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Late Early Permian (late Leonardian; Kungurian) algae, microproblematica, and smaller foraminifers from the Yeso Group and San Andres Formation (New Mexico; USA)

Daniel Vachard, Karl Krainer, and Spencer G. Lucas

Plain Language Abstract

A rock succession located in New Mexico, in the southern part of the USA, had not previously been studied in detail with regard to two groups of marine, unicellular, microscopic fossils; namely, calcareous chlorophyta (green algae with calcified thalli) and foraminifers (minute animals with calcitic shells). This rock succession was deposited in shallow seas between 279 million years and 272 million years ago. This time period is called Leonardian in the southern USA, but the international name recommended for that time is Kungurian. This international chronological unit was defined in the Ural Mountains of Russia. Due to the evolutionary trends of the calcareous algae and foraminifers present in this succession, six subdivisions are introduced. That constitutes a new regional biostratigraphy. To precisely document this biostratigraphy, the calcareous algae and foraminifers are accurately described in this article. In this type of analysis, each taxon is assigned to a species, a genus, and to various suprageneric hierarchical groups; e.g., (in ascending order), family, superfamily, order, class, subphylum and phylum. The foraminifers constitute a very differentiated group called a phylum (for comparison, all the Vertebrata only constitute a subphylum); this phylum is in turn subdivided into five or six classes; e.g., Fusulinata, Miliolata and Nodosariata. During the Permian, there were smaller and larger foraminifers (like, today, whales and mice among the mammals). The larger foraminifers (order Fusulinida) evolve quickly and are more interesting as time-proxies; unfortunately, they are very rare in our series. The smaller foraminifers are often numerous in our limestones and provide some interesting data for analyzing the series. As these groups are poorly known in the USA, many taxa are new; i.e., never described in specialized journals, and are introduced in this paper, following the rules of the codes of botanical and zoological nomenclature, respectively. The new taxa of this article are (with n. sp. = new species and n. gen. = new genus), Boueina? tubulata n. sp., B.? crassundia n. sp., Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp., G.? bacillum n. sp., Chlorophyta inderminatae, Ellesmerella rara n. sp., Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp.; Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp., G. retroseptata n. sp., G. novamexicana n. sp., G. praegraeca n. sp., Orthovertellopsis proteaeformis n. gen. n. sp., O. calcitornellaeformis n. gen. n. sp., Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp., Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp., and Praeneodiscus convexus n. gen. n. sp.

Resumen en Español

Algas, microproblemáticas y pequeños foraminíferos de edad pérmica temprana tardía en el Grupo Yeso y la Formación San Andres (Nuevo México; Estados Unidos de América)

Se describen seis especies nuevas de algas y microproblemáticas, tres géneros nuevos y nueve especies nuevas de pequeños foraminíferos provenientes de estratos del Pérmico Temprano tardío (= Cisuraliano tardío = Kunguriano = Leonardiano tardío) del Grupo Yeso y la Formación San Andres (Nuevo México, Estados Unidos de América). Se trata de: cuatro algas, Boueina? tubulata n. sp., B.? crassundia n. sp., Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. y G.? bacillum n. sp.; dos microproblemáticas, Ellesmerella rara n. sp., y Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp.; cuatro foraminíferos globivalvulinoideos, Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp., G. retroseptata n. sp., G. novamexicana n. sp., y G. praegraeca n. sp.; y cinco foraminíferos Miliolata, Orthovertellopsis proteaeformis n. gen. n. sp., O. calcitornellaeformis n. gen. n. sp., Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp., Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp., y Praeneodiscus convexus n. gen. n. sp. El Grupo Yeso y la Formación San Andres se subdividen en seis biozonas kungurianas/leonardianas tardías. Esta biozonación precisa permite una mejor correlación del estadio regional norteamericano Leonardiano, especialmente en Nueva México, y su comparación con el estadio internacional Kunguriano. Más aún, los nuevos taxones son importantes para la reconstrucción de la filogenia de Miliolata y para una correlación más precisa de las series de América del Norte, el Océano Ural y el Tethys.

