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Upper Jurassic sauropod record in the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal): geographical and lithostratigraphical distribution

Pedro Mocho, Rafael Royo-Torres, Fernando Escaso, Elisabete Malafaia, Carlos de Miguel Chaves, Iván Narváez, Adán Pérez-García, Nuno Pimentel, and Francisco Ortega

Plain Language Abstract

Sauropod dinosaurs were abundant in the Portuguese Late Jurassic. Fossil remains from this group of dinosaurs are present along the continental Upper Jurassic sequence deposited in the Lusitanian Basin. Several new sauropod specimens are reported in this study, which provide important information about the evolutionary history of Late Jurassic sauropods in the Iberian territory. The Portuguese Late Jurassic sauropods are represented by non-neosauropod eusauropods (including turiasaurs), diplodocids (including diplodocines), basal macronarians, and titanosauriforms (some specimens with brachiosaurid affinities).

Resumen en Español

Registro de saurópodos del Jurásico Superior en la Cuenca Lusitaniana (Portugal): distribución geográfica y litoestratigráfica

Los restos de saurópodos son relativamente abundantes en los sedimentos del Jurásico Superior de la Cuenca Lusitaniana. Estos dinosaurios se registran en varias subcuencas formadas durante el tercer episodio de rifting relacionado con la evolución de la Cuenca Lusitaniana. La secuencia sedimentaria kimmeridgiana-tithoniana se encuentra dominada por depósitos silicoclásticos indicadores de un ambiente continental. Los saurópodos están presentes todo a lo largo de esta secuencia principalmente terrestre y se registran en las formaciones Alcobaça, Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo, Sobral, Freixial, y Bombarral, en el intervalo kimmeridgiano temprano a tithoniano tardío. Sauropoda es el grupo de dinosaurios más abundante en el Jurásico Superior de la Cuenca Lusitaniana y se halla particularmente bien representado en las subcuencas Bombarral y Turcifal. Aquí se presentan varios especímenes nuevos que no habían sido publicados. La fauna de saurópodos identificada incluye, principalmente, eusaurópodos no neosaurópodos (incluyendo turiasaurios), diplodocoideos (algunos especímenes con afinidades diplodocinas), macronarianos basales (camarasáuridos y no camarasáuridos) y titanosauriformes (algunos especímenes con afinidades braquiosáuridas). Macronarianos, turiasaurios y diplodocoideos se encuentran presentes generalmente a lo largo de todos los depósitos continentales a transicionales del kimmeridgiano-tithoniano de la Cuenca Lusitaniana, pero el registro fósil conocido para algunos grupos más exclusivos tales como camarasáuridos, braquiosáuridos y diplodocinos, presenta una distribución estratigráfica más restringida.

Palabras clave: Sauropoda, Jurásico Superior, Cuenca Lusitaniana, subcuenca Bombarral, subcuenca Arruda, subcuenca Turcifal.

Traducción: Diana Elizabeth Fernández

Résumé en Français

Le registre fossile des sauropodes dans le Jurassique supérieur du Bassin lusitanien (Portugal) : distribution géographique et lithostratigraphique

Les restes de sauropodes sont relativement abondants dans les sédiments du Jurassique supérieur du Bassin lusitanien. Ces dinosaures sont documentés dans plusieurs sous-bassins formés pendant le troisième épisode de rifting lié à l'évolution du Bassin lusitanien. La séquence sédimentaire du Kimméridgien-Tithonien est dominée par des dépôts silicoclastiques, indiquant un environnement continental. Les sauropodes sont présents tout le long de cette séquence principalement terrestre : ils sont documentés dans les formations d'Alcobaça, Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo, Sobral, Freixial, et Bombarral, du Kimméridgien ancien au Tithonien récent. Les Sauropoda sont les dinosaures les plus abondants dans le registre fossile du Jurassique supérieur du Bassin lusitanien et ils sont particulièrement bien représentés dans les sous-bassins de Bombarral et Turcifal. Plusieurs nouveaux spécimens non publiés sont présentés ici. La faune de sauropodes identifiée comprend principalement des eusauropodes non néosauropodes (incluant les turiasaures), des diplodocoïdes (certains spécimens présentant des affinités avec les diplodocinés), des macronariens basaux (non camarasauridés et camarasauridés), et des titanosauriformes (certains spécimens présentant des affinités avec les brachiosauridés). Les macronariens, turiasaures, et diplodocoïdes sont généralement présents dans les dépôts continentaux à transitionnels du Bassin lusitanien tout le long du Kimméridgien-Tithonien, mais le registre fossile connu pour les camarasauridés, brachiosauridés, et diplodocinés indique une distribution stratigraphique plus restreinte.

Mots-clés : Sauropoda ; Jurassique supérieur ; Bassin lusitanien ; sous-bassin de Bombarral ; sous-bassin d'Arruda ; sous-bassin de Turcifal

Translator: Antoine Souron

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Unterjurassischer Sauropodennachweis im Lusitanischen Becken (Portugal): geographische und lithostratigraphische Verteilung

Überreste von Sauropoden sind in den unterjurassischen Sedimenten des Lusitanischen Beckens relativ häufig. Diese Dinosaurier werden in verschiedenen Sub-Becken, die während des dritten Rifting-Prozesses im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung des Lusitanischen Beckens entstanden sind, gefunden. Die Kimmeridge-Tithon Sedimentsequenz wird durch siliziklastische Ablagerungen dominiert, was auf einen kontinentalen Ablagerungsraum hinweist. Sauropoden kommen in der gesamten, hauptsächlich terrestrischen Sequenz vor. Sie werden in der Alcobaça, Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo, Sobral, Freixial, und der Bombarral Formation verzeichnet und reichen damit vom frühen Kimmeridge bis in das späte Tithon. Sauropoda ist die häufigste Dinosauriegruppe im unterjurassischen Fossilnachweis des Lusitanischen Beckens und sie sind besonders gut erhalten im Bombarral und Turcifal Sub-Becken. Einige neue, bis jetzt unveröffentlichte Stücke werden hier aufgeführt. Die hauptsächlich identifizierte Sauropodenfauna beinhaltet nicht-neosauropode Eusauropoden (inklusive Turiasaurier), Diplodocoiden (einige Stücke mit Diplodocinen-Ähnlichkeiten), basale Macronaria (nicht-Camarasauride und Camarasauride) und Titanosauriforme (einige Stücke mit Brachiosauriden-Ähnlichkeiten). Macronaria, Turiasaurier und Diplodocoiden kommen generell entlang der gesamten kontinentalen bis transitionalen Ablagerungen des Lusitanischen Beckens vor (mit einem Alter vom Kimmeridge bis ins Tithon) aber der bekannte Fossilnachweis für noch etwas exklusivere Gruppen wie Camarasauriden, Brachiosauriden und Diplodocinen zeigt eine eingeschränktere stratigraphische Verteilung.

