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FIGURE 1. Location of the Howe Ranch quarries in the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming, USA (grey star). Abbreviations: CO, Colorado; ID, Idaho, MT, Montana, N, north; NE, Nebraska; SD, South Dakota; UT, Utah. Scale bar equals 100 km. Modified from Christiansen and Tschopp (2010).

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FIGURE 2. General quarry map of the Howe-Stephens Quarry north of Shell, Wyoming. Circle indicates Camarasaurus SMA 0002. Prepared by E. Premru, © by SMA.

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FIGURE 3. Detailed quarry map of the specimen SMA 0002 excavated in 1992-93 at the Howe-Stephens Quarry. Note the preservation of skin impressions in various regions of the skeleton. Modified from Ayer (2000).

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FIGURE 4. The original quarry maps of both manus (1), the right pes (2), and the left pes (3). Note the plaster cast in (1) that does not include all phalanges, the skin impressions in (2), and the bones labeled 'neg' (= negative) in (3). The latter were already separated during the excavation. Black elements are carpal or tarsal bones, dark gray marks metapodials, and light gray phalanges. Rectangles relate to grids on the detailed quarry map of SMA 0002 (see Figure 3). Abbreviations: f, fibula; h, humerus; r, radius; t, tibia; u, ulna.

figure 4 

FIGURE 5. The autopodia of SMA 0002 as mounted. The left manus (1) and pes (3) are visible in anterior view, the right manus (2) and pes (4) in posterior view. The mounted unguals of the right manus and pes are casts, as well as the right php IV-2. The original unguals are stored separately at the SMA. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 6. Process of preparing a real 3D model of the left manus and pes of Camarasaurus: skeletal model (1) as a pre-stage, (2) shows the finished model, (3) shows the imprints produced by the model.

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FIGURE 7. General drawing of the right manus in posterior view. Phm II-1 and II-2 are probably misidentified (indicated with an (m), phm III-2 might actually be phm II-2 (arrow, see text for more detailed discussion). Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 8. Photographs and drawings of the left medial carpal in proximal (1, 6), anterior (2, 7), medial (3, 8), posterior (4, 9), and lateral views (5, 10). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: carp, carpal; lat, lateral; mc, metacarpal. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 9. Photographs and drawings of the left lateral carpal in proximal (1, 2), anterior (3, 4), and lateral views (5, 6). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: carp, carpal; mc, metacarpal; med, medial. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 10. Photographs and drawings of the left metacarpal I in medial (1, 2) and anterior views (3, 4). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: carp, carpal; I-1, first phalanx of digit I; mc, metacarpal; med, medial. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 11. Photographs and drawings of the left metacarpal II in anteromedial (1, 2) and anterior views (3, 4). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: carp, carpal; II-1, first phalanx of digit II; mc, metacarpal; med, medial. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

figure 11 

FIGURE 12. Photographs and drawings of the left metacarpal III in medial (1, 2) and anterior views (3, 4). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: carp, carpal; II-1, first phalanx of digit II; lat, lateral; mc, metacarpal. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 13. Photograph and drawing of the left metacarpal IV in anterior view. Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: mc, metacarpal; V-1, first phalanx of digit V. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 14. Photographs and drawings of the left metacarpal V in anterior (1, 2) and lateral views (3, 4). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: mc, metacarpal; V-1, first phalanx of digit V. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 15. Photographs and drawings of the phalanges of the left manual digit I. Manual phalanx I-1 in medial (1, 2) and posterior views (3, 4). Manual ungual (phm I-2) in medial (5, 6), posterior (7, 8), distal (9, 10), and medial views (11, 12). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: mc, metacarpal; V-1, first phalanx of digit V. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 16. Right manual ungual phm I-2 of the Camarasaurus SMA 0002 in medial (left), dorsal, lateral, and palmar (right, top to bottom) views. Schematic drawing indicates location of the claw. The metal bar overlain with semi-transparent white in the photo of the lateral view functions as support for the mount. Abbreviation: mg, medial groove. Scale bar equals 5 cm.

