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Maëva J. Orliac, Levent Karadenizli, Pierre-Olivier Antoine, and Sevket Sen

Plain Language Abstract

Fossil remains of small pigs from Turkey (17-18 million years old) and a short overview of coeval small pigs in Eurasia and Africa. Extinct representatives of what we know today as pigs and peccaries were abundant in Europe, Asia, and Africa during the early Miocene between 17 and 18 million years ago. Strikingly, despite a rich fossil record at the Old World scale, no early Miocene pigs are known thus far from Anatolia in Turkey, a region located at the crossroads between Africa, Arabia, Asia, and Europe. Here we describe a fragmentary fossil cranium and an isolated milk tooth of small pigs from the fossiliferous locality of Şemsettin in north Central Anatolia. These fossil remains document the first pigs ever recorded in the early Miocene of Turkey. Both remains are attributed to the suid subfamily Hyotheriinae. The fragmentary cranium presents previously unknown morphology and is attributed to a new species, Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov. The isolated milk tooth, of much smaller size, is thought to belong to another (unidentified) species of the hyotheriine subfamily. The new species Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov. shows equal affinity with Asiatic and African Hyotheriinae.

Glossary
Suidae: family of mammals including what we know today as "pigs"
Suoidea: family of mammals including what we know today as "pigs" and "peccaries"
early Miocene: a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages: the Aquitanian (from 23.03 to 20.4 million years ago) and Burdigalian stages (from 20.4 to 16 million years ago).

Resumen en Español

Pequeños suidos hyotheriinos (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) del Mioceno temprano tardío de Turquía y un breve resumen de los suoides del Viejo Mundo

Los suoides son componentes conspicuos de las faunas del Mioceno temprano tardío en Europa, Asia y África. Sorprendentemente, a pesar de la riqueza de su registro fósil a escala del Viejo Mundo, no se conocían aún restos de suoides de edad miocena temprana provenientes de Anatolia, una región ubicada en el cruce entre África, Arabia, Asia y Europa. Aquí se describen un cráneo fragmentario, preservando mayormente el paladar y un dp4 de pequeños suidos de la localidad Şemsettin en la Cuenca Çankiri-Çorum, Anatolia Central septentrional. Estos restos son atribuidos a la subfamilia Hyotheriinae. El cráneo fragmentario presenta una combinación original de caracteres y es atribuido a Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov. El dp4 aislado, mucho más pequeño, se atribuye aquí a otro taxón hyotheriino de género y especie indeterminados. Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov. muestra igual afinidad con ambos Hyotheriinae asiáticos y africanos.
Palabras clave: Suidae; Hyotheriinae; Cuenca Çankiri-Çorum; Anatolia Central; especie nueva

Traducción: Diana Elizabeth Fernández

Résumé en Français

Petits suidés hyotheriinés (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) du Miocène ancien tardif de Turquie et une brève synthèse des petits suoïdes du Miocène ancien de l'Ancien Monde

Les suoïdes sont des éléments remarquables des faunes du Miocène ancien tardif d'Europe, d'Asie, et d'Afrique. De manière frappante, malgré un registre fossile riche à l'échelle de l'Ancien Monde, aucun reste de suoïdes du Miocène ancien n'était jusqu'à présent connu en Anatolie, une région située au carrefour entre l'Afrique, la péninsule arabique, l'Asie, et l'Europe. Nous décrivons dans cet article un crâne fragmentaire, préservant principalement le palais, et une dp4 de petits suidés provenant de la localité Şemsettin dans le bassin de Çankiri-Çorum, au nord de l'Anatolie centrale. Ces restes documentent les premiers suoïdes jamais découverts dans le Miocène ancien de Turquie. Ces deux spécimens sont attribués à la sous-famille Hyotheriinae. Le crâne fragmentaire présente une combinaison originale de caractères et est attribué à Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov. La dp4 isolée, de taille bien plus réduite, est ici attribuée à un autre taxon de hyotheriiné dont le genre et l'espèce sont indéterminés. Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov. présente autant d'affinités avec les Hyotheriinae d'Asie qu'avec ceux d'Afrique.

Mots-clés : Suidae ; Hyotheriinae ; bassin de Çankiri-Çorum ; Anatolie centrale ; nouvelle espèce

Translator: Antoine Souron

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Kleine hyotheriine Suiden (Mammalia, Artiodactyla) aus dem späten Früh-Miozän der Türkei und eine kurze Übersicht über die kleinen Suiden aus dem frühen Miozän der Alten Welt