Palabras clave: Pérmico Temprano; Algas; Foraminíferos; Género nuevo; Especie nueva; Nueva México

Traducción: Diana Elizabeth Fernández

Résumé en Français

Algues, microproblematica, et les petits foraminifères du Permien Inférieur (Léonardien Inférieur; Kungurien), du Groupe de Yéso et de la Formation de San Andres (Nouveau-Mexique; États-Unis)

Six nouvelles espèces d'algues et microproblematica, trois nouveaux genres et neuf nouvelles espèces de petits foraminifères sont décrits dans les strates du Permien Inférieur (=Cisuralien Inférieur = Kungurien = Léonardien Inférieur) du Groupe de Yéso et de la Formation de San Andres au Nouveau-Mexique (États-Unis) . Il y a quatre algues Boueina? tubulata n. sp., B.? crassundia n. sp., Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp., G.? bacillum n. sp.; deux microproblematica Ellesmerella rara n. sp., et Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp.; quatre foraminifères globivalvulinoides Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp., G. retroseptata n. sp., G. novamexicana n. sp., et G. praegraeca n. sp.; et cinq foraminifères miliolate Orthovertellopsis proteaeformis n. gen. n. sp., O. calcitornellaeformis n. gen. n. sp., Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp., Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp., et Praeneodiscus convexus n. gen. n. sp. Le Groupe de Yéso et la Formation de San Andres sont subdivisés en six biozones Kungurien / Léonardien Inférieur. Cette biozonation précise permet une meilleure corrélation du stage régionale Léonardien de l'Amérique du Nord, en particulier au Nouveau-Mexique, et sa comparaison avec le stage internationale Kungurien. En outre, les nouveaux taxons sont importants pour reconstruire la phylogénie des Miliolata, et pour corréler avec plus de précision la série de l'Amérique du Nord, l'Océan Ural et la Téthys.

Mots-clés: Permien Inférieur; Algues; Foraminifères; Nouveau genre; Nouvelles espèces; Nouveau-Mexique

Translator: Kenny J. Travouillon

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Späte Frühpermische (spätes Leonardium; Kungurium) Algen, Mikroproblematika und kleinere Foraminiferen aus der Yeso Gruppe und San Andres Formation (New Mexico; USA)

Sech neue Arten von Algen und Mikroproblematika, drei neue Gattungen und neun neue Arten kleinerer Foraminiferen aus den späten frühpermischen (= spätes Cisuralium = Kungurium = spätes Leonardium) Schichten der Yeso Gruppe und San Andres Formation in New Mexico (USA) werden beschrieben. Es gibt vier Algen Boueina? tubulata n. sp., B.? crassundia n. sp., Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp., G.? bacillum n. sp.; zwei Mikroproblematika Ellesmerella rara n. sp., and Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp.; vier globivalvulinoide Foraminiferen Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp., G. retroseptata n. sp., G. novamexicana n. sp. und G. praegraeca n. sp.; und fünf miliolate Foraminiferen Orthovertellopsis proteaeformis n. gen. n. sp., O. calcitornellaeformis n. gen. n. sp., Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp., Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp. und Praeneodiscus convexus n. gen. n. sp. Die Yeso Gruppe und San Andres Formation sind unterteilt in sechs Biozonen aus dem Kungurium/spätes Leonardium. Diese akkurate Biozonierung erlaubt eine bessere Korrelation der Regionalstufen des Leonardiums von Nordamerika, besonders in New Mexico und den Vergleich mit dem internationalen Kungurium. Darüber hinaus sind die neuen Taxa für die Rekonstruktion der Phylogenie der Miliolata wichtig und um die Serie in Nordamerika, dem Ural und der Tethys präziser korrelieren zu können.

Schlüsselwörter: frühes Perm; Algen; Foraminiferen; neue Gattung; neue Art; New Mexico

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

433 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

FIGURE 1. Stratigraphical nomenclature and correlations of the Artinskian, Kungurian, and Roadian (partim) interval (based on Ross and Ross, 1995; Henderson et al., 2012; Davydov et al., 2013, and Lucas et al., 2015 modified). Abbreviations: KUB = Kubergandian; part. = partim (partially; in Latin); SST. = Sandstone; sp. = undetermined species; spp. = several undetermined species. Numbers 272.3, 279.3, and 290.1 represent radiometric ages in million years according to Henderson et al. (2012).

