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APPENDIX 1. Full dataset for the equid remains from Emine-Bair-Khosar, recovered during field seasons 1999-2009 (available as Excel spreadsheet).

APPENDIX 2. Measurements on the EBK cranial specimens and mean values for comparative material; Equus hemionus and Equus przewalskii: Eisenmann, 1980; Equus ferus gallicus: Cardoso and Eisenmann, 1989; Equus ferus latipes: Kuzmina, 1997; Equus hydruntinus: Burke et al., 2003.

 

Specimen / Species

nmax

V16

V23

V3

V4

V2-5

V5

EBK Bc M1 (141)

-

54.4

-

97.3

103.4

-

-

EBK Ba2 C1(B) 384

-

52.9

320.0

101.5

106.8

119.3

88.0

EBK Bm001

-

-

-

-

-

126.2

118.6

Equus hemionus

45

56.4

341.0

111.3

106.0

109.4

105.2

Equus hydruntinus (Kabazi II)

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

1

-

-

85.5

-

99.0

87.0

Equus przewalskii

20

65.3

373.6

101.5

118.4

131.6

127.8

Equus ferus gallicus

4

64.0

384.5

100.0

-

140.3

122.0

Equus ferus latipes

6

-

-

-

-

-

--

Specimen / Species

nmax

V17

V17b

V13

V25

V28

V20

EBK Bc M1 (141)

-

-

-

189.0

97.8

93.0

-

EBK Ba2 C1(B) 384

-

57.4

40.3

184.0

88.8

90.0

-

EBK Bm001

-

67.5

48.2

175.5

-

-

-

Equus hemionus

45

54.5

39.8

195.5

98.2

87.1

14.1

Equus hydruntinus (Kabazi II)

2

59.8

39.6

-

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

1

-

36.5

-

-

84.0

-

Equus przewalskii

20

63.4

42.3

210.4

100.8

97.7

12.9

Equus ferus gallicus

4

74.0

48.5

208.0

108.0

97.3

13.7

Equus ferus latipes

6

-

-

220.6

-

113.5

-

 

APPENDIX 3. Mean, minimum, and maximum values for the upper dental elements of the EBK equid specimens and comparative material; L=length, W=width, Lprot=length of the protocone; Equus hemionus: Eisenmann, 1980; Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel): Bonifay, 1991; Equus hydruntinus (Crimea), Equus przewalskii, Equus ferus latipes: Kuzmina, 1997; Equus ferus gallicus: Eisenmann, online data.

 

P2

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

 

 

 

EBK small

8

32.5

31.8

33.7

21.8

20.1

24.5

 

 

 

EBK large

3

37.6

35.4

41.0

24.0

22.9

24.9

 

 

 

Equus hemionus

23

34.3

28.5

39.0

24.2

22.3

26.0

 

 

 

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

4

31.5

31.0

31.8

22.3

21.0

23.5

 

 

 

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

11

31.4

29.3

32.5

21.3

19.8

22.5

 

 

 

Equus przewalskii

21

40.0

36.2

46.5

26.7

24.0

31.1

 

 

 

Equus ferus gallicus

10

37.4

36.0

39.0

25.0

24.0

26.0

 

 

 

Equus ferus latipes

16

38.8

35.2

41.5

26.1

22.3

28.6

 

 

 