Suiden sind auffällige Elemente des späten Früh-Miozäns von Europa, Asien und Afrika. Auffälligerweise sind trotz des reichhaltigen Fossilrekords der Alten Welt bis jetzt keine Funde von Suiden aus dem frühen Miozän von Anatolien bekannt, einer Region an der Kreuzung zwischen Afrika, Arabien, Asien und Europa. Hier beschreiben wir ein fragmentarisches Cranium, das hauptsächlich aus dem Palatinum besteht und einen dp4 von einem kleinen Suiden aus der Şemsettin-Lokalität im Çankiri-Çorum Becken, nördliches Zentralanatolien. Diese Überreste dokumentieren die ersten Suiden die jemals aus dem Frühen Miozän der Türkei nachgewiesen wurden. Beide Überreste werden der Subfamilie Hyotheriinae zugeschrieben. Das fragmentarische Cranium stellt eine ursprüngliche Merkmalskombination dar und wird Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov zugeschrieben. Der viel kleinere isolierte dp4 wird hier einem anderen hyotheriinen Taxon von unbestimmter Gattung und Art zugeschrieben. Nguruwe? galaticum sp. nov. zeigt gleichviele Gemeinsamkeiten mit sowohl den asiatischen als auch den afrikanischen Hyotheriinae.

Schlüsselwörter: Suidae; Hyotheriinae; Çankiri-Çorum Becken; Zentralanatolien; neue Art

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

FIGURE 1. Geological map of the region around the Şemsettin locality (modified from Karadenizli et al., 2004 and from Özcan et al., 2007) and lithostratigraphic column across the Şemsettin locality (modified from Karadenizli et al., 2004).

figure 1

FIGURE 2. Figure 2 Suid remains from Şemsettin, Çankiri-Çorum Basin, north Central Anatolia. Nguruwe ? galaticum sp. nov.: 1-3, fragmentary cranium, type specimen SMT-1 in 1) occlusal, 2) left lateral, 3) right lateral views; 6-9, right canine associated to SMT-1 in 6) ventral, 7) posterior, 8) lateral, 9) anterior view; 10-14, left P3 associated to SMT-1 in 10) occlusal, 11) labial, 12) anterior, 13) lingual, 14) posterior views. Hyotheriinae gen. et sp. indet: 4-5, isolated right dp4 SMT-2 in 4) occlusal, 5) labial views. Arrows indicate anterior direction for jugal teeth. Scale bars equal 5 mm.

figure 2

FIGURE 3. 3D reconstruction of SMT-1 from Şemsettin in occlusal view and 1-2) CT scan slide showing root structure at different sections of the specimen: 1) buccal; 2) lingual. Arrows indicate anterior direction. Scale bar equals 10 mm.

figure 3 

 

FIGURE 4. Occlusal pattern of the M2 of: 1, specimen from Şemsettin (SMT-1); 2, Aureliachoerus aurelianensis (Suidae, Hyotheriinae, MNHN Ar 2611); 3, Hyotherium meisneri (Suidae, Hyotheriinae, van der Made, 1994, plate IV7); 4, Nguruwe kijivium (Suidae, Hyotheriinae, KNM); 5, Sanitherium (Sanitheriidae, modified after Orliac et al., 2011, figure 5J); 6, Palaeochoerus (Palaeochoeridae, modified after Orliac et al., 2011, figure 5H); 7, Taucanamo (Palaeochoeridae, modified after Orliac et al., 2011, figure 5I). Not to scale. Abbreviations: cul, centroconule; enP, endoprotocrista; enPa, endoparacrista; M, metacone; mesl, mesiostyle; mestl, metastyle; P, Protocone; Pa, paraconule; Pasl, parastyle; Paul, paraconule; posM, postmetacrista; posPa, postparacrista; preM, premetacrista; preP, preprotocrista; prePa, preparacrista.

figure 4

FIGURE 5. Boxplots of 1, Antero-Posterior Length (APL) and 2, Labio-Lingual Length (LLL) measurements of Hyotherium meisneri in light grey (measurements from van der Made, 1994), Aureliachoerus aurelianensis in black (measurements from the material from Artenay curated in the MNHN and from van der Made and Morales, 1999), Chicochoerus minus in white (measurements from van der Made, 1998; van der Made and Morales, 1999; Orliac et al., 2006), Nguruwe kijivium in stripes (measurements from Pickford, 1986), Nguruwe namibense in dark grey (measurements from Pickford, 2008). The specimens from Şemsettin are represented by black stars. Abbreviations: C. m, Chicochoerus minus ; H. m, Hyotherium meisneri; N. k, Nguruwe kijivium.