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FIGURE 2. Location map of the Yeso Group sections at Massacre Gap and in the McLeod Hills, Sierra County (New Mexico) (after Lucas and Krainer, 2012 and Krainer et al., 2012, slightly modified).

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FIGURE 3. Lithostratigraphic columns of the Yeso Group at Massacre Gap with thicknesses and sample MG locations (after Lucas and Krainer, 2012 and Krainer et al., 2012, slightly modified).

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FIGURE 4. Location map of San Andres Formation at the reference section in the San Andres Mountains. After Krainer et al. (2012) (slightly modified).

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FIGURE 5. Stratigraphic columns of the San Andres Formation with thicknesses and sample SAR locations.

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FIGURE 6. Detailed stratigraphic column of the lower part of San Andres Formation, in the McLeod Hills (southern Caballo Mountain), with thicknesses and sample MLY locations.

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FIGURE 7. Distribution of the studied algae, and microproblematica, and their biozonation and proposed chronstratigraphy, in the Yeso Group and San Andres Formation (New Mexico, USA).

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FIGURE 8. Distribution of the smaller foraminifers (taxa 1 to 15), and their biozonation and proposed chronstratigraphy, in the Yeso Group and San Andres Formation (New Mexico, USA).

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FIGURE 9. Distribution of the studied smaller foraminifers (taxa 16 to 26), and their biozonation and proposed chronstratigraphy, in the Yeso Group and San Andres Formation (New Mexico, USA).

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FIGURE 10. 1-3. Ellesmerella rara n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67501, holotype and microfacies. Yeso Group. Sample MG 13c. 2. NMMNH P-67501, detail of holotype. Yeso Group. Sample MG 13d. 3. NMMNH P-67502, paratype encrusting the concavity of a bivalve shell. Yeso Group. Sample MG 13i. 4-6. Boueina? tubulata n. sp. 4. NMMNH P-67504, paratype. Oblique section with two medullar siphons (left) and numerous cortical siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-17. 5. NMMNH P-67503, holotype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-12. 6. NMMNH P-67505, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-19b. 7-8. Undetermined Chlorophyta. 7. NMMNH P-67514, subaxial section with possible connections between two orders of siphons or of laterals L1 and L2 (top, right). Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 12-1. 8. Oblique section with distal parts of siphons or laterals. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-9. 9-10. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. 9. NMMNH P-67509, holotype. Longitudinal section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 12-4. 10. NMMNH P-67510, paratype. Compressed longitudinal section. Yeso. Sample MG(2) 12-12. 11. Gymnocodium? bacillum n. sp. NMMNH P-67513, holotype. Longitudinal section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-4.

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FIGURE 11. 1-4, 6-7. Boueina? crassundia n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67506, holotype. Oblique section showing all the types of siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-7a. 2. NMMNH P-67494, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-13. 3. NMMNH P-67495, paratype. Axial section with medullar siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-11. 4. NMMNH P-67507, paratype. Oblique section with cortical siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-27. 6. NMMNH P-67507, paratype. Oblique sections with cortical siphons (already illustrated in Brose et al., 2013, figure 6.8). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-9. 7. NMMNH P-67496, paratype. Oblique section with cortical siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-28. 5. Undetermined Chlorophyta. NMMNH P-67516, oblique sections with siphons or L2 and L1 laterals (bottom, left). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-10. 8-9. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. 8. NMMNH P-67511, paratype. Axial section with well preserved medullar zone. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 12-3. 9. NMMNH P-67512, paratype. Axial section more recrystallized than Figure 11.8. Specimen already illustrated in Lucas et al. (2013b, figure 8J). Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 12-5. 10. Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp. NMMNH P-67518, a paratype encrusting a productoid spine (left); another paratype (right); and an isolated brachiopod spine (centre). San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 12-3.

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FIGURE 12. 1-8. Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67517, holotype. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-2. 2. NMMNH P-67518, paratype. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-3a. 3. NMMNH P-67519, paratype. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-3. 4. NMMNH P-67520, paratype. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 11-9. 5. NMMNH P-67521, paratype. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-12. 6. NMMNH P-67522, paratype. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-8. 7. NMMNH P-67523, paratype with Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp. (paratype; top right). San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 11-8. 8. NMMNH P-67524, paratype. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-13.

