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Bessarabian (Tortonian, Late Miocene) fish otoliths from a transitional freshwater-brackish environment of Mykhailivka, Southern Ukraine

Andriy Bratishko, Oleksandr Kovalchuk, and Werner Scwarzhans

Plain Language Abstract

The middle to late Sarmatian s.l. (Tortonian, Late Miocene) Mykhailivka sedimentary section in southern Ukraine is well known for its rich vertebrate finds. This sequence is about 35 m thick and composed of clays and siltstones with minor interbedded limestones and sands and comprises seven transgressive-regressive cycles. Each cycle begins with a thin near-shore marine or lagoonal phase, often carbonate and oolitic in nature, overlain by a succession of riverine and lacustrine freshwater and terrestrial root-bearing beds. We have studied fish otoliths that have been found in two supposedly estuarine sedimentary intervals (Mykhailivka 1), which have also yielded fish bones and teeth that were described earlier (Kovalchuk, 2015). The otolith association of Mykhailivka 1 includes moronid (Morone cf. M. nobilis), sciaenid (Genyonemus? sp.) as well as three gobiid species – Ponticola dorsorostralis, Neogobius bettinae n. sp., and N. rhachis. We describe probably the youngest record of Morone nobilis and the first of this species in the Eastern Paratethys; this fish previously was known only from the North Sea Basin. The presence of Ponticola dorsorostralis indicates connectivity between the freshwater/brackish regions of the Central and Eastern Paratethys during the middle Sarmatian s.l., whereas the presence of Neogobius rhachis confirms the connections of the former Galician Gulf with the lakes of Western Anatolia. All otolith-based species represent euryhaline groups of fishes known today to commonly migrate from marine into brackish waters or are adapted to brackish and freshwater environments.

Resumen en Español

Otolitos de peces del Besarabiense (Tortoniense, Mioceno tardío) de un medio de transición de agua dulce-salobre de Mykhailivka, sur de Ucrania

La sección sedimentaria de Mykhailivka en el sur de Ucrania del Sarmatiense s.l. medio (Besarabiense) al tardío (Khersoniense) es bien conocida por sus ricos hallazgos de vertebrados en ambientes alternantes marinos marginales a estuarinos y lacustres. Aquí describimos los otolitos de peces obtenidos de sedimentos de un ambiente supuestamente estuarino que ya había producido fósiles de huesos y dientes de peces descritos anteriormente. La asociación de otolitos está dominada por tres especies de góbidos, todas relacionadas con la fauna actual endémica de góbidos del área Ponto-Caspio. Se describe aquí una especie: Neogobius bettinae n. sp. Las especies asociadas raras son Morone cf. M. nobilis, hasta ahora solo conocida de la Cuenca del Mar del Norte, y un esciaénido. Todas las especies basadas en otolitos representan grupos eurihalinos de peces que actualmente se sabe que migran comúnmente de aguas marinas a aguas salobres o que están adaptados a ambientes salobres y de agua dulce.

Palabras clave: peces óseos; Besarabiense; Mioceno; Ucrania; Paratetis Oriental; nueva especie

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver (Sociedad Española de Paleontología)

Résumé en Français

Les otolithes de poissons bessarabiens (Tortonien, Miocène récent) d'un environnement de transition eau douce-eau saumâtre de Mykhailivka, sud de l'Ukraine

La séquence sédimentaire de Mykhailivka, au sud de l'Ukraine, s'étend du Sarmatien s. l. moyen (Bessarabien) à récent (Khersonien) et est bien connue pour sa richesse en vertébrés dans des environnements alternants entre des marges marines et des estuaires et des lacs. Nous décrivons dans cet article des otolithes de poissons obtenus dans des sédiments d'un environnement supposé estuarien qui avait déjà livré des os et des dents fossiles de poissons décrits précédemment. L'assemblage d'otolithes est dominé par trois espèces de gobiidés, qui sont toutes apparentées à la faune ponto-caspienne actuelle de gobiidés. Une nouvelle espèce – Neogobius bettinae n. sp. – est décrite ici. Les rares espèces associées sont Morone cf. nobilis, jusqu'à présent connue seulement dans le bassin de la mer du Nord, et un sciaenidé. Toutes les espèces décrites d'après des otolithes représentent des groupes de poissons euryhalins qui sont connus aujourd'hui pour fréquemment migrer des eaux marines vers les eaux saumâtres, ou qui sont adaptés à des environnements d'eau douce et d'eau saumâtre.

Mots-clés : poissons osseux ; Bessarabien ; Miocène ; Ukraine ; Paratéthys orientale ; nouvelle espèce

Translator: Antoine Souron

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

In progress

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

FIGURE 1. Map of Ukraine with the coastline of Eastern Paratethys (blue line) during the late middle Sarmatian s.l. (according to Popov et al., 2004) (1), enlargered part of the lower reaches of the Pivdennyi Buh River (2), location map of the Mykhailivka quarry (3). The Mykhailivka locality is marked by an asterisk.