P3/4

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

Lprot

min

max

EBK small

17

25.2

23.5

27.4

24.2

21.9

25.6

8.4

7.0

10.2

EBK large

7

29.2

28.2

33.1

25.0

23.7

28.8

12.6

9.5

15.0

Equus hemionus

47

25.2

22.5

28.5

25.9

24.0

28.5

11.4

8.0

16.0

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

21

23.9

20.7

27.0

23.6

21.8

24.9

8.0

6.2

9.4

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

38

25.0

21.6

27.3

23.1

21.2

25.0

9.2

7.5

11.2

Equus przewalskii

44

29.0

21.2

34.2

28.8

23.0

32.5

13.8

11.0

16.3

Equus ferus gallicus

26

28.3

26.0

30.0

28.0

26.0

30.0

12.8

10.0

15.0

Equus ferus latipes

22

30.8

28.0

34.0

30.0

27.7

31.0

13.8

10.6

16.6

M1/2

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

Lprot

min

max

EBK small

17

22.3

20.9

24.0

23.3

21.7

24.9

8.6

7.4

9.9

EBK large

4

26.0

24.4

30.3

23.4

22.5

24.2

12.7

11.5

15.4

Equus hemionus

48

22.4

19.0

26.0

23.6

20.3

26.0

11.0

8.5

15.5

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

24

23.0

19.8

27.6

22.7

19.8

24.9

8.7

7.1

10.5

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

55

22.0

19.5

27.5

22.0

20.0

25.0

8.6

6.0

11.5

Equus przewalskii

44

25.9

20.4

31.0

27.4

23.0

31.0

13.9

11.8

16.9

Equus ferus gallicus

26

25.1

23.0

26.0

26.3

24.5

28.5

13.8

11.0

16.0

Equus ferus latipes

28

27.7

25.1

34.5

28.7

25.2

33.5

14.9

13.2

17.0

M3

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

 

 

 

EBK small

10

24.3

20.1

27.3

20.9

19.6

23.1

 

 

 

EBK large

2

25.8

22.0

29.5

21.6

18.8

24.3

 

 

 

Equus hemionus

22

24.4

22.0

27.0

19.8

17.0

22.5

 

 

 

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

10

21.7

19.2

24.3

19.2

16.7

20.6

 

 

 

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

30

22.6

19.5

25.5

19.2

16.0

21.2

 

 

 

Equus przewalskii

22

28.5

24.0

32.8

24.2

20.0

27.0

 

 

 

Equus ferus gallicus

11

26.8

25.0

29.0

22.8

22.0

24.0

 

 

 

Equus ferus latipes

11

29.1

25.9

31.2

25.6

22.8

27.7

 

 

 

APPENDIX 4. Mean, minimum, and maximum values for the lower dental elements of the EBK equid specimens and comparative material; L=length, W=width; Equus hemionus: Eisenmann, 1981; Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel): Bonifay, 1991; Equus hydruntinus (Crimea), Equus przewalskii, Equus ferus latipes: Kuzmina, 1997; Equus ferus gallicus: Eisenmann, online data

 

