Figure 4.Tail muscle cross section reconstructions and photograph. Black dots denote individual muscle area centroids (moment arms), light grey dots denote centroids for entire half of tail. 1. 'slim', 2. 'croc' and 3. 'medium' muscle cross section reconstructions for Kentrosaurus aethiopicus at the base of the tail. Note shift of centroids with changing muscle areas. 4. photograph of section of the base of the tail of Alligator mississippiensis provided by D.R. Wilhite (see text for further explanations). 5. tracing of Alligator as in 4 on the left, and reconstruction following typical dinosaur reconstructions on the right. Integument of Alligator photograph is traced on the right also, to highlight the difference in cross sections between the living animal and the typical method of reconstruction. 6, 7, 8. tracings of previous reconstructions of (6) Stegosaurus from Carpenter et al. 2005 and (7 and 8) ankylosaurs from Arbour (2009). All figure parts scaled to approximately the same vertebra size. Height of Kentrosaurus caudal 278 mm. Abbreviated muscle names: ASP = m. articulospinais, CFL = m. caudofemoralis longus, ILCAUD = m. iliocaudalis, ISCAUD = m. ischiocaudalis, LCAUD = m. longissimus caudae, SPIN = m. spinalis.