Schlüsselwörter: Sauropoda; Oberer Jura; Lusitanisches Becken; Bombarral Sub-Becken; Arruda Sub- Becken; Turcifal Sub- Becken

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

 

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

FIGURE 1. Geological map (adapted from Oliveira et al., 1992) showing the Portuguese Mesozoic levels outcropping in the Lusitanian Basin. ASb - Arruda Sub-basin; BSb - Bombarral Sub-basin, cd - Caldas Diapir; CR - Caldas da Rainha town; TSb - Turcifal Sub-basin.

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FIGURE 2. Lusitanian Basin (divided into three sectors following Ribeiro et al., 1996) with the location of the Upper Jurassic sub-basins following two different interpretations: (1) location of Bombarral, Turcifal and Arruda Sub-basins (Guery, 1984; Kullberg, 2000; Kullberg et al., 2006) (modified from Kullberg, 2000); (2) location of Bombarral-Alcobaça, Consolação, Arruda and Turcufal Sub-basin (modified from Taylor et al., 2014).

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FIGURE 3. Stratigraphic correlation between the nomenclature proposed for the Upper Jurassic sub-basin of the central sector of the Lusitaninan Basin [Bombarral Sub-basin is split in several areas: Consolação Sub-basin areas (Torres Vedras-Lourinhã-Peniche and Foz do Arelho-Nazaré coastal sector), Bombarral-Alcobaça Sub-basin area, Batalha-Leiria region and Pombal region], from the left to the right: i) Arruda Sub-basin (Kullberg et al., 2006); ii) Turcifal Sub-basin (Pereda-Suberbiola et al.,2005; Kullberg et al., 2006; Schneider et al., 2009); ii) Arruda Sub-basin (Kullberg et al., 2006); iii) Torres Vedras-Lourinhã-Peniche (Manuppella et al., 1999), iv) Foz do Arelho-Nazaré coastal sector (Kullberg et al., 2006; Azerêdo et al., 2010); v) Bombarral-Alcobaça Sub-basin area (Kullberg et al., 2006; Azerêdo et al., 2010); vi) Batalha-Leiria region (Manuppella et al., 2000; Kullberg et al. 2006; Escaso et al., 2007a) and vii) Pombal region (Kullberg et al., 2006; Malafaia et al., 2010a). The stratigraphy proposed by Hill (1988) for the coastal sector from Porto da Calada to Salir do Porto is also plotted. Crn - Chronostratigraphy; **sensu Yagüe et al., 2006. The right column shows the known stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropod clades along the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sedimentary sequence in the Lusitanian Basin. The black bar indicates the known stratigraphic distribution of the established sauropod taxa (1, Zby atlanticus ; 2, Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis ; 3, Lourinhasaurus alenquerensis ; 4, Lusotitan atalaiensis); CSb, Consolação Sub-Basin (following Taylor et al., 2014).

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FIGURE 4.1, Simplified stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sequence in the Pombal, Leiria, and Batalha areas (located on the Bombarral Sub-basin) (Manuppella et al., 2000; Kullberg et al., 2006; Escaso et al., 2007a; Malafaia et al., 2010a) with distribution of the main sauropod clades identified in this area. 2-3, Geological map of Pombal (2) and Leiria and Batalha (3) areas with localities yielding fossil remains referred to Sauropoda (modified from Teixeira et al., 1966; Zbyszewski et al., 1974; Zbyszewski and Ferreira, 1978; Manuppella et al., 2000). Crn - Chronostratigraphy. *the presence of Turiasauria is only supported by the presence of heart-shaped teeth.

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FIGURE  5. Cranial and postcranial sauropod remains from Pombal, Leiria, and Batalha areas: 1, Macronaria indet., compressed cone-chisel-shaped tooth (MG 8779, Ourém) in labial view; 2-3, Macronarian indet., compressed cone-chisel-shaped tooth (MG 27891, Guimarota) in labial (2) and lingual (3) views; 4, Sauropoda indet., middle or posterior caudal vertebra (MG 4811, Albergaria dos Doze) in right view; 5, Diplodocoidea indet., pencil-shaped teeth (MNHNUL.P.AND303, Andrés) in labial view; 6-7, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (MG 16, Ourém) in lingual (6) and labial (7) views; 8-9, Eusauropoda indet., posterior or middle dorsal neural spine (MNHN.unnumbered, Vermoil) in posterior (8) and anterior (9) views; 10-13, Sauropoda indet., anterior, and middle caudal vertebra from a partial caudal series (MG 4974, Abadia) in posterior (10, 12) and right (11, 13) views; 14, sauropod fossil-site in Junqueira locality (Pombal); 15-18, sauropod material from near Batalha (MG 30389) that might represent an indeterminate diplodocine, middle caudal vertebra in ventral (15) and right (16) views, partial posterior (?) dorsal centrum in right view (17), and partial ischiatic peduncle in lateral view (18). Black scale bar: 10 cm; Gray scale bar: 0.5cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  6. 1, Geological map of the coastal sector from Foz do Arelho to Nazaré area (located on the Bombarral Sub-basin, and considered part of the Consolação Sub-basin following Taylor et al., 2014) (modified from Zbyszewski and Moitinho de Almeida, 1960; Camarate França and Zbyszewski, 1963; Azerêdo et al., 2010) with the localities yielding fossil remains referred to Sauropoda. 2, Simplified stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sequence for the coastal sector from Foz do Arelho to Nazaré sector based on Azerêdo et al. (2010) with the stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropod clades identified in this area. Crn - Chronostratigraphy; *the presence of Turiasauria is only supported by the presence of heart-shaped teeth.

