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First direct archosauromorph remains from the Early-Middle Triassic transition of the Iberian Peninsula

Martín D. Ezcurra, Josep Fortuny, Eudald Mujal, and Arnau Bolet

Plain Language Abstract

The fossil record that documents the early evolution of archosauromorphs (reptiles more closely related to crocodiles and birds than to lepidosaurs) during the Early−Middle Triassic (250−235 m.y.a.) in the Iberian Peninsula is based on footprints or natural moulds. Here we describe the first direct archosauromorph remains (teeth) from Lower−Middle Triassic beds of the Iberian Peninsula and add information about the geographic distribution of the group during the dawn of their evolutionary radiation.

Resumen en Español

in progress

Traducción: Enrique Peñalver (Sociedad Española de Paleontología) or Diana Elizabeth Fernández

Résumé en Français

in progress

Translator: Antoine Souron

Deutsche Zusammenfassung

Die ersten konkreten archosauromoprhen Überreste aus der frühen-mittleren Trias der Iberischen Halbinsel

Diese Arbeit diskutiert die taxonomischen Beziehungen von drei isolierten Zähnen aus Schichten des Buntsandsteins der Küstenregion von Katalonien und des zentralen-östlichen Pyrenäenbeckens, die in Katalonien (Nordost-Spanien) zu Tage treten. Die Zahnkronen sind messerförmig, labiolingual zusammengedrückt, distal gebogen und apicobasal proportional hoch, wobei der kompletteste mindestens 2,4-mal höher ist als seine mediodistale Tiefe an der Basis. Die distalen Ränder haben eine gezackte Carina wohingegen die mesialen Ränder keine Carina und Zähnelung aufweisen. Der Kronen-Zahnschmelz hat keine Ornamentierung (wie Falten oder Grate) oder makroskopische Kaufacetten. Die drei Zähne werden, basierend auf den labiolingual zusammengedrückten und gezahnten Kronen, den unbestimmten crocopoden Archosauromorphen zugeschrieben. Das Fehlen von mesialen Dentikeln ähnelt der Kondition bei dem nicht-archosauriformen Archosauromorphen Teyujagua, Proterosuchiden und einigen weiteren Archosauriformen, die der Kronengruppe näher sind (z.B. einige Proterochampsiden). Wir fanden keine Nachweise mit denen wir hätten festlegen können, ob diese Zähne zu einer einzigen Art oder zu mehreren nahe verwanden Arten gehören. Diese Funde repräsentieren den ersten konkreten Nachweis von Archosauromorphen aus unter-mitteltriassischen Schichten der Iberischen Halbinsel und ergänzen unsere Informationen über die geografische Verbreitung dieser Gruppe während der Dämmerung der evolutionären Radiation dieser Gruppe.

Schlüsselwörter: Diapsida; Archosauromorpha; Crocopoda; Zähne; frühe−mittlere Trias

Translator: Eva Gebauer

Arabic

Translator: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

 

 

ezcurraMartín D. Ezcurra. Sección Paleontología de Vertebrados, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Av. Ángel Gallardo 470, C1405DJR, Buenos Aires, Argentina. School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Martín D. Ezcurra (Buenos Aires, 1987) has a Degree in Biological Sciences at the University of Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires, Argentina) (2012) and a PhD at the University of Birmingham (Birmingham, UK) (2015) about the anatomy, taxonomy, and phylogeny of proterosuchian archosauromorphs. He currently is a full-time researcher at CONICET (Argentina) and his research topics focus on the anatomy, phylogeny, and evolution of Permo-Triassic archosauromorphs and carnivorous dinosaurs, and Mesozoic and Palaeogene tetrapod palaeobiogeography.

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fortunyJosep Fortuny. Institut Català de Paleontologia M. Crusafont. Z building, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. Centre de Recherches en Paléobiodiversité et Paléoenvironnements, UMR 7207, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Bâtiment de Paléontologie, CP38, 8 rue Buffon, 75005 Paris, France. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Josep Fortuny (La Roca del Vallès, 1980) has a Degree of Biology (Zoology) at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) (2006) and a PhD in Geology at the Universitat de Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) (2011) about the early tetrapods from the Permian and Triassic periods from Catalonia and its paleobiology using biomechanical approaches.
Currently, he has a Postdoc position at the Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France) and he is the coordinator of the Virtual Paleontology Research Group at the Institut Català de Paleontologia Miquel Crusafont (Catalonia, Spain). His research focus mainly: on the taxonomy and phylogeny of Permian and Triassic vertebrates, and paleoecology using non invasive tecniques as CT scanners and biomechanical approaches as Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

Dr. Fortuny is member of the Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology (SVP) and the Association des Géologues du Permien et du Trias (AGPT).

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mujalEudald Mujal. Departament de Geologia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Eudald Mujal (Cabrianes, 1990) has a BSc of Geology (2012) and a MSc of Palaeontology (2013) at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Catalunya. Since 2013 is a Predoctoral researcher (Ph.D student) at UAB working on the stratigraphy, sedimentology and tetrapod ichnology of the Late Carboniferous – Middle Triassic continental record from the Catalan Pyrenees. He has been co-director of several palaeontological interventions on Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic Catalan localities, and is member of the Association des Géologues du Permien et du Trias (AGPT).

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boletArnau Bolet. Institut Català de Paleontologia M. Crusafont. Z building, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

MSc. (2009) in Palaeontology and PhD. (2014) in Geology at Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Research associate at Institut Català de Paleontologia (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona), Mesozoic Faunas Department. Arnau Bolet research focuses on the taxonomy and paleobiogeography of fossil lizards from the Iberian Peninsula and Europe, but also collaborates on research in Permo-Triassic vertebrates from Catalonia. He has been co-director of several paleontological interventions on Permian, Triassic, Cretaceous and Miocene Catalan localities. 

 

FIGURE 1. Map of Catalonia showing the geographic occurrence of the archosauromorph teeth described here. Dashed lines indicate the boundary of each mountain range.

 figure 1

 

FIGURE 2. Geological map and stratigraphic profile of the Port del Cantó locality where IPS-73757 and IPS-90188 were collected.

 figure 2

 

FIGURE 3. Isolated crocopodan archosauromorph teeth from the Early−Middle Triassic of Catalonia. 1, IPS-90631 in apical (top) and lingual (bottom) views and close up of distal denticles; 2, IPS-73757 in labial view and close up of distal denticles; 3, IPS-90188 in side view and close up of distal denticles. Abbreviations: cr, crown; ro, root. Scale bars equal 2 mm in (1), 5 mm in (2, 3), 0.2 mm in close up of (1), 0.5 mm in close up of (2), and 1 mm in close ups of (3).

figure 3 

 

 

TABLE 1. Measurements of the crocopodan archosauromorph teeth here described in millimetres. Values between brackets indicate incomplete measurements. Maximum deviation of the digital calliper is 0.02 mm but measurements were rounded to the nearest 0.1 millimetre.

Measurements La Mora tooth
(IPS-90631)
Port del Cantó tooth
(IPS-73757)
Port del Cantó tooth
(IPS-90188)
Apicobasal height of crown+root ? ? (58.7)
Apicobasal height of crown (10.0) (38.7) (29.8)
Mesiodistal depth of crown at base 4.9 ca. 13.0 12.9
Labiolingual width of crown at base 3.4 ? ?