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TABLE 1. Measurements of Sobniogallus albinojamrozi gen. et sp. nov., holotype, specimen ISEA AF/SOB1a+b from Sobniów, Poland, early Oligocene compared with minimum and maximum values of all described specimens of chosen stem group Galliformes. Letters in superscript indicate publications that were checked for measurements.
Abbreviation: Pmaj - phalanx proximalis digiti majoris. a Alvarenga, 1995; b Dyke and Gulas, 2002; c Fischer, 1990; d Fischer, 2003; e Mayr, 2000; f Mayr, 2006; g Mayr and Smith, 2013; h Mayr and Weidig, 2004; i Mourer-Chauviré, 1992; k Mourer-Chauviré, 2000; l Mourer-Chauviré et al., 2013; m Tordoff and Macdonald, 1957

  Coracoid Humerus Ulna Carpometacarpus Pmaj
Length Length Prox width Dist width Length Length Prox width Dist width Length
 
Sobniogallus albinojamrozi
ISEA AF/SOB1a+b
27.4 43.3 13.2 8.6 47.1 23.7 6.7 3.9 9.5

Gallinuloididae
Gallinuloides wyomingensis hm 29.0 46.8-c.47.0 - - c.48.4-49.2 25.5-c.27.1 - - 10.7
Paraortygoides messelensis ef - c.39.5-48.5 - - c.40.0-47.2 21.7-26.0 - - -
Paraortygoides radagasti b - - - - - - 7.5 - -

Paraortygidae
Paraortyx lorteti gi 22.1-27.0 37.0-42.6 9.2-11.2 7.2-8.7 36.8 19.5-21.7 6.1-7.0 3.9-4.2 -
Paraortyx brancoi dgi 31.0-35.3 49.6-51.3 12.2-12.9 9.5-9.9 - 27.0 7.7 - -
Pirortyx major cdgi 32.0-41.0 56.4 12.8-14.4 8.7-10.8 - 30.6 - - -

Quercymegapodiidae
Quercymegapodius depereti ci - 39.7-40.4 9.5-10.0 7.0-7.7 - 22.5 5.9 4.2 -
Quercymegapodius brodkorbi i - - 8.2 5.7-c.5.8 - 19.4-19.8 5.1-5.6 3.2 -
Ameripodius alexisk 40.0-43.4 73.2-87.7 15.8-18.9 12.6-14.8 81.0 44.5-46.3 5.8-6.0 4.2-4.3 -
Ameripodius silvasantosi ak 28.0 45.8 11.5 8.4 ?41-c.44 21.2-26.64 7.0 4.9 11.6
Taubacrex granivora k  31.5 - - - c.48.0 - - - -

Family?
Chambiortyx cristata l - - - - - - - 3.1 -
 
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A new genus and species of a galliform bird from the Oligocene of Poland

Teresa Tomek, Zbigniew M. Bochenski, Krzysztof Wertz, and Ewa Swidnicka

Plain Language Abstract

With almost 300 species distinguished, the order Galliformes has a worldwide distribution. Some of the species have a very abundant fossil record, especially from the late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments. The oldest crown group Galliformes are Phasianidae and Megapodiidae, whose remains are dated to the late Oligocene. The Palaeogene fossil record of galliform birds is also rich and shows much diversity. Three extinct families (Gallinuloididae, Paraortygidae, and Quercymegapodiidae) that together include a dozen species have been described from the Palaeogene so far. Moreover, a number of galliform species comparable in size to a quail have been described from Europe, Africa, and North America, although their systematic affinities are still uncertain. Most of the galliform fossils are known from isolated bones. Sometimes they include many skeletal elements, as is the case in the well known site of Phosphorites du Quercy, France, but other localities often provide less abundant material. Associated skeletons from the Palaeogene, like the one described here, are very rare. We describe a partial articulated specimen representing a new species and genus, Sobniogallus albinojamrozi gen. et sp. nov., of an early Oligocene galliform bird from Poland. In overall osteology, mainly of the sternum (breastbone), furcula (wishbone), and humerus, the specimen resembles extant Galliformes, but differs from that group in several characters, including the "anseriform" carpometacarpus, which is typical for stem group galliform birds. The present study supports the notion that Galliformes and Anseriformes are sister taxa that together form the clade Galloanseres. The specimen described in this paper is the first galliform from the Oligocene of Poland and the easternmost from the Palaeogene of Europe. Although it is incomplete, it provides many new details for the earliest galliform birds and increases the already known high diversity of the Palaeogene avian remains recovered from the Outer Carpathians and Central Paleogene Basin.