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FIGURE 13. 1, 4-5, 8, 10. Boueina? crassundia n. sp. 1. Tangential section (right) with Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. (left) and crinoids (centre top and bottom). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-26. 4. Oblique subaxial section showing the siphons of the medullar zone. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-6. 5. Oblique section showing the siphons of the medullar zone. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-18. 8. Axial section with cortical and medullar zones. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-8. 10. Axial section with a well-developed medullar zone but a poorly preserved cortical zone. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-20. 2, 9. Undetermined Chlorophyta. 2. Fragment of a longitudinal section and microfacies (bivalve, top left; Palaeonubecularia sp. (top right); Eotuberitina reitlingerae Miklukho-Maklay, 1958 (right, centre); crinoid (bottom left); Boueina? crassundia n. sp. (bottom right)). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-2. 9. Detail of Figure 13.2; with Eotuberitina reitlingerae Miklukho-Maklay, 1958 (top right). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-2a. 3, 6-7. Boueina? tubulata n. sp. 3. Subaxial section showing the ramified siphons of the medullar zone. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-14. 6. Oblique subaxial section showing some ramifications of the siphons of the medullar zone. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-7b. 7. Axial section with typical cortical and medullar siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-10.

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FIGURE 14. 1-4, 10. Boueina? crassundia n. sp. 1. Axial section through dilated deltoid terminations. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-16. 2. Oblique section through the siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-25. 3. Tangential sections of the siphons. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 12-5. 4. Subaxial sections of cortical siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-7. 10. Subaxial section showing medullar and cortical siphons. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-19a. 5, 8-9. Gymnocodium? bacillum n. sp. 5. Tangential section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 8-9. 8. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 8-20. 9. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 8-14. 6-7, 11. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. 6. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 12-13. 7. Subaxial section without calcified medullar zone; the internal sediment contains an Eotuberitina reitlingerae Miklukho-Maklay, 1958. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 8-17. 11. Axial section completely recrystallized. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-14.

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FIGURE 15. 1-2, 4, 7, 9. Boueina? crassundia n. sp. 1. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-1. 2. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-27. 4. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-28. 7. Atypical axial section with excessively dilated siphons of medullar zones. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-8. 9. Two oblique sections with typical dilated siphons of medullar zones. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-10. 3, 5-8, 10-11. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. 3. Tangential section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-6. 5. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-11. 6. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-7. 7. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-8. 8. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-15. 10. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-12. 11. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-25.

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FIGURE 16. 1-2, 6, 8. Boueina? crassundia n. sp. 1. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-13. 2. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-14. 6. Tangential section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-30. 8. Atypical oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 8-3. 3-5. Undetermined Chlorophyta. 3. Two sections (centre) with Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. (centre bottom and top) and Boueina? tubulata n. sp. (top right). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-20. 4. At least six fragments. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-21. 5. Tangential section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 8-5. 7, 9. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. gen. n. sp. 7. Various sections associated with Globivalulina parapiciformis n. sp. (bottom, left) and G. novamexicana n. sp. (centre). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-32. 9. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-27.

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FIGURE 17. 1-4, 7. Undetermined Chlorophyta. 1. Tangential section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-27. 2. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-2. 3. Tangential section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-3. 4. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-8. 7. Oblique subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-3a. 6. Bryozoa. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-10. 5, 8-9. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. 5. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-5. 8. Two specimens in subaxial and tangential sections. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-9 (already illustrated in Lucas et al., 2013b, figure 8H). 9. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 13e.

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FIGURE 18. 1-5. Boueina? tubulata n. sp. 1. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-26. 2. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-9. 3. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-2. 4. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-18. 5. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-19. 6-11. Boueina? crassundia n. sp. 6. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-9. 7. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-19d. 8. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-11. 9. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-16. 10. Longitudinal section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5-14. 11. Oblique section (left). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-12. 11. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. An axial section through the cortical zone (right). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-12. 12. Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp. Specimen similar to Latitubiphytes Vachard, Krainer and Lucas, 2012 exhibiting a neosparitization of Miliolata, especially Hemigordiopsis, Baisalina or Pseudobaisalina (see Gargouri and Vachard, 1988; Vdovenko et al., 1993). San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-15.

