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Late Messinian mollusks and vertebrates from Moncucco Torinese, north-western Italy. Paleoecological and paleoclimatological implications

Simone Colombero, David M. Alba, Carmine D'Amico, Massimo Delfino, Daniela Esu, Piero Giuntelli, Mathias Harzhauser, Paul P.A. Mazza, Michele Mosca, Thomas A. Neubauer, Giulio Pavia, Marco Pavia, Andrea Villa, and Giorgio Carnevale

Plain Language Abstract

A new paleontological site has been recently discovered in the nearby town of Moncucco Torinese, NW Italy. The age of the fossiliferous deposits of this site is constrained between 5.40 and 5.33 Ma (late Miocene, late Messinian). We collected more than 20,000 fossils belonging to 90 vertebrates and 65 mollusk taxa. We study this highly diverse fossil assemblage to get information about the environmental, ecological and climatic conditions of the studied area at the end of the Miocene. The high number of taxa identified at Moncucco Torinese suggests the presence of a variety of continental habitats. Our analyses indicate that the deposition occurred in lagoonal or littoral areas. At that time, the terrestrial landscape was dominated by open woodlands and/or bushlands with scarce closed areas mainly developed around limited and/or ephemeral freshawater basins. Open habitats were also present. The estimated average precipitations and temperatures are very similar to those previously estimated based on paleobotanical data reported for the late Miocene of NW Italy. Overall, these point to moderate moist conditions in a subtropical climate similar to that currently observed in several coastal areas of the northern and eastern Mediterranean.

Resumen en Español

Moluscos y vertebrados del Messiniense tardío de Moncucco Torinese, noroeste de Italia. Implicaciones paleoecológicas y paleoclimáticas

El análisis sistemático de más de 20.000 fósiles (Vertebrata y Mollusca), recuperados de la sucesión post-evaporítica del Messiniense (5,41-5,33 millones de años) de Moncucco Torinese (noroeste de Italia), resultó en la identificación de 90 taxones de vertebrados y 65 taxones de moluscos que proporcionan información sobre el contexto paleoecológico y los paleoambientes del noroeste de Italia un poco antes del límite Mio-Plioceno. Nuestros análisis indican un paisaje dominado por bosques abiertos dentro de un ambiente de mosaico que también incluía bosques de dosel cerrados, pastizales, áreas rocosas y limitados bordes de agua. El amplio espectro de hábitats puede haber tenido un papel prominente en la alta paleobiodiversidad que ha sido constatada en la paleocomunidad de Moncucco Torinese. Las ligeras variaciones en la abundancia de las especies de roedores más comunes a lo largo de la sucesión investigada probablemente están relacionadas con los cambios locales en el paleopaisaje. Desde un punto de vista paleoclimático, la información general proporcionada por la fauna indica condiciones mésicas en un clima subtropical, lo que también es coherente con la interpretación derivada de los análisis paleobotánicos y sedimentológicos del Messiniense tardío del norte de Italia.

Palabras clave: Paleoecología; Mioceno; Messiniense; Turoliense; Italia; Vertebrata; Molusco

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver (Sociedad Española de Paleontología)

Résumé en Français

Implications paléoécologiques et paléoclimatologiques des mollusques et vertébrés du Messinien récent de Moncucco Torinese, nord-ouest de l'Italie

L'analyse taxinomique de plus de 20000 fossiles (Vertebrata et Mollusca), trouvés dans la succession post-évaporitique messinienne (5,41 Ma–5,33 Ma) de Moncucco Torinese (nord-ouest de l'Italie), a donné lieu à l'identification de 90 taxons de vertébrés et 65 taxons de mollusques qui fournissent des informations nouvelles sur le contexte paléoécologique et paléoenvironnemental du nord-ouest de l'Italie un peu avant la limite Miocène-Pliocène. Nos analyses indiquent un paysage dominé par des forêts ouvertes au sein d'un environnement mosaïque incluant aussi des forêts à canopée fermée, des prairies herbeuses, des affleurements rocheux, et des accès limités à des corps d'eau. Le large éventail d'habitats a pu avoir un rôle déterminant sur la paléobiodiversité élevée observée dans la paléocommunauté de Moncucco Torinese. De légères variations d'abondances des espèces de rongeurs les plus communes au sein de la succession étudiée sont probablement liées à des changements locaux dans le paléopaysage. D'un point de vie paléoclimatique, les informations globales fournies par la faune indiquent des conditions mésiques sous un climat subtropical, ce qui est également cohérent avec l'interprétation des analyses paléobotaniques et sédimentologiques du Messinien terminal du nord de l'Italie.

Mots-clés : paléoécologie ; Miocène ; Messinien ; Turolien ; Italie ; Vertebrata ; Mollusca

Translator: Antoine Souron

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Mollusken und Vertebraten aus dem späten Messinium aus Moncucco Torinese, Nordwest-Italien: paläoökologische und paläoklimatische Rückschlüsse

Die systematische Analyse von mehr als 20.000 Fossilen (Vertebrata und Mollusca) aus den post-evaporitischen Abfolgen des Messiniums (5.41–5.33 Ma) von Moncucco Torinese (NW Italien) ergab 90 Vertebraten-Taxa und 65 Mollusken-Taxa. Sie liefern zusätzliche Information über den paläoökologischen Kontext und die Paläoumgebung von Nordwest-Italien kurz vor der Mio-Pliozän Grenze. Unsere Analyse weist auf eine Landschaft hin, die durch offene Wälder dominiert wird, innerhalb einer Mosaik-Umgebung mit dichten Wäldern, Wiesen, Felsen und limitierten Wasserzugängen. Das große Spektrum an Habitaten mag eine große Rolle für die große Paläodiversität der Paläogemeinschaft von Moncucco Torinese gespielt haben. Leichte Häufigkeitsvariationen bei der am weitesten verbreiteten Nagetier-Art in der untersuchten Abfolge hängen vermutlich mit lokalen Änderungen der Paläolandschaft zusammen. Paläoklimatisch gesehen weist die allgemeine, durch die Fauna gewonnene Information, auf mesische Konditionen in einem subtropischen Klima hin. Dies steht auch im Einklang mit Interpretationen aus paläobotanischen und sedimentologischen Analysen aus dem späten Messinium von Norditalien.

Schlüsselwörter: Paläoökologie; Miozän; Messinium; Turolium; Italien; Vertebrata; Mollusca

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

658 arab

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

FIGURE 1. Geographic and stratigraphic setting of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (TPB). The star indicates the geographic positions of the fossiliferous site of Moncucco Torinese (MCC). Modified from Lozar et al. (2015).

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FIGURE 2. Stratigraphic scheme of the Messinian succession of the Tertiary Piedmont Basin with the stratigraphic log of the studied section of Moncucco Torinese section. Fossiliferous assemblages are indicated with the abbreviation MCC. The arrows indicate the main stratigraphic event recorded in the section. For further details see Dela Pierre et al. (2007) and Angelone et al. (2011).