p2

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

LFmean

min

max

EBK small

5

27.4

24.5

28.7

14.2

13.2

15.6

12.4

11.6

13.7

EBK large

2

40.0

-

-

16.7

16.3

17.0

17.7

15.7

19.6

Equus hemionus

24

29.1

26.0

33.5

14.1

12.0

17.0

13.9

10.0

17.0

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

8

26.9

25.5

28.4

14.4

13.2

15.2

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

25

27.2

25.0

30.0

15.3

13.5

18.0

12.8

10.5

15.5

Equus przewalskii

19

33.3

29.3

38.0

18.1

15.0

19.3

16.8

15.5

18.5

Equus ferus gallicus

11

31.4

29.0

36.0

15.3

14.0

17.0

16.0

13.0

17.0

Equus ferus latipes

28

34.5

32.0

40.0

17.2

15.0

21.0

17.5

16.0

20.0

p3/4

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

LFmean

min

max

EBK small

12

24.5

21.1

26.1

14.9

13.2

17.2

12.4

10.7

15.5

EBK large

4

33.1

32.5

33.8

17.4

16.8

17.6

17.1

16.0

18.3

Equus hemionus

47

25.5

22.0

31.0

15.7

13.5

19.0

12.2

9.0

15.5

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

19

24.9

23.3

26.0

16.3

13.0

18.3

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

55

23.7

21.6

25.6

16.5

14.2

18.2

11.6

8.2

14.0

Equus przewalskii

38

28.4

24.1

31.6

20.3

17.6

22.8

14.8

12.5

18.2

Equus ferus gallicus

26

28.9

26.5

34.0

17.1

15.0

19.0

13.3

10.0

16.0

Equus ferus latipes

64

29.3

26.2

33.3

19.4

16.6

22.0

14.3

10.4

17.4

m1/2

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

LFmean

min

max

EBK small

11

22.6

20.9

24.0

13.6

12.2

16.0

9.4

6.4

12.1

EBK large

4

30.7

29.9

31.8

15.3

14.8

15.6

13.2

11.4

14.6

Equus hemionus

48

23.1

19.5

30.0

14.2

11.5

17.0

9.3

6.0

12.0

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

21

22.3

20.5

25.8

14.5

11.0

18.2

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

64

22.2

18.6

29.5

14.7

12.5

16.8

7.5

5.0

11.0

Equus przewalskii

34

26.8

22.0

30.9

18.4

15.6

21.0

10.5

7.4

13.6

Equus ferus gallicus

26

26.6

23.5

29.0

15.7

14.0

17.3

10.4

8.0

15.0

Equus ferus latipes

79

27.2

23.5

33.2

18.0

15.2

20.6

11.0

7.2

14.5

m3

nmax

Lmean

min

max

Wmean

min

max

LFmean

min

max

EBK small

9

25.9

20.9

28.6

12.5

10.8

13.5

10.6

8.3

11.7

EBK large

2

30.3

30.2

30.3

13.4

13.1

13.6

12.0

-

-

Equus hemionus

22

28.7

25.0

35.0

12.7

11.0

15.5

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

9

26.4

24.3

27.5

12.2

10.2

13.6

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

20

25.4

22.0

27.5

11.6

12.0

14.0

6.8

5.3

8.0

Equus przewalskii

18

33.6

30.0

37.5

15.7

13.8

17.8

11.5

8.5

13.6

Equus ferus gallicus

13

32.0

29.0

34.5

13.9

12.0

15.0

-

-

-

Equus ferus latipes

35

34.0

30.0

39.6

15.6

13.0

17.5

11.4

7.3

14.1

 

APPENDIX 5. Longbone mean, minimum, and maximum values for the EBK specimens and comparative material; Equus hemionus, Equus ferus gallicus and Equus przewalskii: Eisenmann, online data; Equus hydruntinus: Kuzmina, 1997; Equus ferus latipes: Kuzmina, 1997, Eisenmann, 1991.

 

 

 

GL

Bp

 

Humerus

nmax

mean

min

max

mean

min

max

 

 

 

EBK small Ba/Bc

4

248.8

246.2

251.7

79.9

75.8

84.0

 

 

 

EBK large Ba/Bc

2

322.7

317.8

327.5

95.6

94.3

96.9

 

 

 

Equus hemionus

10

252.2

235.0

259.0

81.1

75.0

88.0

 

 

 

Equus ferus gallicus

17

278.3

267.5

295.0

94.5

90.0

105.0

 

 

 

Equus przewalskii

42

263.4

247.0

287.0

85.7

70.0

92.0

 

 

 

Equus ferus latipes

9

285.3

273.0

300.0

97.6

95.7

102.0

 

 

 

 

 

GL

Bp

SD

Radius

nmax

mean

min

max

mean

min

max

mean

min

max

EBK small Ba/Bc

10

301.2

284.0

322.0

71.0

65.0

82.7

35.8

33.9

41.1

EBK large Bb

1

369.0

-

-

92.0

-

-

45.2

-

-

Equus hemionus

10

303.4

289.0

316.0

71.6

67.0

76.0

33.5

32.0

35.3

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

39

291.3

289.0

293.0

66.9

60.5

70.0

33.6

30.3

36.0

Equus ferus gallicus

23

326.8

312.0

354.0

87.1

84.0

94.0

41.7

37.5

48.0

Equus przewalskii

42

312.1

296.0

330.0

76.7

72.0

83.0

36.0

31.5

40.0

Equus ferus latipes

107

352.6

327.0

367.0

91.6

80.0

99.0

-

-

-

 

 

GL

SD

 

 

 

Femur

nmax

mean

min

max

mean

min

max

 

 

 

EBK small Ba/Bc

4

333.3

322.3

342.2

33.0

31.1

34.8

 

 

 

EBK large

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

Equus hemionus

10

337.3

319.0

356.0

32.2

29.0

34.0

 

 

 

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

Equus ferus gallicus

3

382.7

375.0

394.0

41.0

-

-

 

 

 

Equus przewalskii

43

357.6

333.0

392.0

37.4

33.0

44.0

 

 

 

Equus ferus latipes

8

378.6

366.0

395.5

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

GL

Bp

SD

Tibia

nmax

mean

min

max

mean

min

max

mean

min

max

EBK small (all)

12

324.5

310.5

342.5

79.9

74.7

92.5

37.1

35.0

40.4

EBK small Ba/Bc

11

324.9

310.5

342.5

80.6

75.4

92.5

37.1

35.0

40.4

EBK small Bb

1

320.0

-

-

74.7

-

-

36.5

-

-

EBK large Bb

1

367.7

-

-

120.5

-

-

50.4

-

-

Equus hemionus

10

324.8

310.0

335.0

83.6

78.1

87.0

35.9

31.0

38.5

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

62

-

-

-

77.2

74.6

79.0

-

-

-

Equus ferus gallicus

22

343.6

327.0

363.5

102.8

100.0

106.0

45.5

42.0

49.0

Equus przewalskii

44

326.1

309.0

350.0

89.9

82.0

99.0

40.2

33.0

46.0

Equus ferus latipes

34

368.2

352.7

381.0

104.6

98.0

114.0

-

-

-

APPENDIX 6. Mean values for metacarpal measurements of the EBK specimens and comparative material; Equus hemionus, Equus africanus and Equus przewalskii: Eisenmann, 1979; Equus hydruntinus (Crimea) and Equus ferus latipes: Kuzmina, 1997; Equus hydruntinus (Italy): Eisenmann & Bekouche, 1986; Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel): Bonifay, 1991; Equus ferus gallicus: Eisenmann, online data.