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FIGURE 19. 1-2, 4-6, 9. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. 1. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 2-1. 2. Tangential section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 2-2. 4. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 2-3. 5. Tangential section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 2-4. 6. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-9. 9. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-25 (already illustrated in Brose et al., 2013, figure 6.9). 3, 7-8, 10-16. Gymnocodium? bacillum n. sp. 3. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 2-5. 7. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-3. 8. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-26. 10. Axial section. Yeso. Sample MG(2) 12-2 (already illustrated in Lucas et al., 2013b, figure 8D). 11. Axial section. San Andres. Sample SAR 8-8. 12. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-6. 13. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-16. 14. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-15. 15. Two tangential sections. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-8. 16. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-23.

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FIGURE 20. 1-4. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. 1. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-18. 2. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-19a. 3. Oblique section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-1. 4. Recrystallized subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-4. 5-8, 10-11. Hemigordiellina aff. simplex (Harlton, 1928). 5. Random section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-23. 6. Random section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-7. 7. Random section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-11. 8. Random section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-12. 10. Random section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-13. 11. Random section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-14. 9. Eotuberitina reitlingerae Miklukho-Maklay, 1958. Axial section with basal disk. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-12a. 12. Geinitzina indepressa Cherdyntsev, 1914. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-13a. 13, 15. Boueina? crassundia n. gen. n. sp. 13. Oblique section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-1. 15. Tangential section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-10. 14. Palaeonubecularia sp. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-5. 16. Gymnocodium? bacillum n. sp. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-11. 17, 19. Gymnocodium? johnsonii n. sp. 17. Two transverse sections. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-13. 19. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 12-4a. 18. Undetermined Chlorophyta. Subtransverse section through the laterals. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-19. Scale bars 1-12 equal 0.10 mm; 13-19 equal 0.50 mm.

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FIGURE 21. 1-8. Globivalvulina retroseptata n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67554, paratype. Axial section showing the siphon formed by a curved backwards septum and an oral valvula. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 10-3. 2. NMMNH P-67555, paratype. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 12-6. 3. NMMNH P-67556, paratype. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 12-7. 4. NMMNH P-67553, holotype. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-2. 5. NMMNH P-67557, paratype. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-3a. 6. NMMNH P-67558, paratype. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-4. 7. NMMNH P-67559, paratype. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-6. 8. NMMNH P-67560, paratype. Oblique subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-3. 9-14. Globivalvulina praegraeca n. sp. 9. NMMNH P-67565, paratype. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-1. 10 , NMMNH P-67566, paratype. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-2. 11 , NMMNH P-67567, paratype. Oblique subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-6. 12. NMMNH P-67564, holotype. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-7. 13. NMMNH P-67568, paratype. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-3. 14. NMMNH P-67569, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-18. 15. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp., NMMNH P-67562, paratype. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-22. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig21

FIGURE 22. 1, 3. Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67600, holotype. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-22. 3. NMMNH P-67601, paratype. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-25. 2. Orthovertellopsis proteaeformis n. gen. n. sp., NMMNH P-67570, holotype. Axial section with relatively well-preserved wall. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-21. 4, 7-8, 10, 12-14. Praeneodiscus convexus n. gen. n. sp. 4. NMMNH P-67606, holotype. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-24. 7. NMMNH P-67607, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-13 (already illustrated in Brose et al., 2013, figure 6. 11). 8. NMMNH P-67608, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-4. 10. NMMNH P-67609, paratype. Axial section with a relatively preserved wall. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-7. 12. NMMNH P-67610, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-7a. 13. NMMNH P-67611, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-30. 14. NMMNH P-67612, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-21. 5. Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n.sp. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-22. 6. Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp. NMMNH P-67551, holotype. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-3. 9. Pseudospira aff. ishimbaica (Lipina, 1949). Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-26. 11. Hemigordiellina? cf. simplex (Harlton, 1928). Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-28. 15. Eotuberitina reitlingerae Miklukho-Maklay, 1958. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-5. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

fig22 

FIGURE 23.1, 3, 7-8. Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67602, paratype. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-12. 3. NMMNH P-67603, paratype. Oblique subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-15. 7. NMMNH P-67604, paratype. Two subtransverse sections. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-2. 8. NMMNH P-67605, paratype. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-16. 2, 4, 6. Orthovertellopsis proteaeformis n. gen. n. sp. 2. NMMNH P-67571, paratype. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-23. 4. NMMNH P-67572, paratype. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-13a. 6. NMMNH P-67573, two paratypes. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-20. 5. Calcitornella cf. elongata Cushman and Waters, 1928a. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-20a. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig23