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FIGURE 17. Photographs and drawings of the phalanges of the left manual digit II. Manual phalanx II-1 (1-4, 7, 8) and II-2 (3, 5, 6) in medial (1, 2), anterior (3-5), and distal views (6-8). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: II-1, first phalanx of digit II; mc, metacarpal. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 18. Photographs and drawings of the left phm III-1 in anterior (1, 5), lateral (2, 6), posterior (3, 7), and distal views (4, 8). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: IV-1, first phalanx of digit IV; mc, metacarpal. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 19. Photographs and drawings of the left phm IV-1 in anterior (1, 4), lateral (2, 5), and distal views (3, 6). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: III-1, first phalanx of digit III; mc, metacarpal. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 20. Photographs and drawings of the left phm V-1 in anterior (1, 5), lateral (2, 6), posterior (3, 7), and distal views (4, 8). Light gray represents adjoining bones, dark gray original matrix. Abbreviations: IV-1, first phalanx of digit IV; mc, metacarpal. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 21. General drawing of the left pes in anterior view. Abbreviations: ast, astragalus; calc, calcaneum; f, fibula; IV-1, first phalanx of digit IV; mt, metatarsal; t, tibia. Scale bar equals 10 cm.

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FIGURE 22. Photographs and drawings of the right astragalus (articulated with the tibia) in posterior (1, 2), and distal views (3, 4), and of the right calcaneum (still partly embedded in matrix) in proximal (5, 6), and posterior views (7, 8). Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth (2) and Esther Premru (4, 5, 7).

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FIGURE 23. Photographs and drawings of the articulated right metatarsals I and II (1, 3, 5, 6), and mt III (2, 4, 7, 8) in posterior (1-4) and distal views (5-8). Posterior surface in 5-8 faces upwards. Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 24. Photographs and drawings of the right metatarsal IV in anterior (1), medial (2), posterior (3), lateral (4), proximal (5), and distal views (6). Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 25. Photographs and drawings of the right metatarsal V in anterior (1), medial (2), posterior (3), lateral (4), proximal (5), and distal views (6). Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 26. Photographs and drawings in anterior view of the phalanges of the right pedal digit I (1, 2), digit II (3, 4), digit III (5, 6), and digit IV (7, 8). Abbreviations: II-1, first phalanx of digit II. Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 27. Photographs and drawings in medial view of the phalanges of the right pedal digit I (1, 2), digit II (3, 4), digit III (5, 6), and digit IV (7, 8). The oval outlines in (5), (6) indicate an element where no photographs were available in medial view (php III-3). Abbreviations: II-1, first phalanx of digit II. Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 28. Photographs and drawings in lateral view of the phalanges of the right pedal digit I (1, 2), digit II (3, 4), digit III (5, 6), and digit IV (7, 8). The oval outlines in (5), (6) indicate an element where no photographs were available in lateral view (php III-3). Abbreviations: II-1, first phalanx of digit II. Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 29. Photographs and drawings in posterior view of the phalanges of the right pedal digit I (1, 2), digit II (3, 4), digit III (5, 6), and digit IV (7, 8). Abbreviations: II-2, second phalanx of digit II. Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 30. Photographs and drawings in proximal view of the phalanges of the right pedal digit I (1, 2), digit II (3, 4), digit III (5, 6), and digit IV (7, 8). The oval outlines in 3-6 indicate an element where no photographs were available in proximal view (php II-2 and III-3). Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 31. Photographs and drawings in distal view of the phalanges of the right pedal digit I (1, 2), digit II (3, 4), digit III (5, 6), and digit IV (7, 8). The oval outlines in (3), (4) indicate an element where no photographs were available in distal view (php II-2). Photographs taken by Esther Premru.

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FIGURE 32. Photographs of the manual skin impression preserving also the negatives of the distal tips of the phalanges in proximal (1), lateral (2), and distal views (3). Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 33. Photographs of the two different skin structures found in the region of the hindlimb and the pes of Camarasaurus sp. SMA 0002: (1) shows the large polygonal structure, (2) the positive and negative impressions of the smaller texture. Scale bars equal 5 cm. Photographs taken by Rosemarie Roth.

