulcifer

Micromomyidae

Tinimomys tribos

Lipotyphla

           

Erinaceidae

Diacocherus minutus

Erinaceidae

Leipsanolestes

Nyctitheriidae

Ceutholestes sp.

Nyctitheriidae

Limaconyssus sp.

Nyctitheriidae

Wyonycteris sp.

Nyctitheriidae

Plagioctenodon sp.

Rodentia

           

Ischyromyidae

Paramys adamus

Ischyromyidae

P. cf. P. atavus

Ischyromyidae

P. cf. P. excavatus

Alagomyidae

Alagomys russelli

Taeniodonta

           

Stylinodontidae

Ectoganus gliriformis

Tillodonta

           

Esthonychidae

Azygonyx xenicus

 

FIGURE 1. Map showing the locations and spatial relationships of documented mammal-bearing fossil assemblages assigned to the late Paleocene Clarkforkian NALMA: 1, Clark's Fork Basin; 2, Bighorn Basin; 3, Togwotee Pass; 4, Buckman Hollow; 5, Mark's Locality; 6, Big Multi Quarry; 7, Piceance Basin.

 figure1

FIGURE 2. Multituberculata and Cimolesta. 2.1-2.3, UCMP 170782, Neoliotomus conventus, left i1 in lateral (2.1), occlusal (2.2), and lingual (2.3) views; 2.4, UCMP 173399, Barylambda faberi, left M1 fragment.

figure2 

FIGURE 3. Creodonta. UCMP 173490, Dipsalidictis krausei left m2, in occlusal (3.1), lingual (3.2), and lateral (3.3) views.

figure3 

FIGURE 4. Primates. UCMP 173400, Plesiadapis dubius, in lateral (4.1), lingual (4.2), and occlusal (4.3) views.

figure4

FIGURE 5. Primates. Comparative occlusal view of Plesiadapis dubius from Buckman Hollow. 5.1, USNM 16696 (holotype of P. "rubeyi"), 5.2, UCMP 173400. 5.3, USNM 20787 (holotype of P.? "pearcei").

figure5

FIGURE 6. Dinocerata and Mesonychia. 6.1, Probathyopsis sp., cf. P. harrisorum, UCMP 173492, partial Px or M1. 6.2, Probathyopsis sp., cf. P. harrisorum, USNM 21284, Px (previously illustrated in Gazin, 1956, pl. 1, fig. 3). 6.3, Probathyopsis sp., cf. P. harrisorum, USNM 21283, Px or M1 (previously illustrated in Gazin, 1956, pl. 1, fig. 2). 6.4, Dissacus sp., cf. D. praenuntius, USNM 11699, partial left M2. 6.5, Dissacus sp., cf. D. praenuntius, USNM 406145, right p2 or p3 talonid.

figure6

FIGURE 7. Phenacodontid condylarths. 7.1, Phenacodus intermedius, UCMP 170704, right dentary with m1-3. 7.2, Ectocion cf. E. major, UCMP 173496, right maxilla with M2. 7.3, Ectocion osbornianus, UCMP 173401, right dentary with partial m1, m2, partial m3. 7.4, E. osbornianus, USNM 20736, left maxilla with P2-M3 and dentary with p3-m3.

 figure7

 

author1Patricia A. Holroyd
Museum of Paleontology
University of California
1101 Valley Life Sciences Building
Berkeley, California 94720
United States
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Patricia A. Holroyd is a senior museum scientist at the University of California Museum of Paleontology in Berkeley. She received her B.A. from the University of Kansas and Ph.D. from Duke University. She divides her time between an endless stream of email, a finite stream of students and researchers, and rare, wondrous moments studying fossils. Her primary research interests are in assemblage-based analyses of biogeography and diversity in terrestrial vertebrate communities in times of past global warming.

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author2Brian D. Rankin
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Calgary
2500 University Ave NW
Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4
Canada
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Brian D. Rankin received his B.Sc. and M.Sc. from the University of Alberta. Currently, he is working on a Ph.D. in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Calgary. His research interests are centered on mammalian evolution across the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary, with particular emphasis on the post-Cretaceous adaptive radiation.

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