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FIGURE 2. Stratigraphical position of the Mykhailivka section. Lithological and paleontological data from Prisyazhniuk et al. (2006). Reconstruction of environmental log deduced from Prisyazhniuk et al. (2006).

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FIGURE 3. Otoliths from the Sarmatian s.l. of the Mykhailivka 1. 1-4, Morone cf. nobilis (Koken, 1891): NMNHU-P 33/1482, inner face (1), ventral view (2); NMNHU-P 33/1483, inner face (3), ventral view (4). 5-8, Genyonemus ? sp . : NMNHU-P 33/1485, inner face (5), ventral view (6); NMNHU-P 33/1512, inner face (7), ventral view (8). 9-18, Ponticola dorsorostralis (Weinfurter, 1954): NMNHU-P 33/1486, inner face (9), ventral view (10); NMNHU-P 33/1487, inner face (11), ventral view (12); NMNHU-P 33/1488, inner face (13), ventral view (14); NMNHU-P 33/1489, inner face (15); NMNHU-P 33/1490, inner face (16); NMNHU-P 33/1491, inner face (17); NMNHU-P 33/1492, inner face (18). Scale bars equal 1 mm. 5-10, 17, 18 are mirrored.

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FIGURE 4. Otoliths from the Sarmatian s.l. of the Mykhailivka 1. 1-9, Neogobius bettinae n. sp.: NMNHU-P 33/1497 (paratype), inner face (1); NMNHU-P 33/1498 (paratype), inner face (2); NMNHU-P 33/1499 (paratype), inner face (3), ventral view (4); NMNHU-P 33/1496 (holotype), inner face (5), ventral view (6); NMNHU-P 33/1500 (paratype), inner face (7), ventral view (8); NMNHU-P 33/1501 (paratype), inner face (9). 10-19, Neogobius rhachis Rückert-Ülkümen, 1993 in Rückert-Ülkümen et al., 1993: NMNHU-P 33/1504, inner face (10), ventral view (11); NMNHU-P 33/1505, inner face (12), ventral view (13); NMNHU-P 33/1506, inner face (14), ventral view (15); NMNHU-P 33/1507, inner face (16), ventral view (17); NMNHU-P 33/1508, inner face (18); NMNHU-P 33/1509, inner face (19). Scale bars equal 1 mm. 5-8, 10, 11, 14, 15, 18 are mirrored.

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FIGURE 5. Recent otoliths of the genus Neogobius. 1-2, Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814): ZMMU, P.23515 3, SL91, 43°38'N-51°08'E, inner face (1), dorsal view (2). 3-4, Neogobius pallasi (Berg, 1916): ZMMU, P.23514, SL93, 43°28'N-51°18'E., inner face (3), dorsal view (4). 5-6, Neogobius fluviatilis (Pallas, 1814): ZMMU, P.22433, SL81, 45°20'N-28°57'E, inner face (5), dorsal view (6). 7-9, Neogobius caspius (Eichwald, 1831): 7-8, ZMMU, P.22622 1, SL90, 51°25'N-46°03'E, inner face (7), dorsal view (8); 9, ZMMU, P.22622 2, SL105, 51°25'N-46°03'E, inner face.

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author1Andriy Bratishko. Faculty of Natural Sciences, Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University, 1 Gogolya Sqr., Starobilsk, 92703, Luhansk region, Ukraine; BugWare, Inc., 1615 Village Square Blvd, ste. 8, Tallahassee, FL 32309, U.S.A. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Andriy Bratishko, of Starobilsk, Ukraine, is a researcher of Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University and micropaleontologist of BugWare Inc., Tallahassee, Fl, U.S.A. Scientific interests are related to systematics, palaeoecology, palaeogeography, biostratigraphy, biodiversity of Cenozoic fish faunas based on fossil otoliths. Current research is also focused on foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Cenozoic deposits.

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author2Oleksandr Kovalchuk. Department of Paleontology, National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 15 Bogdan Khmelnytsky str., Kyiv 01030, Ukraine. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Oleksandr Kovalchuk, of Kyiv, Ukraine, is a researcher and curator of Cenozoic fish paleontology in the Department of Palaeontology, National Museum of Natural History of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, specialist in the field of palaeoichthyology. Scientific interests are related to morphology, taxonomy, historical faunistics and palaeoecology of Neogene and Anthropogene freshwater fishes of southeastern Europe.


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author3Werner Scwarzhans. Zoological Museum, Natural History Museum of Denmark, 15 Universitetsparken, Copenhagen 2100, Denmark. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Dr Werner Schwarzhans, of Hamburg, Germany, is an emeritus researcher with the Natural History Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen. He has worked as a geologist and has studdied fossil otoliths and recent fish and otoliths for more than 40 years. In 85 scientific publications he has described more than 600 mostly otolith-based fossil fish and about 120 recent fish species. Recent work focuses on regional fossil fish faunas on a worldwide scale, alligning skeletal and otolith-based fossil fish taxa through finds of otoliths in situ and systematic reviews of certain groups of extant fishes.