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FIGURE 3. Gastropoda from Moncucco Torinese. 1-2. Cochlostomaesuanum: 1, lateral view of apex and protoconch (MGPT-PU 110978); 2: apertural view (MGPT-PU 110979). 3. ? Limax fossilis: dorsal view (MGPT-PU 110928). 4. Parmacella sp.: dorsal view (MGPT-PU 110931). 5. Lucilla miocaenica: apical view of paratype (MGPT-PU 108849). 6.Truciella ballesioi : fragment with aperture in apertural view (MGPT-PU 108851). 7. Nordsieckia pontica: apertural view (MGPT-PU 108848). 8. Acicula giuntellii: apertural view of holotype (MGPT-PU 108896). 9. Theodoxus doderleini : dorsal view (MGPT-PU 110959). 10.Theodoxus mutinensis: dorsal view (MGPT-PU 110962). 11. Melanopsis narzolina: apertural view (MGPT-PU 110967). 12. Melanoides curvicosta: apertural view (MGPT-PU 110965). 13. Saccoia cf. congermana: apertural view (MGPT-PU 108873). 14. Saccoia globosa: apertural view of holotype (MGPT-PU 108858). Scale bars equal 0.5 mm (1-2, 5-7) and 1 mm (3-4, 8-14).

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FIGURE 4. Bivalvia from Moncucco Torinese. 1-4. Euxinicardium subodessae: external (1) and internal (2) views of LV (MGPT-PU 130575), external (3) and internal (4) views of RV (MGPT-PU 130576). 5. Pachydacna (Parapachydacna) sp.: umbonal view of RV (MGPT-PU 130577). 6-8. Pontalmyra bollenensis: 6, external view of RV (MGPT-PU 130578). 5, external (7) and internal (8) views of LV (MGPT-PU 130579). 9-10. Pontalmyra cf. incerta chiae: external (9) and internal (10) views of RV (MGPT-PU 130580). 11-12. Pontalmyra cf. partschi: external (11) and internal (12) views of RV (MGPT-PU 130581). 13-14. Prosodacnomya sabbae: external (13) and internal (14) views of RV (MGPT-PU 130582). 15-16. Pseudocatillus nevesskayae: external (15) and internal (16) views of RV (MGPT-PU 130583). 17-18. Pseudocatillus sp.: external (17) and internal (18) views of RV (MGPT-PU 130584). 19-20. Dreissena ex gr. rostriformis: external (19) and internal (20) views of RV, (MGPT-PU 130585). Scale bars equal 1 mm (1-5, 9-12, 15-18) and 5 mm (6-8, 13-14, 19-20). LV: left valve, RV: right valve.

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FIGURE 5. Fish otoliths from Moncucco Torinese. 1.Benthosema aff. suborbitale (MGPT-PU 130304). 2. Diaphus befralai (MGPT-PU 130320). 3. Diaphus aff. rubus (MGPT-PU 130293). 4. Diaphus taaningi (MGPT-PU 130253). 5. Diaphus aff. pedemontanus (MGPT-PU 130288). 6. Diaphus splendidus (MGPT-PU 130308). 7. Hygophum aff. derthonensis (MGPT-PU 130275). 8. Myctophum coppa (MGPT-PU 130280). 9. Gadiculus labiatus (MGPT-PU 130324). 10. Physiculus sp. (MGPT-PU 130265). 11. Grammonus sp. (MGPT-PU 130273). 12. Hoplostethus cf. mediterraneus (MGPT-PU 130232). 13. Lesueurigobius sp. (MGPT-PU 130330). 14.Trewasciaena” sp. (MGPT-PU 130246). 15. Sciaenidarum sp. nov. (MGPT-PU 130241). 16. Sciaenidarum sp. nov. (MGPT-PU 130263). 17. Argyrosomus sp. (MGPT-PU 130264). Scale bars: 1 mm.

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FIGURE 6. Amphibians from Moncucco Torinese. 1-2. Albanerpeton sp.: right dentary (MGPT-PU 132003) in medial (1) and dorsal (2) views. 3-5. Chelotriton sp.: trunk vertebra (MGPT-PU 132302) in anterior (3), dorsal (4) and left lateral (5) views. 6-7. Lissotriton sp.: trunk vertebra (MGPT-PU 132306) in dorsal (6) and posterior (7) views. 8. Bufo gr. B. viridis: left ilium (MGPT-PU 132177) in lateral view. 9. Pelophylax sp.: right ilium (MGPT-PU 132317) in lateral view. 10. Hyla gr. H. arborea: left ilium (MGPT-PU 132201) in lateral view. 11-12. Latonia sp.: left angular (MGPT-PU 132314) in ventral (11) and dorsal (12) views. 13-14. Pelobates sp.: left ilium (MGPT-PU 132308) in medial (13) and lateral (14) views. Scale bars equal 1 mm.

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FIGURE 7. Reptiles from Moncucco Torinese. 1-2. Crocodylia indet.: isolated tooth (MGPT-PU 132316) in labial (1) and mesial (2) views. 3-4. Testudo sp: eight peripheral (MGPT-PU 132048) in external view (3) and pygal (MGPT-PU 132050) connected to the eleventh peripherals (MGPT-PU 132051-52) in external view (4). 5-8. Mauremys sp.: entoplastron (MGPT-PU 132059) in ventral view (5), right epiplastron (MGPT-PU 132320) in ventral view (6), pygal (MGPT-PU 132057) in external view (7) and tenth peripheral (MGPT-PU 132342) in external view (8). 9. cf. Euleptes sp.: left maxilla (MGPT-PU 132432) in lateral view. 10. Agamidae indet.: tooth bearing bone (MGPT-PU 132438) in lateral view. 11-12. non- Anguis Anguinae indet.: vertebra (MGPT-PU 132612) in dorsal (11) and ventral (12) views. 13-16. cf. Lacerta sp.: right dentary (MGPT-PU 132501) in lateral (13) and medial (14) views and fused frontals (MGPT-PU 132532) in dorsal (15) and ventral (16) views. 17-19. Amphisbaenia indet.: trunk vertebra (MGPT-PU 132593) in dorsal (17), ventral (18), and left lateral (19) views. 20. Scolecophidia indet.: trunk vertebra (MPUT-PU 132027) in left lateral view. 21-22. Eryx sp.: caudal vertebra (MGPT-PU 132626) in anterior (21) and left lateral (22) views; 23-25. Colubrines A: trunk vertebra (MPUT-PU 132662) in dorsal (23), ventral (24), and posterior (25) views. 26-28. Colubrines B: trunk vertebra (MPUT-PU 132663) in dorsal (26), ventral (27), and anterior (28) views. 29-30. Vipera sp. (Oriental group): trunk vertebra (MPUT-PU 1320661) in left lateral (29) and posterior (30) views. Scale bars equal 1 mm (1-2, 9-30) and 10 mm (3-6)

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FIGURE 8. Aves from Moncucco Torinese. 1. Palaeortyx cf. gallica: right carpometacarpus (MGPT-PU 127032), ventral view. 2. Coturnix sp.: left coracoid (MGPT-PU 130574), dorsal view. 3-4. Coliidae gen. et sp. indet.: right tarsometatarsus (MGPT-PU 127020), dorsal (3) and distal (4) views. 5,7,9. Strigidae gen. et sp. indet.: 5, right tibiotarsus (MGPT-PU 127018), cranial view; right tarsometatarsus (MGPT-PU 127019) in proximal (7) and dorsal (9) views. 6. Columbidae gen. et sp. indet.: right ulna (MGPT-PU 127017), ventral view. 8. Apodidae gen. et sp. indet.: left scapula (MGPT-PU 127014), lateral view. Scale bars equal 5 mm.