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FIGURE 34. X-ray CT images of the left metacarpals in longitudinal (1) and transverse (2) cross section. Note the absence of hollow medullary cavities.

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FIGURE 35. Comparison of the supposed footprint of SMA 0002 with published tracks from different locations. Reported (Texas, Colorado) or calculated (Spain, SMA 0002) heteropody rate is indicated on top. Modified from Lockley and Meyer (2000; Texas, Colorado), Castanera et al. (2012; Spain, left print reversed).

figure 35

 

APPENDIX 1.

Digital 3D model of the articulated left manus. Produced based on CT scans. Copyright SMA, provided under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC-SA. Electronic file available.

appendix1 

APPENDIX 2.

Textured 3D model of the mounted right manus. Produced with photogrammetry. Copyright SMA, provided under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC-SA. Electronic file available.

 appendix2

APPENDIX 3.

Textured 3D model of the mounted left pes. Produced with photogrammetry. Copyright SMA, provided under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-NC-SA. Electronic file available.

appendix3 

 

schoppEmanuel Tschopp, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Torino, Italy; GeoBioTec, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2825-114 Caparica, Portugal; Museu da Lourinhã, Rua João Luís de Moura, 2530-157 Lourinhã, Portugal: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Emanuel Tschopp received his MSc in paleontology 2008 at University of Zurich, Switzerland, and his PhD in 2010 at Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologia of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal, under the supervision of Prof. Octávio Mateus. His main research interests are the phylogeny and evolution of sauropod dinosaurs, in particular of the Late Jurassic faunas from the Morrison and the Lourinhã Formations in the USA and Portugal, respectively, where he also participated in various excavation campaigns. Furthermore, he's interested in speciation processes and evolution at a small scale.

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wingsOliver Wings, Landesmuseum Hannover, Willy-Brandt-Allee 5, 30169 Hannover, Germany: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Oliver Wings started his research career in Solnhofen, Germany: for his Diplom thesis at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, he studied the first and only hardground known from the plattenkalks. After that he joined the vertebrate paleontology research group at the University of Bonn, studying gastroliths (stomach stones) in dinosaurs and extant birds for his dissertation. In the following years, he worked at several German institutions, such as the University of Tübingen, where he carried out research in Xinjiang, NW China, or the Museum of Natural History in Berlin, where he worked as acting curator for the fossil archosaur collections. He currently leads the Europasaurus Research Project at the State Museum Hannover on dwarfed sauropod dinosaurs and contemporaneous tetrapods from the Langenberg Quarry near Goslar. His other research interests include Jurassic vertebrates from China and Germany, paleobiology of archosaurs, vertebrate taphonomy, dinosaur trackways, and bone diagenesis.

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frauenfelderThomas Frauenfelder, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistr. 100, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Thomas Frauenfelder is vice director and head of the 3D laboratory of the Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology at the University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland. He is an expert in non-invasive cardiovascular imaging, patient-specific flow simulation and advanced vessel wall analysis.

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brinkmannWinand Brinkmann, Paläontologisches Institut und Museum der Universität Zürich, Karl-Schmid-Str. 4, CH-8006 Zürich: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Winand Brinkmann is a Senior Lecturer in Palaeontology at the Palaeontological Institute and Museum, University of Zürich, Switzerland. He is experienced in the study of Permian-Triassic fishes, Mesozoic and Cenozoic reptiles (dinosaurs, crocodilians, ichthyosaurs, mosasaurs) as well as Quaternary mammals (woolly mammoth, raccoon).

 
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Articulated bone sets of manus and pedes of Camarasaurus (Sauropoda, Dinosauria)

Emanuel Tschopp, Oliver Wings, Thomas Frauenfelder, and Winand Brinkmann

Plain Language Abstract

We describe in detail the fore and hind feet of an individual of the sauropod dinosaur Camarasaurus. It is one of two finds of sauropods, where all four feet were found nearly complete and in the right skeletal position. The description and comparison with other sauropod fore and hind feet therefore provides useful information about the shape of sauropod feet, and how it changes during the evolution of the group. Furthermore, skin impressions confirm that no hoofs were present in the forefeet. A three-dimensional life reconstruction of a set of fore and hind feet yields information about footprint shape and relation of size of fore to hind foot. This allowed us to identify reported footprints as probable Camarasaurus prints.

