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TABLE 1.Radiocarbon dates (uncalibrated) for bones from various layers at the Ba site in Emine Bair Khosar Cave (Stankovic et al.,2011; A. Nadachowski, K. Stefaniak, and B. Ridush, personal commun. 2011).

 

Layer

Laboratory no.

Material

Depth (m)

Radiocarbon date

E

Poz-28732

Bone (Cervus elaphus)

1.65

12,050 ± 60 BP

G

Poz-35028 (sample J24)

Bone (Cervus elaphus)

2.40

33,100 ± 400 BP

H

Poz-35027 (sample JM1)

Tooth (Cervus elaphus)

3.20

42,000 ± 1,200 BP

Deepest part of profile

Poz-28893

Bone (Saiga tatarica)

4.60

48,500 ± 2,000 BP

Deepest part of profile

Poz-35026 (sample J46)

Bone (Cervus elaphus)

4.60

>47,000 BP

Deepest part of profile

Poz-28731

Bone (Cervus elaphus)

4.70

>46,000 BP

TABLE 2.Dental characteristics of different equid lineages (Alimen, 1946; Eisenmann, 1980, 1981, 2010; Eisenmann and Baryshnikov, 1994; Smit 1996; Baxter, 1998; Eisenmann and Mashkour, 1999; Burke et al., 2003; Orlando et al., 2006; Forstén, 1999).

 

Upper cheek teeth

Trait

Sussemiones

Equus hydruntinus

Caballoids (true horses)

Zebroids (zebras)

Stenonids (asses, hemiones)

Pli caballin

Multiple and/or large base, sometimes club-shaped

Infrequent, much reduced

Frequent

Frequent

Infrequent

Enamel

Often highly plicated

Fossettes small and simple

Plicated

Plicated

Simple

Protocone

Very short

Triangular, short

Long, narrow

Triangular, short

Oval, short

Lower cheek teeth

Trait

Sussemiones

Equus hydruntinus

Caballoids (true horses)

Zebroids (zebras)

Stenonids (asses, hemiones)

First incisor

 

Often lacks infundibulum

 

 

 

Ectostylid

Present; sometimes isolated

 

Frequent

Intermediate frequency

Infrequent

Protostylid

Frequent on p2; sometimes extremely developed on p3-m3

Absent on p2

Infrequent

Infrequent

Infrequent

Double knot

Resembles hemiones; elongated, sometimes bilobated metaconid

Metastylid can be angular

Angular or triangular

Asymmetrical

Asymmetrical

Buccal wall of protoconid and hypoconid

 

Rounded

Flat

Rounded

 

Lingual valley

Shallow

V-shaped

U-shaped

V-shaped

V-shaped

Vestibular groove

Frequently deep on molars and some premolars, but very variable

Deep, especially on molars

Intermediate depth

Deep, especially on molars

Shallow

 

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