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FIGURE 9. Large mammal remains from Moncucco Torinese. 1-2. Dihoplus schleiermacheri: 1, left upper second molar (MGPT-PU 127005), occlusal view; 2, left upper third molar (MGPT-PU 127004), occlusal view. 3. Dicoryphochoerini gen. et sp. indet.: right lower third premolar (MGPT-PU 130571), buccal view. 4-5. Tapirus arvernensis : 4, right lower molar (MGPT PU 130549), lingual (4) and occlusal (5) views. 6-7, 20-21. Gazella aff. G. pilgrimi: left hemimandible (MGPT-PU 125007), buccal (6) and occlusal (7) views; left maxillary fragment (MGPT-PU 130655), lingual (20) and buccal (21) views. 8-9, 12-13, 17. Pliocervus sp.: right hemimandible (MGPT PU 125008), buccal (8) and occlusal (9) views; right upper third premolar (MGPT-PU 130659), occlusial (12) and mesial (13) views; right metatarsal bone (MGPT-PU 127010), plantar view (17). 10-11, 18. aff. Palaeomeryx: left upper fourth premolar (MGPT-PU 130658), occlusal (10) and mesial (11) views; 18, left tibia (MGPT-PU 127009) dorsal view. 14-16, 19. Euprox sp.: left upper second molar (MGPT-PU 130668), occlusal 14) and mesial (15) views; 16, left lower third premolar (MGPT-PU 130671), occlusial view; 19, right upper canine (MGPT-PU 130664), buccal view. Scale bars equal 10 mm.

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FIGURE 10. Large mammal remains from Moncucco Torinese. 1-2. Pliocervus sp.: fragmentary skull (MGPT-PU 130574), medial (1) and lateral (2) views. Scale bar equals 10 mm.

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FIGURE 11. Large mammal remains from Moncucco Torinese. 1, 6-7, 10-13. Viverridae gen. et sp., indet.: fragmentary skull (MGPT-PU 130546), palatal view (1) and detail of P4 and M1 in occlusal view (6); 7, left upper canine (MGPT-PU 130573), buccal view; right lower fourth premolar (MGPT-PU 130654), occlusal (10) and buccal (11) views; 12, left radius (MGPT-PU 130572), dorsal view; 13, right metacarpal III (MGPT-PU 130512), dorsal view. 2-3. Euarctos pyrenaicus: left upper carnassial (MGPT-PU 130529), lingual (2) and occlusal (3) views. 4-5, 8-9. Pantherinae gen. et sp. indet.: left premaxilla (MGPT-PU 130545), lateral (4) and ventral (5) views; right tibia (MGPT-PU 130518), dorsal (8) and distal (9) views. 14. cf. Mesopithecus pentelicus pentelicus: right lower canine (MGPT-PU 130502). 15. cf. Macaca sp.: left lower third molar (MGPT-PU 130506). The figures 14 and 15 are from Alba et al., (2014). Scale bars equal 10 mm.

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FIGURE 12. 1-3. Baranogale cf. helbingi from Moncucco Torinese. Left M1 (MGPT-PU136483). Mesial (reversed) (1), occlusal (2) and distal (3) views. Scale bar equals 1 mm.

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FIGURE 13. Small mammals from Moncucco Torinese. 1. Stephanomy s sp.: left M1 (MGPT-PU 136460). 2. Occitanomys brailloni, left M1 (MGPT-PU 136607). 3. Paraethomys meini: right M1(MGPT-PU 136672). 4. Apodemus gudrunae: right M1 (MGPT-PU 136375). 5. Apodemus atavus: leftM1 (MGPT136898). 6. Micromys bendai: left M1 (MGPT-PU 136932) 7. Centralomys benericettii: left M1 (MGPT-PU 128090). 8. Neocricetodon magnus: left M2 (MGPT-PU136481). 9. Glirulus lissiensis : right m3 (MGPT-PU 136523). 10. Eliomys yevesi : left M2 (MGPT-PU 136582). 11. Muscardinus vireti : right m2 (MGPT-PU136504). 12. Glis minor: left M1 (MGPT-PU136555). 13. Pliopetaurista pliocaenica: left m1 (MGPT-PU 128218). 14. Hylopetes hungaricus: left M1 (MGPT-PU 136589). 15. Sciurinae indet.: left m1-2 (MGPT-PU 136590). 16. Sciurus warthae: right m1 (MGPT-PU 128221). 17. Talpa sp.: right P4 (MGPT-PU 131249). 18. Petenyia cf. hungarica: left m2 (MGPT-PU 131388). 19. Neomyini indet.: left emimandible (MGPT-PU 131123). 20. Parasorex aff. ibericus: right M2 (MGPT-PU 131025). 21. Leporidae indet.: right upper molariform (MGPT-PU 136477). 22. Prolagus sorbinii: right P4 (MGPT-PU 136475). 23. Castorinae indet.: left upper incisor in distal view (MGPT-PU 136482). 24. Hystrix depereti: right radius in ventral view (MGPT-PU 128349). Scale bars equal 1 mm (1-22) and 10 mm (23-24). Figures 13-14 and 16 from Colombero and Carnevale (2016).

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FIGURE 14. Relative abundances of the families of small mammals (chiropeterans excluded) from Moncucco Torinese. Proportions are based on nNISP (normalized number of identified specimens, see Material and methods for further details). Castoridae and Hystricidae (not visible in the graph) are present only in samples MCC3 and MCC4 respectively with only a single specimen each and are not shown herein.

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FIGURE 15. Relative abundances of the glirid species within each glirid assemblage from Moncucco Torinese.

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FIGURE 16. Relative abundances of the murid taxa within each murid assemblage of Moncucco Torinese.

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FIGURE 17. Variation of coefficients of the predictor variables of the Binary Logistic Regressions that model the probability of finding a specific murid taxon at MCC assuming the different layers as the only predictor variables. Blue dots indicate the values of the coefficients, bars indicate the 95% CI. MCC3 is chosen as reference category. For each of the identified taxa, the coefficients that are lower (or higher) than 0 indicate how much, respect to MCC3, that variable influences the probability (in terms of log odds) of finding that species at MCC. In other words, lower (or higher) coefficients of each variable (i.e., the given fossil assemblage) indicate that for that assemblage there are lower (or higher) probabilities of finding that species respect to MCC3. Significant statistical differences are obtained when the CI does not include the value 0. On the contrary, values approaching zero indicate that in that assemblage there are the same probabilities of finding that species that we have for MCC3. Stephanomys sp. is not included due to its rarity and not signifacant values. Additional information available in Appendix 8.

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FIGURE 18. Distribution of habitats as indicated by the ecological preferences of small mammals (chiropterans excluded) from each assemblage of Moncucco Torinese.

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TABLE 1. Chi-square tests evaluating differences between the samples of murids of the different fossil assemblages from MCC. In light gray the moderately significant differences (0.05<p<0.1), in dark grey the highly significant differences (p<0.05); df: degrees of freedom; 5df when Stephanomys sp. is absent in both layers.

  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7
MCC3 - Χ2 =2.2377 df:6 Χ2 =8.4798 df:6 Χ2 =12.401 df:6 Χ2 =17.58 df:6 Χ2 =32.087 df:6
p=0.897 p=0.205 p=0.053 p=0.007 p<0.001
MCC3/4 Χ2 =2.2377 df:6 - Χ2 =3.5915 df:5 Χ2 =5.3069 df:5 Χ2 =10.852 df:5 Χ2 =24.571 df:5
p=0.90 p=0.732 p=0.380 p=0.055 p<0.001
MCC4 Χ2 =8.4798 df:6 Χ2 =3.5915 df:5 - Χ2 =5.604 df:6 Χ2 =18.06 df:6 Χ2 =58.075 df:6
p=0.21 p=0.732 p=0.469 p=0.006 p<0.001
MCC4/5 Χ2 =12.401 df:6 Χ2 =5.3069 df:5 Χ2 =5.604 df:6 - Χ2 =5.789 df:5 Χ2 =29.853 df:5
p=0.053 p=0.380 p=0.469 p=0.328   p<0.001
MCC5 Χ2 =17.58 df:6 Χ2 =10.852 df:5 Χ2 =18.06 df:6 Χ2 =5.789 df:5 - Χ2 =9.6227 df:5
  p=0.007 p=0.055 p=0.006 p=0.328     p=0.087
MCC7 Χ2 =32.087 df:6 Χ2 =24.571 df:5 Χ2 =58.075 df:6 Χ2 =29.853 df:5 Χ2 =9.6227 df:5 -
  p<0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001 p<0.001   p=0.087  

   

TABLE 2. Number of specimens and taxa of small mammals found at Moncucco Torinese with value of the diversity (Shannon) index for each studied sample. Chiropterans are excluded.