 

Specimen / Species

nmax

V1

V3

V4

V5

V6

V10

EBK small (all)

5

221.9

28.8

23.5

43.2

29.4

40.1

EBK small Ba/Bc

4

220.4

28.8

23.5

43.2

29.5

-

EBK small Bb

1

228.0

28.9

23.7

43.4

29.3

40.1

EBK large (all)

5

243.0

36.5

27.1

54.9

35.9

54.9

EBK large Ba/Bc

4

243.0

36.5

27.1

54.9

35.9

-

EBK large Bb

1

-

-

-

-

-

54.9

Equus hemionus

22

214.1

25.7

21.1

43.2

27.0

38.9

Equus africanus

8

206.6

27.8

22.9

46.6

28.6

40.9

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

50

211.8

26.1

21.7

41.0

29.3

-

Equus hydruntinus (Italy)

30

212.8

28.0

23.2

42.0

28.2

38.9

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

12

190.2

24.6

21.0

36.2

25.1

32.4

Equus przewalskii

17

214.7

31.5

23.9

48.5

29.9

44.7

Equus ferus latipes

79

235.2

39.1

-

56.4

-

-

Equus ferus gallicus

25

222.5

36.9

27.4

52.3

33.1

50.3

Specimen / Species

nmax

V11

V12

V13

V14

V7

V8

EBK small (all)

5

40.0

29.2

24.2

26.9

36.7

12.0

EBK small Ba/Bc

4

39.8

29.1

-

-

-

-

EBK small Bb

1

40.7

29.7

24.2

26.9

36.7

12.0

EBK large

5

54.5

40.2

33.8

36.0

-

-

EBK large Ba/Bc

4

53.3

39.4

-

-

-

-

EBK large Bb

1

59.2

43.4

33.8

36.0

-

-

Equus hemionus

22

38.7

29.3

24.3

26.1

34.0

12.8

Equus africanus

8

40.6

30.1

24.8

27.0

38.2

13.0

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

50

36.9

28.2

-

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Italy)

30

37.9

29.1

24.0

26.4

33.4

12.7

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

12

33.1

25.4

-

-

-

-

Equus przewalskii

17

45.7

34.4

27.1

28.7

39.0

14.2

Equus ferus latipes

79

55.2

-

-

-

-

-

Equus ferus gallicus

25

51.7

37.9

29.3

31.1

41.5

16.9

 

APPENDIX 7. Mean values for metatarsal measurements of the EBK specimens and comparative material; measurements according to Eisenmann, 1979; Equus hemionus, Equus africanus and Equus przewalskii: Eisenmann, 1979; Equus hydruntinus (Crimea) and Equus ferus latipes: Kuzmina, 1997; Equus hydruntinus (Italy): Eisenmann & Bekouche, 1986; Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel): Bonifay, 1991; Equus ferus gallicus: Eisenmann, online data.

 

Specimen / Species

nmax

V1

V3

V4

V5

V6

V10

EBK small (all)

8

253.5

27.1

27.2

41.9

37.1

39.2

EBK small Ba/Bc

7

253.0

26.8

27.2

41.9

37.1

39.7

EBK small Bb

1

256.2

28.8

27.0

42.5

37.0

38.2

EBK large Ba/Bc

2

284.3

37.5

34.6

57.9

51.0

-

Equus hemionus

22

250.6

25.2

25.3

40.5

35.1

38.0

Equus africanus

8

242.9

26.5

26.5

44.7

36.1

40.9

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

37

251.2

25.5

25.7

40.5

36.1

-

Equus hydruntinus (Italy)

17

235.6

25.8

26.4

40.1

32.6

38.1

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

17

229.3

24.9

24.2

36.5

30.8

33.0

Equus przewalskii

18

254.7

29.8

28.0

48.9

39.8

46.2

Equus ferus latipes

60

281.2

36.2

-

56.5

-

-

Equus ferus gallicus

17

267.6

36.1

34.3

54.2

42.2

52.3

Specimen / Species

nmax

V11

V12

V13

V14

V7

V8

EBK small (all)