FIGURE 24. 1-4, 7, 10. Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67595, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-15. 2. NMMNH P-67596, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-7. 3. NMMNH P-67597, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-8. 4. NMMNH P-67598, paratype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-12. 7. NMMNH P-67599, paratype. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-6b. 10. NMMNH P-67594, holotype. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-2. 5-6, 9, 11. Orthovertellopsis calcitornellaeformis n. gen. n. sp. 5. NMMNH P-67575, paratype. Oblique section showing the costae. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 12-8. 6. NMMNH P-67574, holotype. Transverse section with Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-10. 9. NMMNH P-67592, paratype. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-13. 11. NMMNH P-67593, paratype. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-7a. 8, 12. Tubiphytes epimonellaeformis n. sp. 8. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 12-1. 12. Subaxial section difficult to distinguish from T. obscurus Maslov, 1956. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 3-3. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig24

FIGURE 25. 1-2. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. 1. NMMNH P-67561, holotype. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-17. 2. NMMNH P-67563, paratype. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-29a. 3. Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp. NMMNH P-67552, two paratypes. Two oblique sections. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-11a. 4. Nestellorella? sp. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 1-1. 5. Protonodosaria? sp. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-5. 6-7, 10, 17-19. Nodosinelloides longa (Lipina, 1949). 6. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-4a. 7. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-8. 10. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-17 (already illustrated by Brose et al., 2013, figure 6.5). 17. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-6. 18. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-9. 19. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 12-4. 8-9, 12-14. Geinitzina indepressa Cherdyntsev, 1914. 8. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-11. 9. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-14. 12. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-7. 13. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-13. 14. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-10. 11, 15, 20?, 21. Nodosinelloides netjaschewi (Cherdyntsev, 1914). 11. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-17. 15. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-19/19a. 20. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20.2. 21. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-2. 16. Nodosariata indet. cf. Dentalina cf. ninae Grozdilova sensu Chuvashov et al., 1990. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-4. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig25

FIGURE 26. 1, 4-7, 9, 11-14, 16-19, 21, 23, 25. Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp. 1. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-14. 4. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-4. 5. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-7. 6. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-12a. 7. Transverse megalospheric? section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-9 (already illustrated by Brose et al., 2013, figure 6.6). 9. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 4-11. 11. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-31. 12. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-11. 13. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-11a. 14. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-24a. 16. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 8-2. 17. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-4. 18. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-3. 19. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-2. 21. Transverse megalospheric section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 2-1. 23. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-7d. 25. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-9. 2-3, 8, 10, 15, 20, 22, 24. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. 2. Oblique subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-2. 3. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-6. 8. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-10. 10. Oblique subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-4. 15. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-7a. 20. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-1. 22. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 8-8. 24. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-19. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig26

FIGURE 27. 1, 4, 9, 20. Globivalvulina retroseptata n. sp. 1. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 8-2a. 4. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-23. 9. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-3. 20. Transverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-9. 2, 5-8, 12-19. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. 2. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-13. 5. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-9. 6. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY4-1. 7. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-2. 8. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-6. 12. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-8. 13. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-8 (already illustrated in Lucas et al., 2013b, figure 8G). 14. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-14. 15. Oblique subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-17a. 16. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-17. 17. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-7. 18. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG10 6. 19. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-6a. 3, 10-11. Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp. 3. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-16. 10. Axial section. San Andres. Sample MLY 5-20a. 11. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-7c. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig27