  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 Total
Specimens (N) 257 235 1262 784 604 543 3685
Taxa (N) 16 16 18 17 16 18 24
Shannon (H’) 2.094 2.141 2.063 2.177 2.151 2.193 2.157

 

TABLE 3. Estimated paleoclimatic values of MCC according to three different methodologies based on small mammals (see Material and methods for further details). MAP: Mean Annual Precipitation; MINP: Precipitation in the driest month; MAT: Mean Annual Temperature; MTW: Mean Temperature of the Warmest month; MTC: Mean Temperature of the Coldest month; SE: Standard Error.

Methodology Hernández Fernández (2001) Van Dam (2006) Montuire et al. (2006)
Proxy Rodents Small mammals Murids
  Results SE Results SE Results SE
MAP 967.9 mm ±470.6 mm 849.8 mm ±350-400 mm - -
MINP - - 41.5 mm ±17-19 mm - -
MAT 16.2° C ±3.6° C - - 17.2° C ±4.8°C
MTW 24.4° C ±4.7° C - - - -
MTC 8.2° C ±5.1° C - - - -
 

author1Simone Colombero. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Simone Colombero is a vertebrate paleontologist and researcher at the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra of the Università di Torino. He received his PhD in 2012 from the Università di Torino. His research is mainly focused on the Neogene mammals of Europe, with particular regards to the systematics, paleobiogeography, paleoecology and biochronology of small mammals (rodents and insectivores), mustelids and artiodactyls.

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author2David M. Alba. Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

David M. Alba (Barcelona, 1975) is a paleontologist working at the Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, where he is the head of the Neogene and Quaternary Faunas Research Group. He received a PhD in Biology at the Universitat de Barcelona in 2005, with a dissertation focusing on fossil apes. His current research lines are devoted to the paleobiology, systematics and evolution of primates, as well as on the paleobiodiversity of Miocene vertebrate faunas during the Miocene.

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author3Carmine D’Amico. Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Via C. da Fonte Lappone, I-86090 Pesche (Isernia), Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Carmine D'Amico obtained his Master degree in natural sciences at the Sapienza University of Rome and his PhD at the University of Molise. His research is focused on the taxonomy, systematics and palaeoecology of Neogene-Quaternary marine and non-marine mollusks.

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author4Massimo Delfino. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy
and Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Edifici ICTA-ICP, Carrer de les Columnes s/n, Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Massimo Delfino is a vertebrate paleontologist whose research activity is focused on the fossil record, morphology, taxonomy and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles. The main research lines are related to the contribution of the fossil record to the phlylogeny of crocodylians and the evolution of the European and Mediterranean herpetological assemblages. He has collaborated to the identification and interpretation of herpetofaunistic assemblages associated to hominoid remains found in Eritrea, Georgia, Indonesia, Kenya, Italy, Oman, and Sudan.

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author5Daniela Esu. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sapienza Università di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Daniela Esu is Associate professor of Palaeontology at the University "Sapienza" of Rome. Her researches focus on systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of Cenozoic non-marine molluscs, with special interest to Upper Messinian "Lago-mare" assemblages.

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author6Piero Giuntelli. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Piero Giuntelli is a paleontologist and independent researcher that collaborates with the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra of the Università di Torino. He is author of numerous scientific papers mainly focusing on marine and non-marine mollusk faunas from the Neogene of Italy.

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author7Mathias Harzhauser. Geological-Paleontological Department, Natural History Museum Vienna, Burgring 7, A-1010 Vienna, Austria. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

PD Dr. Mathias Harzhauser is head of the Geological-Paleontological Department of the Natural History Museum Vienna (Austria). He is expert in Cainozoic marine and freshwater molluscs. His main interests are the paleogeography and biostratigraphy of the Paratethys Realm and the Oligocene-Miocene biotic development in the eastern Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific.

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author8Paul P.A. Mazza. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Via La Pira 4, 50121 Firenze, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Paul Mazza, of the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Florence, is a paleontologist with expertise in vertebrate paleontology, vertebrate taphonomy, biogeography and paleoclimate. His current research focuses on the paleobiology and taphonomy of continental mammals. Another major research addresses the systematics, evolution and biogeography of insular mammals, with special focus on the patterns and drivers of mammal colonization, diversity and body size on islands.

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author9Michele Mosca. Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica "Cognetti de Martiis", Università degli Studi di Torino, Lungo Dora Siena 100, 10153 Torino, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Michele Mosca is researcher at LABORatorio R. Revelli and temporary afferent at the Department of Economics and Statistics "Cognetti de Martiis" of University of Turin. He graduated in Statistical, Economic and Managerial Sciences at the University of Turin in 2010, attended the winter school of IRVAPP on "Fundamentals and Methods for Impact Evaluation of Public Policies". He has collaborated with the Labour Market Observatory of the Province of Turin for many years. His main research interests are labour market, pension systems, microsimulation and work and health dynamics. He collaborates with Roberto Leombruni to the development of Whip-Salute and other database derived from administrative data.

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author10Thomas A. Neubauer. Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics, Justus Liebig Universit, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32 IFZ - 35392 Giessen, Germany. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Thomas A. Neubauer is a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics of the Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany. His current research focus is the reconstruction of diversity and biogeography of freshwater gastropods during the Cenozoic. Above that, his research interests include gastropod taxonomy and nomenclature, as well as morphometric analyses and their applications in evolutionary studies.

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author11Giulio Pavia. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Giulio Pavia, born February, 1st 1942, is Emeritus Professor of Paleontology at the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra of the Università di Torino. His researches deal mainly with palaeoecology, stratigraphy, systematics and taphonomy of Middle-to-Upper Jurassic ammonites of Western Tethys, marin molluk fossil assemblages from the Italian Neogene and continental vertebrate assemblages of the Mediterranean Neogene.

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author12Marco Pavia. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Marco Pavia is the Collection Manager of the Department of Earth Science of the Università degli Studi di Torino. He received his PhD in 2000 from the Università of Genova. His research is mainly focused on the systematics, paleoecology and biogeography of Neogene and Pleistocene birds from Europe and Africa.

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author13Andrea Villa. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Andrea Villa (Cuggiono, 1990) obtained a Master degree in Natural Sciences at the University of Milan, Italy in 2014. He is currently a PhD student in Earth Sciences at the University of Turin in Italy.
His main research topics are the fossil herpetofaunas of Europe and Africa and the comparative morphology of amphibians and reptiles. In particular, he is now working on the osteological characterization of extant European lizards and the palaeodiversity of these squamates in the continent.

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author14Giorgio Carnevale. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125 Torino, Italy. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Giorgio Carnevale is Full Professor of Paleontology at the Università degli Studi di Torino. He received his PhD in 2004 from the Università di Pisa. His research primarily focuses on the systematics, paleoecology and biogeography of Mesozoic and Cenozoic teleost fishes.

 

 

APPENDIX 1.