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FIGURE  7. Cranial and postcranial sauropod remains from the coastal sector from Foz do Arelho to Nazaré: 1-3, Eusauropod material (MMPM.P/551) found near the São Martinho do Porto locality, middle caudal vertebra in anterior (1) and right (2) views and a partial anterior or middle chevron in posterior view (3); 4-5, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (MG 4832, São Martinho do Porto) in lingual (4) and labial (5) views; 6-7, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (SHN 501, Praia da Gralha) in labial (6) and lingual (7) views; 8, Eusauropoda indet., anterior dorsal neural spine (MG 4920, Foz do Arelho) in anterior view; 9-10, ? Macronaria indet., spatulate tooth (SHN 517, Foz do Arelho) in lingual (9) and labial (10) views; 11-13, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (SHN 508, Serra do Bouro) in lingual (11), labial (12) and distal (13) views; 14-15, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (SHN 512, Foz do Arelho) in lingual (14) and labial (15) views; 16-17, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (SHN (JJS) 146, Salir do Porto) in lingual (16) and labial (17) views; 18, Sauropoda indet., middle caudal vertebra (SHN 537, Salir do Porto) in left view. Black scale bar: 5 cm; Grey scale bar: 0.5 cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  8. 1, Geological map of the Alcobaça, Bombarral and A-dos-Cunhados region (located on the Bombarral Sub-basin, and considered part of the Bombarral-Alcobaça Sub-basin following Taylor et al., 2014) (modified from Camarate França et al., 1960; Zbyszewski and Moitinho de Almeida, 1960; Camarate França and Zbyszewski, 1963; Zbyszewski and Torre de Assunção, 1965; Zbyszewski et al., 1966; Azerêdo et al., 2010) with the localities yielding fossil remains referred to Sauropoda. 2, Simplified stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sequence for Bombarral-Alcobaça Sub-basin (stratigraphy based on Kullberg et al., 2006 and Azerêdo et al., 2010) with the stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropod clades identified in this area. Crn - Chronostratigraphy. *the presence of Turiasauria is only supported by the presence of heart-shaped teeth.

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FIGURE  9. Cranial and postcranial sauropod remains from the Alcobaça, Bombarral and A-dos-Cunhados region: 1-2, Eusauropoda indet., left astragalus (MMPM.P/75, Imaginário) in proximal (1) and posterior (2 views; 3-4, Diplodocinae indet., middle caudal vertebra (MG 4819, São Gregório da Fanadia) in right (3) and ventral (4) views; 5, Sauropoda indet., anterior caudal vertebra (MG 4804, Salir de Matos) in right view; 6-7, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (MG 277, Fervença) in labial (6) and lingual (7) views; 8, Diplodocinae indet., middle or posterior dorsal vertebra (ML 418, Moita dos Ferreiros) in posterior view. Black scale bar: 10 cm; Grey scale bar: 0.5cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  10. 1, Geological map of the Peniche area (located on the Bombarral Sub-basin, and considered part of the Consolação Sub-basin following Taylor et al., 2014) (modified from Camarate França et al., 1960; Zbyszewski and Moitinho de Almeida, 1960; Azerêdo et al., 2010) with the localities yielding fossil remains referred to Sauropoda. 2, Simplified stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sequence for the Peniche area based on Manuppella et al. (1999, first column) and Hill (1988, second column) with the stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropod clades identified in this area. 3) Sediments of the Bombarral Formation in the Almagreira Cliffs. Crn - Chronostratigraphy; *the presence of Turiasauria is only supported by the presence of heart-shaped teeth.

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FIGURE  11. Cranial and postcranial sauropod remains from the cliffs located on North of Peniche: 1, ?Macronaria indet., partial spatulate tooth (MG 8783, Baleal) in lingual view; 2-3, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (SHN (JJS) 141, Baleal) in labial (2) and lingual (3) views; 4, Macronaria indet., compressed cone-chisel-shaped tooth (SHN 547, Pedras Muitas) in lingual view; 5-6, Eusauropoda indet., middle (MG 4917) and posterior cervical vertebrae from Pedras Muitas in right (5) and left (6) views, respectively; 7, Macronaria indet., compressed cone-chisel-shaped tooth (SHN 543, Baleal) in lingual view; 8, sacral rib (SHN, 538, Almagreira) in posterior or anterior view; 9, Eusauropoda indet., anterior caudal vertebra (SHN 180, Baleal) in left view; 10, Macronaria indet., right pubis (SHN 526, Almagreira) in lateral view. Black scale bar: 10 cm; Grey scale bar: 1 cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  12. 1, Geological map of the coastal sector of Praia da Consolação-Lourinhã-Torres Vedras (located on the Bombarral Sub-basin, and considered part of the Consolação Sub-basin following Taylor et al., 2014) (modified from Manuppella et al., 1999) with the localities yielding fossil remains referred to Sauropoda. 2, Simplified stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sequence for the coastal sector of Praia da Consolação-Lourinhã-Torres Vedras based on Manuppella et al. (1999, first column) and Hill (1988, second column) with the stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropod clades identified in this area. Crn - Chronostratigraphy. *the presence of Turiasauria is only supported by the presence of heart-shaped teeth and the holotype of Zby atlanticus.