Resumen en Español

Conjuntos óseos articulados de manos y pies de Camarasaurus (Sauropoda, Dinosauria)

Los esqueletos de saurópodos rara vez se encuentran con patas delanteras y traseras, y, hasta ahora, sólo un ejemplar de este clado ha sido referenciado con los cuatro autópodos conservados completos y articulados. Esto hace que las interpretaciones sobre su locomoción sean complicadas, así como las asignaciones adecuadas de las huellas al nivel de género- o incluso son generalmente imposibles dichas asignaciones a nivel de especie. Camarasaurus SMA 0002 de la Formación Morrison del Jurásico Superior en Howe Ranch, cerca de Shell (Wyoming, EE.UU.) es el primer saurópodo que muestra completamente preservados y articulados restos osteológicos de todas las patas junto a impresiones de la piel de los autópodos. Se describe en detalle la morfología de los huesos de los autópodos de SMA 0002 y las impresiones tegumentarias, y se establecen comparaciones con los datos publicados sobre Camarasaurus y otras manos y pies de saurópodos. Nuestra reconstrucción orienta el lado lateral de la garra de la mano tal que se enfrenta con el suelo y, posiblemente, incluso lo contacta distalmente. Una reconstrucción en 3D de los autópodos de SMA 0002 produce nuevos conocimientos sobre la relación, todavía en debate, de las longitudes de huella con la altura de la cadera en los saurópodos, e indica que esta relación podría ser variable entre los géneros. Por otra parte, la morfología de las manos y los pies y el modelo 3D proporcionan información crucial sobre la forma esperada de la huella para Camarasaurus. Las características inferidas de la huella no poseen una serie de características de manera que pueda ser asignada con seguridad a una icnoespecie conocida.

Palabras clave: Sauropoda; Camarasaurus; autópodos; huella; impresiones de la pìel

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver

Résumé en Français

Os articulés des mains et des pieds de Camarasaurus (Sauropoda, Dinosauria)

Des squelettes de sauropodes préservant les mains et les pieds sont rarement trouvés, et jusqu'à présent, aucun spécimen de ce clade comportant les quatre autopodes complets et articulés n'avait été signalé. Cela rend les interprétations de leur locomotion difficiles et il est généralement impossible d'attribuer les empreintes de pas au niveau générique ou spécifique. Camarasaurus SMA 0002, provenant du Jurassique supérieur de la formation de Morrison à Howe Ranch dans les environs de Shell (Wyoming, États-Unis), est le premier sauropode présentant des restes ostéologiques des quatre autopodes complets et articulés, et également des empreintes de peau sur les autopodes. Nous décrivons en détail la morphologie des os des autopodes et les empreintes de peau de SMA 0002, et nous effectuons des comparaisons avec les données publiées sur les mains et les pieds de Camarasaurus et d'autres sauropodes. Notre reconstruction oriente le côté latéral de la griffe du pouce de manière à ce qu'il fasse face au sol et il est même possible qu'elle rentrait en contact avec le sol dans sa partie distale. Une reconstruction 3D des autopodes de SMA 0002 fournit de nouvelles idées sur la relation encore débattue entre la longueur des empreintes de pas et la hauteur à la hanche chez les sauropodes, et indique que cette relation pourrait être variable selon les genres. De plus, la morphologie des mains et des pieds et le modèle 3D fournissent des informations cruciales sur la forme reconstituée des empreintes de pas de Camarasaurus. Les caractéristiques de ces empreintes de pas ne permettent pas de les attribuer avec confiance à des ichno-espèces connues.