FIGURE 28. 1-3, 7. Globivalvulina retroseptata n. sp. 1. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-5. 2. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-5b. 3. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-5c. 7. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-5. 4-6, 8-12, 14-16. Globivalvulina praegraeca n. sp. 4. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-7. 5. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-2. 6. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-3. 8. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-7a. 9. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-2. 10. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-5. 11. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-5a. 12. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-18. 14. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-9. 15. Oblique subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-10. 16. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-12. 13. Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-8a. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

fig28 

FIGURE 29. 1-4, 7. Globivalvulina retroseptata n. sp. 1. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 19-2. 2. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 19-3. 3. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 19-4. 4. Subtransverse section with developed oral valvula. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20-1. 7. Teratogenic specimen. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 3-1. 5, 8, 10-13. Globivalvulina praegraeca n. sp. 5. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20-3. 8. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 3-4. 10. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-1. 11-12. Two transverse sections. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-4. 13. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-5. 6, 9. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. 6. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20-4. 9. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 7-3. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig29

FIGURE 30. 1, 4-6, 8-10, 12, 14-15. Globivalvulina praegraeca n. sp. 1. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-13a. 4. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 9-1. 6. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-10. 8. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 13-2. 9. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 13-6. 10. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. SAR 13-9. 12. Axial section showing the proloculus and the first whorl. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 8-21. 14. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 4-9. 15. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-18. 2-3, 11, 13, 16. Globivalvulina retroseptata n. sp. 2. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-19. 3. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-24. 11. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-7. 13. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 6-13 (already illustrated by Brose et al., 2013, figure 6.7). 16. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 12-6. 5. Globivalvulina parapiciformis n. sp. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-9. 7. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-12. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

fig30

FIGURE 31. 1. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-4. 2-8. Globivalvulina praegraeca n. sp. 2. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-6. 3. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8-7. 4. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-10a. 5. Paratype. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-20. 6. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 8a-21. 7. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 12-2. 8. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-1. 9-12. Globivalvulina retroseptata n. sp. 9. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-7. 10. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-1. 11. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-8. 12. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-9. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

fig31 

FIGURE 32. 1-3, 6. Globivalvulina retroseptata n. sp. 1. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-10. 2. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13a-11. 3. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20-6. 6. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR (A-1§). 4-5. Globivalvulina novamexicana n. sp. 4. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20-8. 5. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20-9. 7-10. Hemigordius? sp. Four sections. San Andres Fm Sample SAR 1. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig32

FIGURE 33. 1-14, 16, 18. Hemigordiellina? cf. simplex (Harlton, 1928). 1. Oblique subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-1. 2. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 3-11. 3. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-8. 4. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-11. 5. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-15. 6. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-16. 7. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-18. 8. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-19. 9. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 8-7. 10. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-20. 11. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-15. 12. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-16a. 13. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-5. 14. Subtranverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-12. 16. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-25a. 18. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 4-21. 15, 21. Pseudospira aff. ishimbaica (Lipina, 1949). 15. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-22. 21. Axial section with Hemigordiellina? cf. simplex (left). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-17. 17, 22, 26. Praeneodiscus convexus n. gen. n. sp. 17. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-16. 22. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-8a. 26. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-9. 19-20. Orthovertellopsis protaeformis n. gen. n. sp. 19. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-5. 20. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-5a. 23-24. Hemigordiellina? aff. pseudopusilla (Baryshnikov in Zolotova and Baryshnikov, 1980). 23. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-25. 24. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-24. 25. Palaeonubecularia? sp. Axial section. Perhaps also related with Ellesmerella (see Vachard et al., 2013b). San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-29. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig33

FIGURE 34. 1-5. Hemigordius aff. saranensis Baryshnikov in Baryshnikov, Zolotova and Kosheleva, 1982 . 1. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-5d. 2. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-5a. 3. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 20-5. 4. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-12. 5. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-11. 6, 10, 17. Orthovertellopsis calcitornellaeformis n. gen. n. sp. 6. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 19-1. 10. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 8-6. 17. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 11-10. 7-8. Palaeonubecularia sp. 7. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-19. 8. Subtransverse section encrusting a Boueina? crassundia n. sp. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-19. 9. Pseudospira aff. ishimbaica (Lipina, 1949). Two random sections. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6- 23. 11-12. Hemigordellina cf. elegans (Lipina, 1949). 11. Random section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 18-3a. 12. Random section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 18-3. 13. Ammovertella sp. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 13-9a. 14. Praeneodiscus convexus n. gen. n. sp. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 5-32. 15, 18. Hemigordiellina? aff. simplex (Harlton, 1928). 15. Random section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 18-2. 18. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 4-2. 16. Hemigordellina aff. elegans (Lipina, 1949). Random section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 14. 19. Calcitornella cf. elongata Cushman and Waters, 1928a. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-24. Scale bars 1-6, 10-19 equal 0.10 mm.