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FIGURE  13. Cranial and postcranial sauropod remains from sediments of the Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. of the coastal sector of Praia da Consolação-Lourinhã-Torres Vedras: 1-2, ?Turiasauria indet., heart-shaped tooth (SHN (JJS) 142, Praia da Corva) in lingual (1) and labial (2) views; 3-4, ?Macronaria indet., spatulate tooth (SHN 513, Porto Novo) in labial (3) and lingual (4) views; 5-6, Macronaria indet., compressed cone-chisel-shaped tooth (SHN 578, Valmitão) in lingual (5) and labial (6) views; 7-8, Eusauropoda indet., partial left maxilla (SHN 582, Praia dos Frades) in lateral (7) and posterior (8) views; 9, Titanosauriformes indet., posterior caudal vertebra (SHN 523, Praia da Corva) in right view; 10-12, Diplodocinae indet., partial skeleton (SHN (JJS) 177, Valmitão), anterior caudal neural spine in posterior view (10), anterior caudal centrum in right view (11) and left ischium in medial view (12); 13-16, holotype material of Zby atlanticus (ML 368, Vale de Pombas), right ungueal I in lateral view (13), right humerus in anterior view (14), right radius in posterior view (15), right ulna in lateral view (16); 17, Eusauropoda indet., partial distal forked-chevron (SHN 587, Praia da Corva) in medial view; 18, Sauropoda indet., pedal ungueal I (SHN 524, Praia de Pedrogãos) in lateral view; 19-22, Macronarian indet., partial skeleton (SHN 181, Valmitão), right astragalus in proximal view (19), anterior caudal vertebra in anterior view (20), right tibia in lateral view (21) and right fibula in medial view (22); 23-24, Eusauropoda indet., partial skeleton (SHN 530, Praia da Corva), anterior chevron in anterior view (23) and anterior caudal vertebra in posterior view (24); 25, cf. Duriatitan humerocristatus, humerus (MG 4976, Praia dos Frades) in anterior view; 26, Sauropoda indet., partial skeleton (SHN 534, Santa Rita), middle chevron in posterior view; 27, Diplodocidae indet., partial skeleton (SHN (JJS) 179, Praia Vermelha), dorsal/caudal (?) neural spine in posterior view; 28-30, holotype material of Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis (ML 414, Porto Dinheiro), proximal end of a dorsal rib in anterior view (28), anterior caudal neural spine in posterior view (29) and articulated dorsal vertebrae in right view (30). Black scale bar: 10 cm; Grey scale bar: 5 cm; Brown scale bar: 1 cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  14. 1,Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis dorsal series (ML 414) in Porto Dinheiro with the palaeontologist Pedro Dantas in 1991. 2-3, A partial skeleton in the field (SHN 534) collected in Santa Rita, including a partial tail, in 2003 (2) and several appendicular bones, in 2009 (3).

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FIGURE  15. Cranial and postcranial sauropod remains from sediments of the Sobral Fm. and Bombarral Fm. of the coastal sector of Praia da Consolação-Lourinhã-Torres Vedras: 1-2, ?Macronaria indet., spatulate tooth (SHN 122, Peralta) in labial (1) and lingual (2) views; 3-6, Macronaria indet., compressed cone-chisel-shaped teeth (SHN 550 and 551, Peralta) in labial (3, 5) and lingual (4, 6) views; 7, Sauropoda indet., left dorsal transverse process (MG 8809, Atalaia) in dorsal view; 8, Eusauropoda indet., anterior caudal vertebra (MNHNUL.P.R27) in posterior view (Praia da Areia Branca); 9-14, lectotype material of Lusotitan atalaiensis (Peralta), anterior caudal vertebra MG 4985-2 (11) and MG 4985-4 (9) in posterior view, left astragalus (MG 4803) in posterior view (10), right humerus (MG 4989) in anterior view (12), right radius (MG 4958) in anterior view (13), right tibia (MG 4981) in posterior view (14); 15, Titanosauriformes indet., a proximal end of left femur (MG 4986, Praia da Areia Branca) in anterior view; 16-19, Eusauropoda indet., partial tail (GeoFCUL(AB), Areia Branca), middle chevron in posterior view (16), middle caudal vertebra GeoFCUL(AB) 22 in anterior view (17), GeoFCUL(AB) 21 in left view (18), GeoFCUL(AB) 20 in posterior view (19). Black scale bar: 10 cm; Grey scale bar: 1 cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  16. 1, Geological map of Arruda Sub-basin (modified Zbyszewski and Torre de Assunção, 1965; Zbyszewski et al., 1966) with the localities yielding fossil remains referred to Sauropoda. 2, Simplified stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sequence for Arruda Sub-basin based on Kullberg et al. (2006) with the stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropod clades identified in this area. Crn - Chronostratigraphy.

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FIGURE  17. Postcranial sauropod remains from the Arruda Sub-basin: 1-6 and 8-17, lectotype material of Lourinhasaurus alenquerensis (Moinho do Carmo), middle-to-posterior cervical centrum (MG 30373) in left view (1), fused sacral neural spines (MG 30376) in left view (2), dorsal centrum (MG 4956) in left view (3), anterior caudal neural spine (MG 30374) in posterior (4) and anterior (5) views, anterior caudal centrum (MG 4956) in anterior view (6), middle dorsal neural spine (MG 30384) in posterior view (8), left ischium (MG 4957) in lateral view (9), posterior cervical neural spine (MG 30379) in right view (10), left scapula and coracoids (MG 5780) in lateral view (11), left astragalus (MG 30375) in proximal view (12), left pubis (MG 4970) in lateral view (13), left tibia (MG 4983) in anterior view (14), left fibula (MG 4984) in lateral view (15), left humerus (MG 2) in anterior view (16) and left femur (MG 4931) in posterior view (17); 7, Neosauropoda indet., partial dorsal centrum (MG 4799, Castanheira) in right view. Black scale bar: 10 cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  18. 1, Simplified stratigraphy of the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian sequence for Turcifal Sub-basin based on Pereda-Suberbiola et al. (2005), Kullberg et al. (2006) and Schneider et al. (2009) with the stratigraphic distribution of the main sauropod clades identified in this area. 2, Geological map of Turcifal Sub-basin (modified from Zbyszewski et al., 1955) with the localities yielding fossil remains referred to Sauropoda. Crn - Chronostratigraphy; *the presence of Turiasauria is only supported by the presence of heart-shaped teeth.