Mots-clés : Sauropoda ; Camarasaurus ; autopodes ; empreintes de pas ; empreintes de peau

Translator: Antoine Souron

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Artikulierte Manus-und Pedesknochen von Camarasaurus (Sauropoda, Dinosauria)

Skelette von Sauropoden werden selten mit Hand- und Fussknochen geborgen. Bis heute ist kaum ein Fossil aus dieser Gruppe beschrieben worden, bei dem alle vier Autopodien vollständig und artikuliert erhalten sind. Das erschwert Interpretationen hinsichtlich der Fortbewegung der Sauropoden und gesicherte Zuordnungen von Fussabdrücken zu einzelnen Gattungen oder gar Arten sind bei dieser Dinosauriergruppe nicht möglich. Camarasaurus SMA 0002 aus der oberjurassischen Morrison Formation der Howe Ranch in der Nähe von Shell (Wyoming, USA) ist der erste Sauropode mit komplett erhaltenen und artikulierten Hand- und Fussskeletten, die zuweilen mit Hautabdrücken assoziiert sind. Diese Knochen sowie Hautabdrücke werden im Folgenden beschrieben und mit früheren Funden von Sauropoden-Händen und -Füssen verglichen. Aus der Anordnung der Artikulationsflächen der Elemente kann geschlossen werden, dass die laterale Seite der Kralle im ersten Strahl der Vorderextremität in vivo gegen den Boden zeigte und diesen mit ihrer Spitze wahrscheinlich sogar berührte. Eine 3D-Rekonstruktion der Autopodien des Camarasaurus SMA 0002 gibt näheren Aufschluss über das bei Sauropoden kontrovers diskutierte Verhältnis zwischen der Länge des Fussabdruckes und der Hüfthöhe, und deutet darauf hin, dass dieses Verhältnis variabel war. Weiter kann aufgrund der Hand- und Fussmorphologie und des 3D-Modells die wahrscheinliche Form der Fussabdrücke von Camarasaurus rekonstruiert werden. Diese entspricht keiner vorgeschlagenen Ichnospezies.

Schlüsselwörter: Sauropoda; Camarasaurus; Autopodia; Fußabdruck; Hautabdrücke

Translator: authors and Eva Gebauer

Arabic

559 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

TABLE 1. Measurements of the manual and pedal bones of SMA 0002 in mm. Asterisks indicate measurements taken from photos. Humerus, femur, and left tibia length obtained from Klein and Sander (2008). Abbreviations: hg, dorsoventral height; gh, greatest proximodistal height; gl, greatest anteroposterior length; gpd, greatest proximodistal distance, measured straight; gw, greatest transverse width; inc, incomplete; min, minimum; prox, proximal; wd, transverse width.

  gl gw gh prox wd prox hg dist wd dist hg min wd min hg gpd
Element right left right left right left right left right left right left right left right left right left right left
humerus 705                                      
radius 464 434                                    
femur   935                                    
tibia 604 615                 221                  
medial carpal 47 63 125 144   52                            
lateral carpal 38 42 68 86   49                            
astragalus 103 95 201 158                                
calcaneum 34 31 59 57   64                            
mc I 204 196         48 104   32 62 80 57 39   48        
mc II 266 236           43     72 71 45 39   35   31    
mc III 255 228           57     72 45 39 64   35        
mc IV 236 225           65     70 72 38 41   37        
mc V 208 193         67   25 28 66 72 47 45 39 41   29    
mt I 113           86       79 85     48          
mt II 134 140         84 72     *75 85 *38   51 56        
mt III 133 145         63 67     74 75     35 36        
mt IV *112 140         *92 76 *50   *69 63 *47   *38 34 *24      
mt V *108 107         *103 110 *37   *52 50 *34   *47 47 *29      
phm I-1 59 55         65   46 49 53   48 55 53   41      
phm I-2 117 125         49 30 56 65 0   0   0   0   121 136
phm II-1 51 51         57 78     69 83 40 31 54 56 27      
phm II-2 11 13         33 31 26 16                    
phm III-1 44 40         61 63   37 70 71 23 32 56 58   27    
phm IV-1 43 45         64 70     66 75 31 24 57 61   18    
phm V-1 47 39         59 63 27 39 49 48 24 25 46 48   22    
php I-1 *40 45         *69 62 *59   *73 50 *54 45 *45   *37      
php I-2 140 144         42 54 93   12   24           168  
php II-1 *50 56         *71 72 *46 46 69 60 *49 35 58 57 *34 27    
php II-2 *22 29         *59 55 *49   *51 44 *42   52   *37      
php II-3 130 120         26 24 64 63 14   27           133  
php III-1 *52 54         *63 65 *37 38 *53 63 *35   *45 55 *20      
php III-2 *31 31         *49 55 *51     47 *39              
php III-3 *13 17         *38 36 *33                      
php III-4 99 100               31 inc                 100  
php IV-1 *35 48         *66 58 *44   *60 61 *31   *41 46 *23      
php IV-2   17 inc                                    