 fig34

FIGURE 35. 1-5, 8. Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp. 1. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-11. 2. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-8 (already illustrated in Brose et al., 2013, figure 6. 12). 3. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-15. 4. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-14. 5. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-3. 8. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-6. 6-7, 13. Orthovertellopsis calcitornellaeformis n. gen. n. sp. 6. Subtransverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-16. 7. Transverse section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-16. 13. Oblique section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11a-5. 9, 11, 14. Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp. 9. Axial section showing the proloculus. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR 11-14. 11. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-7b. 14. Axial section relatively well preserved (dark wall). Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 12-7. 10, 12. Orthovertellopsis protaeformis n. gen. n. sp. 10. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-14. 12. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-6. Scale bars equal 0.10 mm.

 fig35

FIGURE 36. 1-12, 16. Glomomidiella infrapermica n. sp. 1. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-9. 2. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY(2) 5a-15. 3. Oblique subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-8. 4. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-7. 5. Broken subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-10. 6. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-4. 7. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-5. 8. Oblique subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-3. 9. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-11. 10. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 10-7a. 11. Subtransverse section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-7c. 12. Subaxial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG(2) 10-13 (already illustrated in Lucas et al., 2013b, figure 8I). 16. Poorly preserved subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample MLY 6-26. 13. Olgaorlovella davydovi n. gen. n. sp. Axial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 11-7. 14-15. Geinitzina indepressa Cherdyntsev, 1914. 14. Oblique subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 11-2. 15. Subaxial section. San Andres Fm. Sample SAR(2) 19-1. 17. “ Frondicularia ” aff. turae Baryshnikov in Baryshnikov, Zolotova and Kosheleva, 1982. Axial section. Yeso Group. Sample MG 13f.

fig36

 

vachardDaniel Vachard
Collegial and International Research Centre of Active Seniors (CIRCAS)
1 rue des Tilleuls
59152 Gruson
France
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Daniel Vachard is 68 years old. He is just retired from the CNRS (French Scientific Investigation Center) and University Lille1 (France), after an exceptional maintaining in activity (2012-2014). His topics are the micropalaeontology of the smaller foraminifers, fusulinids, and calcareous algae, and their biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography. He has largely contributed to the Givetian to Triassic stratigraphy, and especially the Carboniferous and Permian stratigraphy, in France, Belgium, Spain, Morocco, Libya, Tunisia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Greece, Austria, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, South China, Australia, Mexico and Guatemala.

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krainerKarl Krainer. Institute of Geology and Paleontology
University of Innsbruck
6020 Innsbruck
Austria
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Karl Krainer studied Geology, Paleontology and Mineralogy at the University of Innsbruck (Austria) where he obtained his doctorate (Dr. phil) in June 1981. Afterwards, he worked as a scientific assistant and since 1986 he holds the position of an assistant at the Institute of Geology and Paleontology at the University of Innsbruck. He finished his habilitation in 1991, and since 1997 he is Ao. Univ.-Prof. at the University of Innsbruck, Austria.
His main fields of interest are sedimentary geology, regional geology and Quaternary geology. Within the field of sedimentary geology, he works on facies analysis, basin analysis and stratigraphy of Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the Eastern and Southern Alps and in the Southwest of the USA (New Mexico). The main focus on regional geology lies in the Eastern and Southern Alps. Since more than 15 years, he also studies Alpine Permafrost in western Austria and South Tyrol (northern Italy).

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lucasSpencer G. Lucas
New Mexico Museum of Natural History
1801 Mountain Road N.W.
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87104
USA
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Spencer Lucas received a B.A. from the University of New Mexico in 1976, and M.S. (1979) and Ph.D. (1984) degrees from Yale University. His research interests have been primarily focused on biostratigraphy particularly of the Mesozoic and late Palaeozoic. Lucas is particularly interested in the application of vertebrate fossils to problems of geologic timescale. He has conducted field research primarily in the western United States, but also in China, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Mexico, Costa Rica and Nicaragua.

Since 1988, Lucas has been Curator of Geology and Palaeontology at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

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