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FIGURE  19. Cranial and postcranial sauropod remains from the Turcifal Sub-basin: 1-2, ?Turiasauria, heart-shaped tooth (SHN (JJS) 140, Cambelas) in labial (1) and lingual (2) views; 3-4, Macronaria indet., compressed cone-chisel-shaped tooth (SHN 580, Assenta) in lingual (3) and labial (4) views; 5, ?Macronaria indet., spatulate tooth (SHN 519, South of Foz do Sizandro) in lingual view; 6, Eusauropoda indet., middle cervical vertebra (SHN 528, Porto Barril) with camellae tissue bone (sensu Wedel, 2003); 7-8, ?Camarasauridae indet., anterior caudal neural spine (SHN 529, Cambelas) in left (7) and anterior (8) views; 9, Sauropoda indet., right tibia (SHN 527, Cambelas) in proximal view; 10, Sauropoda indet., middle caudal vertebra (MG 4802, Santa Cruz) in right view; 11-12, partial distal end of a ?left tibia (MG 8803, Serra da Vila) in anterior (11) and distal (12) views; 13, humerus distal end (SHN 584, Assenta) in anterior view; 14, cf. Lusotitan atalaiensis, middle caudal vertebra (MG 8804, Maceira) in right view; 15-16, Sauropoda indet., partial skeleton (SHN, 532, Ponte de Rol), posterior caudal vertebra in left view (15) and distal end of a right femur in anterior (16) views; 17-19, Diplodocidae indet., partial skeleton (SHN (JJS) 178, Cambelas), sacral neural spines in anterior (17) and left (18) views and right femur in anterior (19) view. Black scale bar: 10 cm; Grey scale bar: 1 cm. See Anatomical abbreviations for abbreviations.

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FIGURE  20. Dorsal vertebrae in the field of a partial skeleton (SHN 531) collected in Casal da Costa (Cambelas) in 2003, and correspond to a member of Camarasauridae clade.

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APPENDIX 1.

List of the sauropod material from the Lusitanian Basin Upper Jurassic.