Paleoecological requirements of fossil vertebrate taxa of Moncucco Torinese. See text for further discussion, details and references.

FISHES

Family Taxon Ecology
Myctophidae Benthosema aff. suborbitale marine adventitious
  Bolinichthys italicus marine adventitious
  Diaphus befralai marine adventitious
  Diaphus aff. pedemontanus marine adventitious
  Diaphus aff. rubus marine adventitious
  Diaphus splendidus marine adventitious
  Diaphus taaningi marine adventitious
  Hygophum aff. derthonensis marine adventitious
  Myctophum coppa marine adventitious
Gadidae Gadiculus labiatus marine adventitious
Moridae Physiculus sp. marine adventitious
Trachichthyidae Hoplostethus cf. mediterraneus marine adventitious
Bythitidae Grammonnus sp. marine adventitious
Gobiidae Lesueurigobius sp. marine migrant
Sciaenidae Argyrosomus sp. marine migrant
  Sciaenidarum sp. nov. estuarine resident
  " Trewasciaena " sp. estuarine resident

AMPHIBIANS

  Biotope preferences Climate preference Eurytopic
  Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Albanerpeton sp. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Chelotriton sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Lissotriton sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Bufo gr. B. viridis - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Pelophylax sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Hyla gr. Hyla arborea - x - - - x - - - - x - -
Latonia sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Pelobates sp.   - - - x x - - - - x - -
REPTILES Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Crocodylia indet. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
Testudo sp. - - - - -   x - - - x - -
Mauremys sp. - - - - - x - - - - x - -
cf. Euleptes sp. - - - x - - - - - - x - -
Agamidae indet. - - - x - - - - - - x - -
non-Anguis Anguinae indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
cf. Lacerta sp. - - - x - - - - - - x - -
Amphisbaenia indet. - - - - x - - - - - x - -
Scolecophidia indet. - - - - x - - - - - x - -
Eryx sp. - - - x x - - - - - x - -
colubrines A - - - - - - x - - - x - -
colubrines B - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Vipera sp. (Oriental group) - - - - - - x - - - x - -
BIRDS Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Palaeortyx cf. gallica - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Coturnix sp. - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Apodidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Coliidae gen. et sp. indet. - x - - - - - - - - x - -
Piciformes indet. x x - - - - - - - - x - -
Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Passeriformes indet. large - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Passeriformes indet. middle - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Passeriformes indet. small - - - - - - x - - - x - -
MAMMALS Closed canopy forests Woodlands Grasslands Rocky Sandy/soft substrate Aquatic Unknown Wet Humid Dry unknown Biotope Climate
Tapirus arvernensis x - - - - - - x x - - - -
Dihoplus schleiermacheri x - - - - - - - x - - - -
Dicoryphochoerini - - x - - - - - x - - - -
Euprox sp. - - x - - - - - x - - - -
Pliocervus sp. x -   - - - - - x - - - -
aff. Palaeomeryx x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Gazella aff. G. pilgrimi - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Euarctos pyrenaicus - - - - - - - x x - - x -
Viverrinae indet. - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Pristifelis attica - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Pantherinae indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Baranogale cf. helbingi - x x - - - - - - - x - -
Mesopithecus pentelicus x x - - - - - - - - x - -
cf. Macaca x x - - - - - - - - x - -
Neomyini indet. - - - - - x   x - - - - -
Petenyia cf. hungarica - - - - - - - - - - x x  
Parasorex aff. ibericus - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Talpa sp. - - - - x - - - - - - - x
Castorinae indet. - - - - - x - - - - - - -
Hystrix depereti - - - - - - - - - - - x x
Neocricetodon magnus - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Apodemus gudrunae   x - x - - - - - - x - -
Apodemus atavus x x - - - - - x - - - - -
Micromys bendai - - x - - - - - - - x - -
Occitanomys brailloni - x - - - - - - - - x - -
Stephanomys sp. - - - - - - - - - - x x -
Centralomys benericettii - x x - - - - - - - x - -
Paraethomys meini - x x - - - - - - x - x -
Glis minor x - - - - - - x - - - - -
Glirulus lissiensis x - - - - - - x - - - - -
Muscardinus vireti x x - - - - - x - - - - -
Eliomys yevesi - x - x - - - - - - - - x
Sciurus warthae x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Hylopetes hungaricus x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Sciurinae indet. x - - - - - - - - - x - -
Prolagus sorbinii - - - - - - x - - - x - -
Leporidae indet. - - - - - - x - - - x - -

APPENDIX 2.

Mollusk and vertebrate taxa identified in the uppermost Miocene of Moncucco Torinese.