8

38.1

29.9

23.8

26.1

37.6

9.6

EBK small Ba/Bc

7

38.3

30.3

24.3

26.3

37.3

9.7

EBK small Bb

1

37.3

27.5

22.7

25.8

38.1

9.5

EBK large Ba/Bc

2

55.7

43.0

-

-

-

-

Equus hemionus

22

37.5

30.0

23.9

26.5

35.9

9.0

Equus africanus

8

40.6

31.3

24.9

27.4

39.4

10.8

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

37

37.6

29.0

-

-

-

-

Equus hydruntinus (Italy)

17

36.7

29.9

24.6

26.8

36.0

8.9

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

17

32.6

25.8

-

-

-

-

Equus przewalskii

18

45.3

34.8

26.2

28.8

42.5

12.4

Equus ferus latipes

60

56.0

-

-

-

-

-

Equus ferus gallicus

17

53.6

39.9

29.6

33.2

47.9

13.7

 

APPENDIX 8. Mean values for first and third phalanx measurements of the EBK specimens and comparative material; Equus hemionus, Equus asinus and Equus przewalskii: Dive &Eisenmann, 1991; Equus hydruntinus (Crimea) and Equus ferus latipes: Kuzmina, 1997; Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel): Bonifay, 1991; Equus ferus gallicus: Eisenmann, online data.

 

Anterior first phalanx

nmax

V7

V1

V3

V4

V5

EBK small Bb

1

55.1

78.8

25.6

39.8

30.1

EBK large Bb

1

65.7

96.1

42.7

67.0

41.5

Equus hemionus

15

48.1

76.5

24.6

41.1

30.8

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

69

-

-

26.3

40.2

-

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

2

-

69.6

22.2

35.8

24.8

Equus asinus

11

46.5

72.2

23.9

38.0

28.3

Equus przewalskii

27

51.5

78.1

32.6

49.6

33.9

Equus ferus latipes

95

-

-

40.6

62.3

-

Equus ferus gallicus

29

58.1

85.4

37.6

57.5

38.0

Anterior first phalanx

nmax

V6

V14

V10

V12

 

EBK small Bb

1

35.0

33.4

59.8

12.0

 

EBK large Bb

1

55.6

50.4

70.6

15.0

 

Equus hemionus

15

36.7

35.6

58.5

10.3

 

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

69

-

34.3

-

-

 

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

2

-

31.9

-

-

 

Equus asinus

11

34.5

33.6

55.2

9.9

 

Equus przewalskii

27

43.8

40.8

59.0

11.0

 

Equus ferus latipes

95

-

50.6

-

-

 

Equus ferus gallicus

29

49.4

47.0

62.2

13.1

 

Posterior first phalanx

nmax

V7

V1

V3

V4

V5

EBK small Bb

2

50.1

73.3

24.8

41.2

29.2

Equus hemionus

15

41.8

71.2

24.3

42.4

30.9

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

63

-

-

24.2

39.6

-

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

7

-

63.9

21.8

37.1

24.8

Equus asinus

10

40.8

67.5

23.2

40.0

28.4

Posterior first phalanx

nmax

V6

V14

V10

V12

 

EBK small Bb

2

32.5

30.9

55.3

12.2

 

Equus hemionus

15

35.0

33.3

52.2

12.0

 

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

63

-

31.8

-

-

 

Equus hydruntinus (Lunel-Viel)

7

-

30.8

-

-

 

Equus asinus

10

32.9

31.2

49.9

12.0

 

Third phalanx

nmax

GB

 

 

 

 

EBK small Ba/Bc

2

56.5

 

 

 

 

Equus hemionus

12

54.3

 

 

 

 

Equus hydruntinus (Crimea)

48

52.2

 

 

 

 

Equus przewalskii

20

70.8

 

 

 

 

Equus ferus gallicus

36

80.6

 

 

 

 

Equus ferus latipes

25

94.9

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX 9. Scatter plots of measurements on selected dental elements and longbones for the EBK specimens compared with several equid species; 1. M1/2; 2. m1/2; 3. humerus (breadth of the proximal epiphysis plotted against greatest length); 4. tibia (smallest depth of the diaphysis plotted against greatest length).

appendix 9.1

appendix 9.2

 

appendix 9.3

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