Number Taxonomy   Locality Municipality Horizon Anatomy Sub-basin
MG 30483 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. ? ? ? Anterior caudal vertebra ?
MG 30484 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. ? Alenquer? ? Humeral distal end ?
MG 8799 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia das Almoinhas? Caldas da Rainha or Torres Vedras? ? Posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral (Csb) or Turcifal Sub-basin
MG 8802 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. ? ? ? Middle caudal vertebra ?
SHN (JJS) 148 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. ? ? ? Tooth ?
SHN (JJS) 149 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. ? ? ? Tooth ?
SHN 511 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. ? ? ? Tooth ?
SHN 563 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. ? ? ? Tooth ?
unlabeled Diplodocidae Diplodocidae indet. ? ? ? Anterior caudal vertebra ?
MG 4799 Neosauropoda Neosauropoda indet. Castanheira Vila Franca de Xira Abadia Fm. Middle/posterior dorsal vertebra Arruda Sub-basin
MG 27891 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Guimarota Leiria Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 27892 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Guimarota Leiria Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 27894 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Guimarota Leiria Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 27895 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Guimarota Leiria Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 4832 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. São Martinho do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4974 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Abadia (northern of Batalha) Leiria Alcobaça Fm. Partial dorsal vertebra and a partial caudal series Bombarral Sub-basin
MMPM.P/307 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Golfeiros Batalha Alcobaça Fm. Femoral proximal end Bombarral Sub-basin
MMPM.P/551 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. São Martinho do Porto Alcobaça Alcobaça Fm. Middle caudal vertebra and a chevron distal end Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MMPM.P/554 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Fonte do Oleiro Porto de Mós Alcobaça Fm. Posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin
MMPM.P/587 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. São Martinho do Porto Alcobaça Alcobaça Fm. Appendicular bone Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 146 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 147 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 151 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 154 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 501 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia da Gralha Alcobaça Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 504 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 537 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Caudal vertebrae, pelvic fragments and 1 pedal element (+ indeterminate fragments) Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 553 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 559 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 562 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 564 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 567 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 570 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 581 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Salir do Porto Caldas da Rainha Alcobaça Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
unlabeled Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Chiqueda de Cima Alcobaça Alcobaça Fm. Posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (B-Asb)
unlabeled Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. São Mamede Bombarral Alcobaça Fm. Humerus Bombarral Sub-basin (B-Asb)
MG 277 ?Turiasauria ?Turiasauria indet. Fervença Alcobaça Alcobaça Fm.? Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 16 ?Turiasauria ?Turiasauria indet. Ourém Ourém Alcobaça Fm.? Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 8779 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Ourém Vila Nova de Ourém Alcobaça Fm.? Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
unlabeled Macronaria Macronaria indet. Ourém Ourém Alcobaça Fm.? Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 30389 Sauropoda, Diplodocidae Sauropoda indet. and Diplodocinae indet. Batalha Batalha Alcobaça or Bombarral Fm. Axial and appendicular elements Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
? ? ? Vale de Frades Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Femur Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
GeoFCUL(AB) ? Eusauropoda ? Eusauropoda indet. Praia da Areia Branca Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Nine middle caudal vertebrae and chevrons Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4804 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Casal de Lã, Salir de Matos Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Middle caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4811 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Albergaria dos Doze Pombal Bombarral Fm. Middle/posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 4819, 4821, 4826 Diplodocinae Diplodocinae indet. São Gregório da Fanadia Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Three partial middle/posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (B-Asb)
MG 4915, 4916, 4917, 4919 Neosauropoda Neosauropoda indet. Pedras Muitas Peniche Bombarral Fm. Cervical vertebrae remains Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4920 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Monte da Cruz do Facho, Foz do Arelho Monte da Cruz do Facho, Foz do Arelho Monte da Cruz do Facho, Foz do Arelho Anterior dorsal neural spine Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4986 Titanosauriformes Neosauropoda indet. Praia da Areia Branca Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Left femur Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 8772 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Praia da Areia Branca Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Teeth fragments Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
ML 418 Diplodocidae Diplodocidae indet Moita dos Ferreiros Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Cervical and dorsal vertebrae Bombarral Sub-basin (B-Asb)
MMPM.P/72 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Malásia Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Appendicular bone Bombarral Sub-basin (B-Asb)
MMPM.P/75 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Imaginário Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Left astragalus Bombarral Sub-basin (B-Asb)
MNHNUL.P.AND302 Diplodocoidea Diplodocoidea indet. Andrés Pombal Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MNHNUL.P.AND303 Diplodocoidea Diplodocoidea indet. Andrés Pombal Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
MNHNUL.P.AND304 Diplodocoidea Diplodocoidea indet. Andrés Pombal Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin
SHN (JJS) 179 Diplodocidae Diplodocidae indet. Praia da Areia Branca Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 006 Diplodocidae Diplodocidae indet. Mexilhoeira Torres Vedras Bombarral Fm. Axial elements Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 150 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Serra do Bouro Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 152 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Serra do Bouro Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 502 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Foz do Arelho Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 503 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Foz do Arelho Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 508 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Serra do Bouro Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 512 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Foz de Arelho Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 514 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Serra do Bouro Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 517 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Foz do Arelho Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 526 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Baleal-Almagreira Peniche Bombarral Fm. Right pubis Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 535 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Praia do Seixo Torres Vedras Bombarral Fm. ?Cervical vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 538 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Almagreira Peniche Bombarral Fm. Sacral ribs and indeterminate fragments Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 554 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Almagreira Peniche Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 556 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Almagreira Peniche Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 571 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Serra do Bouro Caldas da Rainha Bombarral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 585 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Almagreira Peniche Bombarral Fm. Cervical vertebrae remains Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 590 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Mexolhoeira Torres Vedras Bombarral Fm. Two presacral vertebrae Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
unlabeled ? Turiasauria, Diplodocoidea, Macronaria Indeterminate taxa Andrés Pombal Bombarral Fm. Teeth and postcranial material Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MNHNUL.P.R27 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Praia da Areia Branca Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Anterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
unlabeled Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia da Areia Branca Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. Anterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
unlabeled Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Vermoil Pombal Bombarral Fm. Middle-to-posterior dorsal neural arch Bombarral Sub-basin
MMPM.P/73 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Paimogo Lourinhã Bombarral Fm. or Sobral Fm. Anterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MMPM.P/587 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Albergaria Porto de Mós Bombarral or Alcobaça Fm. Posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin
MG 25254.2-4 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Between Foz Velha da Maceira and Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Partial caudal vertebra and indeterminate fragments Turcifal Sub-basin
MG 8804 Titanosauriformes cf. Lusotitan atalaiensis Maceira Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Middle caudal vertebra Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN (JJS) 121 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Tooth Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN (JJS) 140 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Tooth Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN (JJS) 178 Diplodocidae Diplodocidae indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Partial skeleton Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 519 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Sul da Foz do Rio Sizandro Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Tooth Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 522 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Left pubis Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 527 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Right tibia Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 528 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Porto Barril Mafra Freixial Fm. Middle cervical vertebrae Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 529 Camarasauridae Camarasauridae indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Partial skeleton (one or more individuals) Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 531 Camarasauridae Camarasauridae indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Partial skeleton Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 541 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. South of Pedra da Ursa Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Tooth Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 560 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Cambelas Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Tooth Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 580 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Assenta Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Tooth Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 584 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Assenta Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Humerus distal end Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 586 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Gentias Torres Vedras Freixial Fm. Partial femur Turcifal Sub-basin
MG 25197.1-6 Diplodocinae Diplodocinae indet. Porto Novo Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Caudal, ribs and an indeterminate fragment Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 30480 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Outeiro do Seixo, Ribamar Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Dorsal rib fragments Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4800 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto Novo Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Anterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4802 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Alto da Vela, Santa Cruz Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Middle caudal vertebra Turcifal Sub-basin
MG 4976 Eusauropoda cf. Duriatitan humerocristatus Praia dos Frades Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Right humerus Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4978 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. São Bernardino Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. 16 anterior to middle caudal vertebrae Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 8783 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Baleal Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
ML 368 Turiasauria Zby atlanticus Vale de Pombas Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 127 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 128 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia dos Frades Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 129 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia de Pedrogãos Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 130 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia de Pedrogãos Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 131 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia dos Frades Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 132 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. São Bernardino Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 133 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 135 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 139 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 141 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Baleal Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 142 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 177 Diplodocinae Diplodocinae indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 002 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Porto Novo Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 134 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 137 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. São Bernardino Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 138 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Porto Novo Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 143 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 145 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 180 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Baleal Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Anterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 181 Macronaria Macronaria indet Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 505 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 506 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 507 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 509 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 510 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 513 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Porto Novo Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 516 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Praia dos Frades-São Bernardino Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 520 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia dos Frades Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Left femur Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 521 Diplodocinae Diplodocinae indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Middle caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 523 Titanosauriformes Titanosauriformes indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Caudal vertebrae Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 524 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia de Pedrogãos Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Ungueal I Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 525 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Axial elements Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 530 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Partial skeleton (one or more individuals) Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 534 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Santa Rita Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 536 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Pedras Muitas Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Partial right ilium Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 540 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. São Bernardino Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 543 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Baleal Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 546 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Praia Vermelha Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 547 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Pedras Muitas Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 548 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 555 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto Novo Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 557 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia de Pedrogãos Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 558 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia de Pedrogãos Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 561 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia das Amoeiras Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 565 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 566 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 568 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Valmitão Sul Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 573 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Vale de Pombas Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 574 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 575 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 577 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 578 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Valmitão Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 582 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Praia dos Frades Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Maxilla fargment Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 583 Turiasauria cf. Turiasauria Praia dos Frades Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Metacarpal I Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 587 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Praia da Corva Torres Vedras Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Distal chevron Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 589 Diplodocinae Diplodocinae indet. Baleal Peniche Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm. Posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
ML 414 Diplodocinae Dinheirosaurus lourinhanensis Porto Dinheiro Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm./Sobral Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 144 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Porto Dinheiro Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm./Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 153 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Porto Dinheiro Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm./Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 542 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Porto Dinheiro Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm./Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 572 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Porto Dinheiro Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm./Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 588 Diplodocinae Diplodocinae indet. Porto Dinheiro Lourinhã Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm./Sobral Fm. Posterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 30486 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Atouguia da Baleia? Lourinhã? Praia da Amoreira-Porto Novo Fm.? Right fibula Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 30390 Eusauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Four anterior and middle caudal vertebrae plus indeterminate fragments Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 3794, 4798, 4801, 4805-10, 4838, 4944, 4950, 4952, 4958, 4964, 4965, 4966, 4981, 4982, 4803, 4985-1, 4985 2-20, 5795, 8793, 8794, 8807 and unlabeled sacral neural spine and chevron Brachiosauridae Lusotitan atalaiensis Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 4956, 30373, 30377, 30379, 4956, 30378, 30384, 30370, 4956, 30380, 30376, 4956, 30374, 30388, 30387, 5780, 30371, 5780, 30372, 30383, 30382, 2, 30381, 4979, 4979, 30385, 5781, 4975, 4970, 4957, 4931, 4983, 4984, 30375, 30386 and unlabelled fragmentary elements Camarasauridae Lourinhasaurus alenquerensis Moinho do Carmo Alenquer Sobral Fm. Partial skeleton Arruda Sub-basin
MG 8771 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Two teeth fragments associated with "Omasaurus lenieri" material Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 8792 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Atalaia Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Two dorsal rib fragments Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 8800 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Middle caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 8803 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Serra da Vila Torres Vedras Sobral Fm. Partial tibial distal end Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 8805 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Middle caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 8809 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Atalaia Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Three neural arch fragments Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
ML 351 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Partial skeleton Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
ML 684 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Lage Fria Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Sternal plate Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN (JJS) 136 ? Turiasauria ? Turiasauria indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 122 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 515 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 518 ? Macronaria ? Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 532 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Ponte de Rol Torres Vedras Sobral Fm. Partial skeleton Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 533 Eusauropoda Eusauropoda indet. Praia Azul Torres Vedras Sobral Fm. Partial skeleton Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 539 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Axial and appendicular elements Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 544 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 545 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 549 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Praia Azul Torres Vedras Sobral Fm. Tooth Turcifal Sub-basin
SHN 550 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 551 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 552 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 576 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
SHN 579 Macronaria Macronaria indet. Peralta Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Tooth Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
unlabeled Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Anterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
unlabeled Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Porto das Barcas Lourinhã Sobral Fm. Anterior caudal vertebra Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 30481 Neosauropoda Neosauropoda indet. Atalaia? Lourinhã? Sobral Fm.? Partial dorsal centrum Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 30482 Sauropoda Sauropoda indet. Atalaia? Lourinhã? Sobral Fm.? Caudal neural spine Bombarral Sub-basin (Csb)
MG 30485 Titanosauriformes Titanosauriformes indet. Moinho do Carmo? Alenquer? Sobral Fm.? Pubic peduncle of an ilium Arruda Sub-basin
*More unpublished material is referred in a list provided by Mateus (2005)
SHN Sociedade de História Natural, Torres Vedras, Portugal (plus (JJS) for the José Joaquim dos Santos collection deposited in the Sociedade de História Natural)
MNHNUL Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
ML Museu da Lourinhã, Lourinhã, Portugal
MG Museu Geológico, Lisboa, Portugal
MMB.PALEO Museu Municipal do Bombarral, Bombarral, Portugal (plus PALEO for the paleontological collection)
MMLT Museu Municipal de Leonel Trindade, Torres Vedras, Portugal
MMPM Museu Municipal de Porto de Mós, Porto de Mós, Portugal
GeoFCUL(AB) Departamento de Geologia da Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal (plus AB for Areia Branca)
Csb Consolação Sub-basin (following Taylor et al., 2014)
B-Asb Bombarral-Alcobaça Sub-basin (following Taylor et al., 2014)
 