Taxon Fossil assemblages
GASTROPODS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Hydrocena moncuccoensis - - - - - x x
Theodoxus doderleini - x x x x x x
Theodoxus mutinensis x x x x x x x
Melanoides curvicosta x x x x x x x
Melanopsis narzolina x x x x x x x
Melanopsis fusulatina - x - x - x -
Saccoia globosa x x x x x x x
Saccoia oryza x x x x x x x
Saccoia cf. congermana - - - - - - x
? Prososthenia n. sp. A - - - - - - x
Prososthenia n. sp. B - - - - - - x
Hydrobiidae n. sp. - - - - - - x
Cochlostoma esuanum x x x x x x x
Craspedopoma conoidale x x x x - x x
? Procyclotopsis n. sp. A - - - - - - x
Acicula cf. lineata - x - x x x x
Acicula giuntellii - - - - - - x
Acicula n. sp. - - - - - - x
Platyla manganellii - - - - - - x
Renea n. sp. - x - - - x x
Bulinus meneghinii - x - - - x x
Gyraulus sp. - - - - - x -
Carychium cf. rufolabiatum - - - - - - x
Carychiella puisseguri - - - - - - x
Cochlicopa fassabortoloi - - - - - - x
Argna proexcessiva - - - - - x x
Strobilops romani - - - - - - x
Vallonia subcyclophorella - - - - - - x
Acanthinula n. sp. - - - - - - x
Truncatellina cf. callicratis - - - x - - x
Negulopsis suturalis - - - x - x x
Gastrocopta (Albinula) acuminata - - - - - x -
Gastrocopta (Sinalbinula) serotina - - - - - - x
Pagodulina n. sp. - - x - - x x
Succineidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x
Nordsieckia pontica x x x x x x x
? Serrulella sp. - x x x x x x
Cochlodina (? Miophaedusa) n. sp. - x x x - x x
Truciella ballesioi x x x x x x x
Clausilia ( Clausilia) cf. baudoni x x x x - x x
?Clausiliinae sp. - - - - - - x
Cecilioides acicula - - - x - x x
Ferussaciidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - - - - x
Helicodiscus roemeri - x - - - x x
Lucilla miocaenica x x x x - x x
Janulus cf. spadinii - - - x x x x
Parmacella n. sp. x x x x x x x
Milacidae gen. et sp. indet. x x x x x x x
? Limax fossilis x x x x x x x
Agriolimacidae gen. et sp. indet. x x x x x x x
? Helicopsis piedmontanica - - x x - x x
Puisseguria sp. - - - - - - x
Gastropoda gen. et sp. indet. x x - - - - x
BIVALVES MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Euxinicardium subodessae - - x x - - x
Pachydacna - - x x x - x
Pontalmyra bollenensis - x x x - x x
Pontalmyra cf. bollenensis - x x - - - x
Pontalmyra cf. incerta chiae x x x x - x x
Pontalmyra partschi - - - - - - x
Pontalmyra cf. partschi x x x x x x x
Pontalmyra sp. - - - - - - x
Prosodacnomya sabbae - - x x - x x
Pseudocatillus nevesskayae - x x   - x x
Pseudocatillus sp. - - - - - - x
cf. Pseudocatillus sp. - - x - - - -
Lymnocardiinae gen. et sp. indet. - x - - - - -
Dreissena ex gr. rostriformis x x x x x x x
Pisidium sp. - - - - - x x
FISHES MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Benthosema aff. suborbitale x - - - - - -
Bolinichthys italicus x - - - - - -
Diaphus befralai x - x - x - -
Diaphus aff. pedemontanus x - x - x - -
Diaphus aff. rubus - - x - - - -
Diaphus splendidus x - x - - - -
Diaphus taaningi x - x x - - -
Hygophum aff. derthonensis - - x x x x -
Myctophum coppa x - x - - x -
Physiculus sp. - - x - - - -
Gadiculus labiatus x -   - - - -
Grammonus sp. - - x - - - -
Hoplostethus cf. mediterraneus - - - x - - -
Argyrosomus sp. - - x - - - -
“Trewasciaena” sp. x x x - x - -
Sciaenidarum sp. nov. x x x x x x -
Lesueurigobius sp. x - x - x - -
AMPHIBIANS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Albanerpeton sp. x x x x x x x
Chelotriton sp. - - - x - - -
Lissotriton sp. - x - - - - -
Bufo gr. B. viridis - - - x - - x
Pelophylax sp. - - - - - x -
Rana s.l. - x x - - x -
Hyla gr. Hyla arborea x x x x - - x
Latonia sp. x x x x x x x
Pelobates sp. - - - x - - x
REPTILES MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Crocodylia indet. - - x - - - -
Testudo sp. x - x - - - -
Mauremys sp. x - - - - - -
cf. Euleptes sp. - - x - - - x
Agamidae indet. x x x x - - x
non- Anguis Anguinae indet. x x x x x x x
cf. Lacerta sp. x x x x x x x
Amphisbaenia indet. - - x x - x -
Scolecophidia indet. x - - - - - -
Eryx sp. - - - - - - x
colubrines A - - - x - - -
colubrines B - - - x - - -
colubrines indet. x x x x   x x
Vipera sp. (Oriental group) - - - - x - x
BIRDS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Palaeortyx cf. gallica - - x x x x x
Coturnix sp. - - x x x x -
Columbidae gen. et sp. indet. x - x x x - -
Apodidae gen. et sp. indet. - - - x - - -
Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. - - - x - - -
Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. x x x x x x x
Coliidae gen. et sp. indet. - - x - - - -
Piciformes indet. - - x - - x -
Corvidae gen. et sp., indet. - - - x - - -
Passeriformes indet. large - - - x - - x
Passeriformes indet. middle - x x x x x x
Passeriformes indet. small - x x x x x x
MAMMALS MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Tapirus arvernensis x - - - - - -
Dihoplus schleiermacheri x - - x - - x
Dicoryphochoerini - - - - - - x
Euprox sp x - x x x x x
Pliocervus sp. x - x x x - x
aff. Palaeomeryx - - - - - x x
Gazella aff. G. pilgrimi - - x - - x -
Euarctos pyrenaicus - - - - - - x
Viverridae gen. et sp. indet. x   x - - - -
Pristifelis attica - - x - - - x
Pantherinae indet. x - x - - - x
Baranogale cf. helbingi - - x - - - -
Mesopithecus pentelicus x - - - - - -
cf. Macaca x - - - - - -
Chiroptera indet. sp. 1 x x x x x x x
Chiroptera indet. sp. 2 - - - x - - -
Parasorex aff. ibericus x x x x x x x
Talpa sp. x x x x x x x
Neomyiini indet. x x x x x x x
Patenyia cf. hungarica - x x - - x -
Castorinae indet. x - - - - - -
Hystrix depereti - - x - - - -
Neocricetodon magnus x x x x x x x
Apodemus atavus x x x x x x x
Apodemus gudrunae x x x x x x x
Centralomys benericettii x x x x x x x
Micromys bendai x x x x x x x
Occitanomys brailloni x x x x x x x
Paraethomys meini x x x x x x x
Stephanomys sp. x - x - - - -
Muscardinus vireti x x x x x x x
Glis minor x x x x x x x
Glirulus lissiensis - - - x x x x
Eliomys yevesi - x x x x x x
Sciurus warthae - x - x - x -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica - - - x - - -
Hylopetes hungaricus x - - - - - -
Sciurinae indet. - - - - - x -
Prolagus sorbinii x x x x x x x
Leporidae indet. - - x - x - -

APPENDIX 3.

Number of specimens (valves) of bivalves from Moncucco Torinese.

Taxon Fossil assemblages
  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 unassigned
Euxinicardium subodessae - - 3 1 - - 3
Pachydacna (Parapachydacna) sp. - - 1 1 - 2 6
Pontalmyra bollenensis - 3 31 3 - 25 38
Pontalmyra cf. bollenensis - 6 10 - - - 2
Pontalmyra cf. incerta chiae 6 11 22 5 - 4 9
Pontalmyra partschi - - - - - - 1
Pontalmyra cf. partschi 10 20 151 22 17 43 105
Pontalmyra sp. - - - - - - 2
Prosodacnomya sabbae - - 3 1 - 2 3
Pseudocatillus nevesskayae - 2 2 - - 5 1
Pseudocatillus sp. - - - - - - 5
cf. Pseudocatillus sp. - - 1 - - - -
Lymnocardiinae gen. et sp. indet. - 1 - - - - -
Dreissena ex gr. rostriformis 41 75 499 55 89 112 104
Pisidium sp. - - - - - 1 4

APPENDIX 4.

Osteometrics and odontometrics (mm) of the measurable fossil specimens of perissodactyls, artiodactyls and carnivorans from Moncucco Torinese. Measures were taken following Von den Driesch (1976).

Dihoplus schleiermacheri

    L B H Labs Lanat
MGPT-PU 127005 left M2 52 53.4? - - -
MGPT-PU 127004 left M3 - 55.3 - 61 57.8
MGPT-PU 130524 small cuneiform - - 23 - -

Tapirus arvernensis

    L B BP
MGPT-PU 127001 right m1 20 15 -
MGPT-PU 130549 m2 20 20 -
MGPT-PU 130517 III Mt - - 22.4?

Euprox sp.

    L B H BP DP DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130664 right C - - - - - 13? 5
MGPT-PU 130526 left C - - - - - 6.6 3
MGPT-PU 130675 left d3 7.4 3.6 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130670 right M1 11 13 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130548 right M1 10 12 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130665 right M1 11 13 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130666 left M1 11 14 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130565 left M1 9 10 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130668 left M2 13 14 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130672 right p2 5.1 3 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130671 left p3 7.7 3.8 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130674 left p4 - 5.5 - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130521 right radius - - - 23 14 - -
MGPT-PU 130530 right radius - - - 19 10 - -
MGPT-PU 130667 right naviculocuboid - - 15 - - 14 18

Pliocervus sp .

    Lped PAD PTW DAD DTW
MGPT-PU 130574 left antler 32.6 14.7 15.4 18.2 17

Pliocervus sp.