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author1Teresa Tomek
Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals
Polish Academy of Sciences
Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków
Poland
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Teresa Tomek graduated from the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland in 1967 and received her PhD in 1976. She has been working at the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków since 1971. She published more than 60 scientific papers on various aspects of ornithology, paleontology and comparative osteology of birds. Teresa took part in eight ornithological expeditions to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

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author2Zbigniew M. Bochenski
Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals
Polish Academy of Sciences
Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków
Poland
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Zbigniew M. Bochenski graduated from the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland in 1987 and received his PhD in 1994. He has been working at the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland since 1987. He divides his research activity between fossil and modern bird remains. He has published a number of papers on avian taphonomy, fossil and archaeological bird remains, and several works on the comparative osteology of modern birds. He was the recipient of three major one-year each scholarships, which helped him gain professional experience in other academic centers, including Germany, Switzerland and the USA.

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author3Krzysztof Wertz
Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals
Polish Academy of Sciences
Slawkowska 17, 31-016 Kraków
Poland
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Krzysztof Wertz graduated from the Jagiellonian University with a degree in biology in 2006. He works at the Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals, Polish Academy of Sciences as a biologist and curator of the bird comparative collection. He has been participating in a number of scientific projects, including archaeological excavations and descriptions of new species. He often refers to himself in the third person. 

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author4Ewa Swidnicka
Department of Palaeozoology
Chair of Evolutionary Biology and Ecology
University of Wrocław
Sienkiewicza 21, 50-335 Wrocław
Poland
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Ewa Swidnicka graduated from the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań with master’s studies degree in the field of Earth Sciences in 1978. She gained paleontological experience under the direction of a paleontologist Professor Anna Jerzmańska in the Department of Palaeozoology, University of Wrocław. She is a co-author of a number of scientific articles, mostly on fossil fishes, birds and also insects including a monographic work on fossil fishes from the Oligocene-Miocene deposits based on about 200 exposures from the Polish Flysch Carpathians. Currently, Ewa is working on paleontological materials from the outcrops of Paleogene and Neogene sediments in the Polish Carpathians. 

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FIGURE 1. Sobniogallus albinojamrozi gen. et sp. nov., holotype, specimen ISEA AF/SOB1a+b from Sobniów, Poland, early Oligocene (top) and interpretative drawings (bottom). 1 and 3 , main slab; 2 and 4 , counterslab. Left (L) and right (R) elements are indicated. Abbreviations: al - phalanx digiti alulae, cmc - carpometacarpus, cr - os carpi radiale, cu - os carpi ulnare, dmaj - phalanx distalis digiti majoris, pmaj - phalanx proximalis digiti majoris, pmin - phalanx digiti minoris, tbt - tibiotarsus, vr - vertebrae.

 figure1

FIGURE 2. Sobniogallus albinojamrozi gen. et sp. nov., holotype, specimen ISEA AF/SOB1a+b from Sobniów, Poland, early Oligocene. Sternum and right coracoid, main slab. Abbreviations: am - angulus medialis, clc - crista lateralis carinae, fr - foramen rostri, pc - processus craniolateralis, sc - sulcus carinae, sp - spina communis.

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FIGURE 3. Sobniogallus albinojamrozi gen. et sp. nov., holotype, specimen ISEA AF/SOB1a+b from Sobniów, Poland, early Oligocene. 1, Furcula, main slab; 2, left coracoid in ventral view, main slab. Abbreviation: pa - processus acrocoracoideus.

 figure3

FIGURE 4. Sobniogallus albinojamrozi gen. et sp. nov., holotype, specimen ISEA AF/SOB1a+b from Sobniów, Poland, early Oligocene. 1, proximal left humerus in caudal view, main slab; 2, Enlargement of #1: tuberculum dorsale and fragment of caput humeri; 3, Enlargement of #1: incisura capitis closed by a transverse ridge and deep sulcus ligamentosus transversus extending to the tuberculum ventrale; 4, proximal right humerus in cranial view, counter slab; 5, proximal right humerus in caudal view, main slab; 6, distal right humerus with proximal ulna in caudal view, main slab. Abbreviations: cb - crista bicipitalis, cd - crista deltopectoralis, ch - caput humeri, cv - condylus ventralis, fpd - fossa pneumotricipitalis - dorsal part, fpv - fossa pneumotricipitalis - ventral part, ic - incisura capitis, ol - olecranon, pf - processus flexorius, slt - sulcus ligamentosus transversus, td - tuberculum dorsale, tr - transverse ridge, tv - tuberculum ventrale.

figure4 

FIGURE 5. Sobniogallus albinojamrozi gen. et sp. nov., holotype, specimen ISEA AF/SOB1a+b from Sobniów, Poland, early Oligocene. 1, Right carpometacarpus in ventral view, counter slab; 2, imprint of right carpometacarpus, main slab; 3, left carpometacarpus in dorsal view, counter slab. Abbreviations: al - phalanx digiti alulae, omaj - os metacarpale majus, omin - os metacarpale minus, pe - processus extensorius, pi - rudimentary processus intermetacarpalis, pmaj - phalanx proximalis digiti majoris, pmin - phalanx digiti minoris, si - spatium intermetacarpale, tmaj - tuberosity of os metacarpale majus.

figure5