TABLE 2. Ratios of metacarpal length to humerus and radius length in Camarasaurus. Data obtained from McIntosh et al. (1996a: GMNH-PV 101; 1996b: BYU 9047) and McIntosh (2005: AMNH 823 and 965). SMA 0002 has distinctively higher ratios than other Camarasaurus specimens.

  Humerus Radius
  SMA 0002 GMNH-PV 101 SMA 0002 AMNH 823 AMNH 965 BYU 9047
  right left right left right right right
Mc I 0.29 0.25 0.44 0.45 0.39 0.43 0.38
Mc II 0.38 0.29 0.57 0.55 0.44 0.48 0.42
Mc III 0.36   0.55 0.53 0.44 0.48 0.44
Mc IV 0.33   0.51 0.52 0.41 0.45 0.4
Mc V 0.3   0.45 0.44 0.37 0.41 0.37

TABLE 3. Length ratios between metacarpals of one single manus. Data are obtained from Gilmore (1925: CM 11338), McIntosh et al. (1996b: BYU 9047), and Ostrom and McIntosh (1966: YPM 4633). Note that mc II is not always the longest, and mc I not always the shortest of the series.

  SMA 0002 CM 11338 BYU 9047 YPM 4633
  right left right right left
I to II 0.77 0.83 0.76 0.9 0.85
I to III 0.8 0.86 0.79 0.87 0.82
I to IV 0.86 0.87 0.89 0.97 0.83
I to V 0.98 1.02 0.98 1.04 0.96
II to III 1.04 1.04 1.04 0.96 0.96
II to IV 1.13 1.05 1.17 1.07 0.98
II to V 1.28 1.23 1.28 1.15 1.13
III to IV 1.08 1.01 1.13 1.12 1.02
III to V 1.23 1.18 1.24 1.2 1.18
IV to V 1.13 1.17 1.1 1.08 1.16

TABLE 4. Ratios between metacarpals and metatarsals in Neosauropods. All measurements in mm. Data of the other individuals obtained from Gilmore (1925: CM 11338; 1936: CM 3018), McIntosh et al. (1996a: GMNH-PV 101), and Borsuk-Bialynicka (1977: ZPAL MgD-I/48). Metacarpals of SMA 0002 are more elongated compared to metatarsals than the metacarpals of Apatosaurus or other Camarasaurus specimens.

    manus pes ratios
    right left mean right left mean  
Camarasaurus
SMA 0002 I 204 196 200 113   113 0.57
II 266 236 251.15 134 140 137 0.55
III 255 228 241.65 133 145 139 0.58
IV 236 225 230.55 112 140 126 0.55
V 208 193 200.35 108 107 107.5 0.54
CM 11338 I 107 104 105.5 70 70 70 0.66
II 140   140   90 90 0.64
III 135 134 134.5   88 88 0.65
IV 120 122 121   80 80 0.66
V 109 107 108   60 60 0.56
GMNH-PV 101 I   280 280 172   172 0.61
II   324 324 193   193 0.60
III       223   223  
IV       204 208 206  
V       166   166  
Apatosaurus louisae
CM 3018 I   265 265   195 195 0.74
II   285 285   213 213 0.75
III   293 293   236 236 0.81
IV   245 245   236 236 0.96
V   235 235        
Opisthocoelicaudia skarzynskii
ZPAL MgD-I/48 I 295 290 292.5 150   150 0.51
II 280 290 285 180   180 0.63
III   275 275 200   200 0.73
IV   235 235 180   180 0.77
V   245 245 140   140 0.57