      L B
MGPT-PU 130569 left maxillary D3 12.7 8.8
D4 12.3 -
MGPT-PU 130660   right P2 9.7 8.6
MGPT-PU 130663   right P2 10.9 8.2
MGPT-PU 130662   right P3 10.6 10.2
MGPT-PU 130661   left P4 8.0 10.7
MGPT-PU 130570   left M1 12.3 13.7
MGPT-PU 130566   right M2 12.8 15.0
MGPT-PU 130567   left M2 13.3 14.5
MGPT-PU 130659   right M3 12.6 14.9
MGPT-PU 127008 right mandible p2 7.8 4.4
p3 11.1 6.7
p4 10.8 7.4
m1 13 8.9
m2 14 9.7
m3 21.9? 9.4
MGPT-PU 130563 right mandible m1 12.2 8.0
m2 13.8 9.1
MGPT-PU 127023   left p3 10 16.9

Pliocervus sp.

    L B H LC DC BT Lprox Ldist Lsole LL ML BP Bpa DP DL DM BS DS BD DD DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130657 right humerus - - - - - 24.7 - - - - - - - - - - - - 27.5 26.0 - -
MGPT-PU 130523 right humerus - - - - - 27.9? - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130656 left femur - - - 19.3 13.1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130557 right femur - - - 16 13.8 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 127011 right astragalus 32 - - - - - - - - 32 28.7 19.4 17.3 - 16.9 17 - - 19.6 15.4 - -
MGPT-PU 130553 right astragalus 30 - - - - - - - - 30 27.9 18.2 16.4 - 16.5 15.6 - - 17.9 13.7 - -
MGPT-PU 130513 left calcaneum 62.7 21.3 - - - - 43.4 21.9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130525 right calcaneum - 22 23.3 - - - - 23 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 127006 left naviculocuboid - - 20.9 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21.1 25.5
MGPT-PU 127012 left naviculocuboid - - 21 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 21 25
MGPT-PU 130556 left I cuneiform - - 6.6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12.5 9.5
MGPT-PU 127010 right Mt 183? - - - - - - - - - - 21.9 - 20.1 - - 13.9 14.9 23.6 15.4 - -
MGPT-PU 127013 III phalanx - - - - - - - - 25 - - - - - - - - - - - - -

aff. Palaeomeryx

    L B
MGPT-PU 130658 left P4 18 21
MGPT-PU 127009 left tibia - -

Gazella aff. pilgrimi

      L B
MGPT-PU 130655   left C 13.7 11
MGPT-PU 127007 left mandible p3 10.3 7.1
p4 10.5 7.5
m1 12.8 8.7
m2 15.2 11
m3 23.5 11
premolar length 27.2? -
toothrow length 76.3? -

Viverridae gen. et sp. indet.

      L B H BT BP DP BS DS BD BDa DD DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130563 left maxillary P3 14 9.4 - - - - - - - - - - -
P4 9.6 5.7 - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130546 skull P4 14.6 9.5 - - - - - - - - - - -
M1 8.7 11.7? - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130652   left I3 - - - - - - - - - - - 4.6 4.5
MGPT-PU 130550   right C - - - - - - - - - - - 6.9 5.3
MGPT-PU 130551   P 9.1 5 - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130573   left C - - - - - - - - - - - 7.1 5.1
MGPT-PU 130654   right p4 - 5.6 - - - - - - - - - - -
MGPT-PU 130505   left humerus - - - 16.1 - - - - 19.1? - 13.3 - -
MGPT-PU 130572   left radius - - - - - - - - 16.1 - 12.2 - -
MGPT-PU 130512   right III Mc 39.1 - - - 7.8 7.9 4.6 3.8 8.0 6.7 6.4 - -
MGPT-PU 130503   left cuboid - - 12.5 - - - - - - - - 9.0 10.3

Pristifelis attica

    L BP DP BS DS BD BDa DD
MGPT-PU 130541 right IV Mc 33.2 5 7 4 4 8 6.6 6

Pantherinae gen. et sp. indet.

      BP DP BS DS BD DD DAP DT
MGPT-PU 130545 left premaxilla I1 - - - - - - 4 3
I3 - - - - - - 6.3 6
MGPT-PU 130543 right V Mc - 12 17 9 9 - - - -
MGPT-PU 130518 right tibia - - - - - 38 24.8 - -

Baranogale cf. helbingi

    L B
MGPT-PU 136483 left M1 2.89 5.74

APPENDIX 5.

Number of identified specimens (NISP) of small mammals (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia and Lagomorpha) from Moncucco Torinese. Chiropterans excluded.

  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 TOTAL
Parasorex aff. ibericus 4 1 46 47 22 9 129
Talpa sp. 5 3 3 15 4 3 33
Neomyiini indet. 6 9 44 37 22 26 144
Patenyia cf. hungarica 0 1 1 0 0 2 4
Castorinae indet 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Hystrix depereti 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Neocricetodon magnus 3 3 9 12 2 6 35
Apodemus atavus 17 13 47 24 19 16 136
Apodemus gudrunae 53 44 243 118 83 79 620
Centralomys benericettii 21 17 103 61 67 87 356
Micromys bendai 6 3 18 15 16 29 87
Occitanomys brailloni 61 50 295 168 120 95 789
Paraethomys meini 19 21 143 85 73 72 413
Stephanomys sp. 1 0 4 0 0 0 5
Muscardinus vireti 11 18 74 47 46 35 231
Glis minor 7 6 15 14 14 5 61
Glirulus lissiensis 0 0 0 2 1 1 4
Eliomys yevesi 0 2 6 1 3 7 19
Sciurus warthae 0 1 0 2 0 2 5
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Hylopetes hungaricus 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Sciurinae indet. 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Prolagus sorbinii 41 43 205 135 111 68 603
Leporidae indet. 0 0 5 0 1 0 6
TOTAL 257 235 1262 784 604 543 3685

APPENDIX 6.

Small mammals (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia and Lagomorpha) from Moncucco Torinese based on nNISP (normalized Number of Identified Specimens; see Material and methods for further details). Chiropterans excluded.

  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7
Parasorex aff. ibericus 0.095 0.024 1.095 1.119 0.524 0.214
Talpa sp. 0.109 0.065 0.065 0.326 0.087 0.065
Neomyiini indet. 0.300 0.450 2.200 1.850 1.100 1.300
Patenyia cf. hungarica 0.000 0.050 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.100
Castorinae indet. 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Hystrix depereti 0.000 0.000 0.050 0.000 0.000 0.000
Neocricetodon magnus 0.250 0.250 0.750 1.000 0.167 0.500
Apodemus atavus 1.417 1.083 3.917 2.000 1.583 1.333
Apodemus gudrunae 4.417 3.667 20.250 9.833 6.917 6.583
Centralomys benericettii 1.750 1.417 8.583 5.083 5.583 7.250
Micromys bendai 0.500 0.250 1.500 1.250 1.333 2.417
Occitanomys brailloni 5.083 4.167 24.583 14.000 10.000 7.917
Paraethomys meini 1.583 1.750 11.917 7.083 6.083 6.000
Stephanomys sp. 0.083 0.000 0.333 0.000 0.000 0.000
Muscardinus vireti 0.688 1.125 4.625 2.938 2.875 2.188
Glis minor 0.438 0.375 0.938 0.875 0.875 0.313
Glirulus lissiensis 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.125 0.063 0.063
Eliomys yevesi 0.000 0.125 0.375 0.063 0.188 0.438
Sciurus warthae 0.000 0.063 0.000 0.125 0.000 0.125
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.063 0.000 0.000
Hylopetes hungaricus 0.063 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Sciurinae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.063
Prolagus sorbinii 1.708 1.792 8.542 5.625 4.625 2.833
Leporidae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.192 0.000 0.038 0.000

APPENDIX 7.

Relative abundances of small mammal taxa (Eulipotyphla, Rodentia and Lagomorpha) from Moncucco Torinese based on nNISP and distribution of their habitat requirements used to calculate variation of the habitat spectrum of Moncucco Torinese. Chiropterans excluded. Further details in Material and methods. See also Blain et al. (2008) and Piñero et al. (2015).