author1Pedro Mocho. The Dinosaur Institute, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Blvd., 90007 CA, Los Angeles, USA; Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, c/ Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Laboratório de Paleontologia e Paleoecologia, Sociedade de História Natural, Polígono Industrial do Alto do Ameal, Pav.H02 e H06, 2565-641, Torres Vedras, Portugal. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr. Pedro Mocho is a geologist who did his undergraduate studies at the Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal) and received his M.Sc. in Biodiversity and his Ph.D. in Biology from the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in 2016, under the supervision of Dr. Francisco Ortega and Dr. Rafael Royo-Torres. He is now a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the Dinosaur Institute of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. His main research is focused on the evolutionary history of sauropod dinosaurs, in particular the phylogenetic context of the Upper Jurassic sauropods of the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain) and North America (USA). In the Dinosaur Institute, he is working on the systematics and paleobiology of the sauropods from the "Gnatalie" quarry (Upper Jurassic, Utah) and from the Bisti/De-Na-Zin Wilderness (Upper Cretaceous, New Mexico). He is also studying Middle Jurassic sauropods from Africa and the evolution of Titanosauriforms during the Early and Upper Cretaceous, including new research on several forms from Spain, North America, and Africa. He is collaborating on different paleontological research and outreach projects in Spain, Portugal, and the United States. His research is especially focused on the evolutionary history of non-neosauropod eusauropods, the Upper Jurassic diversification of neosauropods and in the evolutionary history of european titanosars. His research has taken him on several national and international expeditions in Western Portugal, Utah, New Mexico, and Spain. He is also member of the Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, UNED (Spain) and Sociedade de História Natural (Torres Vedras, Portugal).

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author2Rafael Royo-Torres. Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis/Museo Aragonés de Paleontología, av. Sagunto s/n. E-44002 Teruel, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Rafael Royo Torres received his PHD in 2006 at Facultad de Ciencias of the Zaragoza University (Departamento Ciencias de la Tierra) Spain. He has been working like paleontologist of the Fundación Conjunto Paleontológico de Teruel-Dinópolis since 1998 for the Dinopolis project in Spain. His main research interests are the phylogeny and evolution of sauropod dinosaurs, in particular of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous faunas from the Spain, France and Portugal, respectively, where he also participated in various excavation campaigns. He has produced more than 50 publications in scientific journals, being first author in journals such as Science, where Turiasaurus riodevensis was defined in 2006. He is currently involved in I+D+I projects of the Spain Goverment and co-manages several dissertations of dinosaurs from Spain.