figure 5

FIGURE 6. Occlusal pattern of the dp4 of: 1, specimen from Şemsettin (SMT-2); 2, Hyotherium mesneri (Suidae, Hyotheriinae, illustrated after van der Made, 1994, plate IV4b, mirror view); 3, Aureliachoerus aurelianensis (Suidae, Hyotheriinae, MNHN Ar 2566); 4, Nguruwe kijivium (Suidae, Hyotheriinae, KNM SO1062, mirror view), 5, Eurolistriodon tenarezensis (Suidae, Listriodontinae, modified after Orliac et al., 2011, figure 6H); 6, Palaeochoerus (Palaeochoeridae, modified after Orliac et al., 2011, figure 6G); 7, Egatochoerus (Suoidea incertae sedis, modified after Orliac et al., 2011, figure 6F); 8, Sanitherium (Sanitheriidae, THY 9, figured in Bonis et al., 1997); 9, Taucanamo sansaniense (MNHN Sa 4618, mirror view). All teeth represented with the same length, not to scale. Abbreviations: E, entoconid; ectE, ectoendocristid; ectH, ectohypocritid; ectP, ectoprotocristid; enE, endoentocristid; enH, endohypocritid; enPrm, endoprimocristid; H, Hypoconid; Hul, Hypoconulide; M, metacristid; P, Protoconid; Pa, paraconid; posecM, postectometacristid; posecP, postectoprotocristid; posH, posthypocristid; posM, postmetacristid; posP, postprotocristid; posPa, postparacristid; posPrm, postprimocristide; preM, premetacristid; prep, preprotocristide; prePa, preparacristid; prePrm, preprimonid; Prm, primonid.

figure 6

 

 

author 1Maëva J. Orliac
Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution
UMR 5554 CNRS, IRD, EPHE
Université de Montpellier
Place Eugène Bataillon
34095 Montpellier cedex 5
France
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Maeva Orliac is researcher at the Insitut des Sciences de l'Evolution in Montpellier France. She is a vertebrate paleontologist primarily devoted to Cenozoic mammal evolution and phylogeny. She completed her undergraduate training and her PhD at the University Pierre et Marie Curie in Paris. Her work primarily focused on the morphology and systematics of suoids (pigs and peccaries) and hippos, and their relationships within Artiodactyla. Hippos being the closest relatives of whales according to molecular data, this topic is directly related to the terrestrial origin of cetacean, which is one of the problematic issues of mammalian evolution.
She has been working on the dental, cranial and postcranial morphology of Paleogene and Neogene suoids and hippopotamoids of the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) to understand how they are related and how their paleogeographical distribution changed. She also studied endocranial features of extinct and extant artiodactyls such as the middle and inner ear, and brain morphology.

After several expeditions in France, recent paleontologic fieldwork has taken her to the Cenozoic deposits of Turkey and Amazonia.

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author 2Levent Karadenizli
MTA Genel Müdürlüğü Jeoloji Etütleri Dairesi
Üniversiteler Mahallesi
Dumlupınar Bulvarı
TR-06800, Çankaya-Ankara
Turkey
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Levent KARADENIZLI is Associated Professor and geologist at the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration in Ankara, Turkey. He studied basin formation, stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of terrestrial and marine deposits in several Cenozoic basins of Turkey. He mapped several sedimentary basins in Turkey and provided data on the evolution of their sedimentary environments, lastly in the Çankiri and Sivas basins.

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author3Pierre-Olivier Antoine
Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution
UMR 5554 CNRS, IRD, EPHE
Université de Montpellier
Place Eugène Bataillon
34095 Montpellier cedex 5 France
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Pierre-Olivier Antoine is a vertebrate paleontologist primarily devoted to Cenozoic mammal evolution, phylogeny, and spatiotemporal distribution. He completed his undergraduate training at the University of Toulouse and his PhD at the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. He was Post-doctorate fellow at the University of Montpellier and Assistant Professor in the University of Toulouse.

His research combines phylogenetic analyses and fieldwork in remote areas such as Balochistan, Peruvian Amazonia, and the Andean Altiplano. Major focuses of his research are: i) Cenozoic stratigraphy, biochronology, and palaeogeography of Eurasia; ii) evolution of megaherbivores (anatomy, systematics, phylogeny, and biochronology), with respect to palaeoenvironmental changes and Cenozoic geodynamics; iii) Cenozoic Evolution of western Amazonian ecosystems and biodiversity, with respect to Andean geodynamics.
Outside interests include running (marathon) and drumming (in punk rock and hardcore bands).

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author 4Sevket Sen
Centre de recherches sur la paléobiodiversité et les Paléoenvironnements
UMR 7207 CNRS, UPMC, MNHN
8 rue Buffon
75005, Paris
France
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Sevket SEN is emeritus Research Director at the National Research Center and works at the Natural History Museum of Paris, France. He investigated Oligocene and Tertiary mammal faunas around the Mediterranean realm and magnetostratigraphy of terrestrial deposits. He edited several volumes on mammalian faunas and published hundreds of academic and non-academic papers. 

 

 

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TABLE 1. Dental measurements of the small suoid remains from Şemsettin in millimeters. * estimated after partly broken material; ** measurement of the base of the teeth (crown broken).

Specimen LLL max APL max
C (l) 6.4 7.5
P3(r) 7.9* 9.6
P3(l) 8.5 9.7
P4 (l) - 8.0**
M1(l) 12.2* 11.1*
M2 (l) 13.0 13.5*
M3 (l) 12.4 13.9**
dp4 (r) 5.7 10.9