  Relative Abundances (based on nNISP) Distribution of habitat requirements (see Piñero et al., 2015)
  MCC3 MCC3/4 MCC4 MCC4/5 MCC5 MCC7 Closed canopy forests Woodlands / bushlands Grass lands Rocky outcrops Sandy/soft substrate Water edges Unknown / eurytopic
Parasorex aff. ibericus 0.005 0.001 0.012 0.021 0.013 0.005 - - - - - - 1
Talpa sp. 0.006 0.004 0.001 0.006 0.002 0.002 - - - - 1 - -
Neomyiini indet. 0.016 0.027 0.025 0.035 0.026 0.033 - - - - - 1 -
Patenyia cf. hungarica 0.000 0.003 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.003 - - - - - - 1
Castorinae indet. 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - - - - 1  
Hystrix depereti 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - - - - - 1
Neocricetodon magnus 0.014 0.015 0.008 0.019 0.004 0.013 - - - - - - 1
Apodemus atavus 0.077 0.066 0.044 0.038 0.038 0.034 0.5 0.5 - - - - -
Apodemus gudrunae 0.240 0.222 0.227 0.186 0.166 0.167 - 0.5 - 0.5 - - -
Centralomys benericettii 0.095 0.086 0.096 0.096 0.134 0.184 - 0.5 0.5 - - - -
Micromys bendai 0.027 0.015 0.017 0.024 0.032 0.061 - - 1 - - - -
Occitanomys brailloni 0.276 0.252 0.275 0.265 0.240 0.201 - 1 - - - - -
Paraethomys meini 0.086 0.106 0.133 0.134 0.146 0.152 - 0.5 0.5 - - - -
Stephanomys sp. 0.005 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.000 0.000 - - - - - - 1
Muscardinus vireti 0.037 0.068 0.052 0.056 0.069 0.055 0.5 0.5 - - - - -
Glis minor 0.024 0.023 0.010 0.017 0.021 0.008 1 - - - - - -
Glirulus lissiensis 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.002 1 - - - - - -
Eliomys yevesi 0.000 0.008 0.004 0.001 0.004 0.011  - 0.5 - 0.5 - - -
Sciurus warthae 0.000 0.004 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.003 1 - - - - - -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 1 - - - - - -
Hylopetes hungaricus 0.003 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 - - - - - -
Sciurinae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.002 1 - - - - - -
Prolagus sorbinii 0.086 0.100 0.088 0.098 0.102 0.066 - - - - - - 1
Leporidae indet. 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.001 0.000 - - - - - - 1

APPENDIX 8.

Values of beta coefficients figured in Figure 17 and their statistical significance assessed by computing Wald Chi-square tests (small characters below the value of the coefficient) of the binary logistic regression models estimating the log odds of finding a murid species at Moncucco Torinese with MCC3 as reference variable.

  Constant MCC3_4 MCC4 MCC4_5 MCC5 MCC7
Apodemus atavus -2.2481 -0.0922 -0.5938 -0.6764 -0.6907 -0.8709
  <.0001 0.8115 0.0448 0.0404 0.0466 0.0158
Apodemus gudrunae -0.858 -0.002 -0.062 -0.238 -0.410 -0.473
  <.0001 0.993 0.730 0.224 0.046 0.022
Centralomys benericettii -2.012 -0.030 0.026 0.106 0.477 0.804
  <.0001 0.931 0.918 0.693 0.076 0.002
Micromys bendai -3.356 -0.522 -0.481 -0.059 0.237 0.868
  <.0001 0.466 0.315 0.905 0.627 0.058
Occitanomys brailloni -0.651 -0.022 0.014 0.062 -0.114 -0.440
  <.0001 0.927 0.936 0.739 0.554 0.026
Paraethomys meini -2.125 0.325 0.522 0.611 0.695 0.678
  <.0001 0.337 0.044 0.024 0.012 0.014
Stephanomys sp. -5.176 -12.001 -0.182 -12.001 -12.001 -12.001
  <.0001 0.978 0.871 0.961 0.965 0.965

APPENDIX 9

Frequencies of different habitat systems in each fossil assemblage of Moncucco Torinese (see Figure 18). According to the Habitat Weightings Method (Blain et al., 2008), the values are based on the small mammal relative abundances within each fossil assemblage and on their habitat preference as indicated in Appendix 7. See also Material and methods.

  Forests Woodlands/ Bushlands Grasslands Rocky outcrops Sandy/soft substrate Water edges Unknown/ eurytopic
MCC3 0.084 0.544 0.118 0.120 0.006 0.019 0.109
MCC3/4 0.093 0.530 0.111 0.115 0.004 0.027 0.120
MCC4 0.058 0.553 0.132 0.115 0.001 0.025 0.116
MCC4/5 0.069 0.520 0.139 0.093 0.006 0.035 0.138
MCC5 0.076 0.519 0.172 0.085 0.002 0.026 0.120
MC7 0.059 0.502 0.229 0.089 0.002 0.033 0.087

APPENDIX 10.

Values of the CRI (Climatic Restriction Index) of each rodent species in each climatic zones and bioclimatic characterization of Moncucco Torinese according to the methods of Hernández Fernández (2001), Hernández Fernández and Peláez-Campomanes (2003) and Hernández Fernández et al. (2007) with modifications (see material and methods). Following Hernández Fernández et al. (2007), the climate zone and the main vegetational types (in brackets) are defined as follows: I: Equatorial (Evergreen tropical rainforests); II: Tropical with summer rains (Tropical deciduous forests); II/III: Transition tropical semiarid (savannah-like); III: Subtropical arid (subtropical desert); IV: Subtropical with winter rains and summer drought/Mediterranean (Sclerophyllous woodland-shrubland); V: Warm-temperate (Temperate evergreen forests); VI: Typical temperate (Nemoral broadleaf-deciduous forest); VII: Arid-temperate (Steppe to cold desert); VIII: Cold Temperate/boreal (Boreal coniferous forest/taiga); IX: Polar (tundra).

  I II II/III III IV V VI VII VIII IX
Castorinae indet. - - - - 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.200 0.200 -
Hystrix depereti 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 0.143 - 0.143 - -
Neocricetodon magnus - - - - 0.333 - 0.333 0.333 - -
Apodemus atavus - - - - 0.250 - 0.250 0.250 0.250 -
Apodemus gudrunae - - - - 1.000 - - - - -
Centralomys benericettii - 0.333 0.333 - 0.333 - - - - -
Micromys bendai - - - - - - 0.500 - 0.500 -
Occitanomys brailloni - 1.000 - - - - - - - -
Paraethomys meini - 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 - - - - -
Stephanomys sp. - 0.333 0.333   0.333 - - - - -
Muscardinus vireti - - - - 0.500 - 0.500 - - -
Glis minor - - - - 0.500 - 0.500 - - -
Glirulus lissiensis - - - - - 1.000 - - - -
Eliomys yevesi - -   - 0.500 - 0.500 - - -
Sciurus warthae - - - - 0.333 - 0.333 - 0.333 -
Pliopetaurista pliocaenica 0.200 0.200 - - - 0.200 0.200 - 0.200 -
Hylopetes hungaricus 1.000 - - - - - - - - -
Sciurinae indet. 0.167 0.167 - - 0.167 0.167 0.167 - 0.167 -
Bioclimatic spectrum 8.386 13.479 5.886 2.183 26.905 9.497 19.352 5.146 9.167 0.000