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author3Fernando Escaso. Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, c/ Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Laboratório de Paleontologia e Paleoecologia, Sociedade de História Natural, Polígono Industrial do Alto do Ameal, Pav.H02 e H06, 2565-641, Torres Vedras, Portugal. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Fernando Escaso is an Assistant Professor at the Science Faculty of the Universidad de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Spain. His research is focused in the evolutionary history of the ornithischian dinosaurs from the Late Jurassic of the Iberian Peninsula and their relationships with the synchronous faunas of Laurasia. Also, other research interest are the study of the ornithopod dinosaur faunas from the Cretaceous of southwestern Europe.


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author4Elisabete Malafaia. Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa. Edifício C6, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal; Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Rua da Escola Politécnica 56/58, 1250-102 Lisboa, Portugal; Laboratório de Paleontologia e Paleoecologia, Sociedade de História Natural, Polígono Industrial do Alto do Ameal, Pav.H02 e H06, 2565-641, Torres Vedras, Portugal. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Elisabete Malafaia started the PhD at Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa in 2012. Your main research interests are the phylogeny and evolution of theropod dinosaurs. She is interested in particular in the paleobiogeographic evolution of the Late Jurassic faunas from Portugal and its relationships with other correlative faunas of the peri-Atlantic context.


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author5Carlos de Miguel Chaves. Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, c/ Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Carlos de Miguel Chaves graduated in the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid with a bachellor's degree in Biology in 2012, and he studied a master's degree in Evolutionary Biology at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In 2014 he joined the Group of Evolutionary Biology at the National University of Distance Education (UNED), where he curses his PhD studies. His work focus on the fossil record of Triassic sauropterygian reptiles from the Iberian Peninsula.


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author6Iván Narváez. Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, c/ Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Iván Narváez received his MSc on paleontology in the Universidad Complutense de Madrid in 2009 and his PhD in Biology in Universidad Autónoma de Madrid in 2015, under the supervision of Francisco Ortega and Christopher A. Brochu. His research is focused on the study of the evolutionary history of the basal Eusuchian crocodiles from the Late Cretaceous of Europe and the phylogenetic relationship of these groups with synchronous faunas in Laurasia. In addition, he is interested on the study of dinosaur diversity from Iberian Peninsula.


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author7Adán Pérez-García. Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, c/ Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Laboratório de Paleontologia e Paleoecologia, Sociedade de História Natural, Polígono Industrial do Alto do Ameal, Pav.H02 e H06, 2565-641, Torres Vedras, Portugal. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Adán Pérez-García is a paleontologist working on several clades of reptiles, mainly on Testudinata. He obtained his PhD on the fossil turtles from the Iberian Peninsula in 2012, at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid. He is now a researcher at the Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (Madrid). His main work focuses on the study of the systematics, paleobiogeography and diversity of Mesozoic and Cenozoic faunas of turtles from the Jurassic to the Holocene, including both European and African clades. He described several new taxa corresponding to pan-pleurodiran and pan-cryptodiran forms.


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author8Nuno Pimentel. Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa, edifício C6, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Nuno Pimentel received his PhD in Sedimentology and Stratigraphy at the Lisbon University. His main research interest is the evolution of sedimentary basins, including lithostratigraphic, palaeogeographic and geodynamic issues. In this last decade he focused the research in the Lusitanian Basin, Western Portugal, addressing its evolution and also its petroleum systems. He has meanwhile collaborated with paleontologists in reconstructing depositional palaeoenvironments, namely for the Upper Jurassic formations of the Lusitanian Basin.


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author9Bruno C. Silva. Laboratório de Paleontologia e Paleoecologia, Sociedade de História Natural, Polígono Industrial do Alto do Ameal, Pav.H02 e H06, 2565-641, Torres Vedras, Portugal. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Bruno Camilo Silva has a vast experience in heritage management, having started his first palaeontological excavations of fossil vertebrates in 1995. Since then, he has promoted several works of intervention and salvage in palaeontological sites of the Portuguese Upper Jurassic western coast in general and in the Municipality of Torres Vedras, in particular. He is currently director of the Paleontology and Paleoecology Laboratory of the Natural History Society (Torres Vedras, Portugal), where he is responsible for the collections. In the scope of this collections he co-coordinates the Geographic Information System Applied to Paleontology, developed by the Geographic Information Department of the Natural History Society. His main interests are the management of palaeontological heritage and the palaeobiology of archosaurs of the Upper Jurassic.


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author10Francisco Ortega. Grupo de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, UNED, c/ Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain; Laboratório de Paleontologia e Paleoecologia, Sociedade de História Natural, Polígono Industrial do Alto do Ameal, Pav.H02 e H06, 2565-641, Torres Vedras, Portugal. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

PhD in Biology (Paleontology) and Professor at the Faculty of Sciences of UNED (Madrid) in which he teaches in subjects related to biodiversity to student of Environmental Sciences. He is also the IP of the Evolutionary Biology Research Group-UNED, focusing his work on the analysis of the evolutionary history of Mesozoic reptiles, especially crocodiles and dinosaurs, and the ecosystems in which they inhabited. He is the author of more than a hundred publications in scientific and technical journals that mainly focused in the Late Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal), and the Cretaceous from the Spain (Las Hoyas, Lo Hueco and Morella fossil sites among others). In the field of paleontological heritage management has been a curator of the collections of paleontology of the Museum of Sciences of Castilla-La Mancha in Cuenca. He has also been involved in the generation of museum and museographic projects in Spain and Portugal. He has participated in different research paleontological projects in Spain, Portugal, Niger, Argentina and the United States, which implies being part of almost one hundred excavations and some dozens of national and international research projects. more: http://www.biouned.com/personal/fortega/