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TABLE 1. Experimental parameters and resulting burrow morphologies. SR: subvertical ramp, UB: U-shaped burrow, HB: helical burrow, MW: mazework, XL: cross lamination. Sediment density values are in kgf/cm2. Sediment depths are in cm. Sediment moisture values are in percent total volume.

 

Tank Size

Sediment Composition

Sediment Depth

Sediment Density

Sediment Moisture

Burrow Architecture

10

75-25% clay-sand

20

2.1-3.2

0

None

10

50-50% clay-sand

20

1.1-1.4

0

None

10

25-75% clay-sand

20

0.4-0.7

0

XL

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

75-25% clay-sand

20

2.1-3.2

20

SR, UB, HB, MW

10

50-50% clay-sand

20

1.1-1.4

20

SR, UB

10

25-75% clay-sand

20

0.4-0.7

20

SR

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

75-25% clay-sand

20

2.1-3.2

50

SR, UB, HB, MW

10

50-50% clay-sand

20

1.1-1.4

50

SR, UB

10

25-75% clay-sand

20

0.4-0.7

50

SR

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

75-25% clay-sand

35

2.1-3.2

0

None

20

50-50% clay-sand

35

1.1-1.4

0

None

20

25-75% clay-sand

35

0.4-0.7

0

XL

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

75-25% clay-sand

35

2.1-3.2

20

SR, UB, HB, MW

20

50-50% clay-sand

35

1.1-1.4

20

SR, UB

20

25-75% clay-sand

35

0.4-0.7

20

SR

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

75-25% clay-sand

35

2.1-3.2

50

SR, UB, HB, MW

20

50-50% clay-sand

35

1.1-1.4

50

SR, UB

20

25-75% clay-sand

35

0.4-0.7

50

SR

 

 

 

 

 

 

56

75-25% clay-sand

55

2.1-3.2

0

None

56

50-50% clay-sand

55

1.1-1.4

0

None

56

25-75% clay-sand

55

0.4-0.7

0

XL

 

 

 

 

 

 

56

75-25% clay-sand

55

2.1-3.2

20

SR, UB, HB, MW

56

50-50% clay-sand

55

1.1-1.4

20

SR, UB

56

25-75% clay-sand

55

0.4-0.7

20

SR

 

 

 

 

 

 

56

75-25% clay-sand

55

2.1-3.2

50

SR, UB, HB, MW

56

50-50% clay-sand

55

1.1-1.4

50

SR, UB

56

25-75% clay-sand

55

0.4-0.7

50

SR

TABLE 2. Measurements of representative three dimensional casts of burrows produced by Hadrurus arizonensis (DHS), Pandinus imperator (ES), and Mastigoproctus giganteus(WS). All measurements are in cm.

 

 

DHS1

DHS2

DHS3

DHS4

DHS5

DHS6

DHS7

DHS8

DHS9

Architecture

SR

SR

HB

MW

MW

SR

HB

MW

UB

Surface openings

1

1

1

5

4

1

1

3

2

Maximum depth

3.9

2.8

7.2

7.4

6.7

4.3

4.6

8.4

8.0

Total length

11

9

27

57

46

7

13

31

30

Maximum width

4.3

6.0

7.7

4.6

6.4

5.9

3.3

7.2

4.2

Minimum width

3.2

3.0

2.8

1.9

2.6

2.9

2.7

2.9

3.0

Average width

3.9

4.8

4.5

3.6

4.2

4.2

3.1

4.7

3.6

Maximum height

2.8

1.9

3.2

2.3

3.1

1.6

1.4

2.6

2.5

Minimum height

1.0

1.1

0.8

0.8

1.4

1.0

0.6

1.4

1.5

Average height

1.9

1.6

2.0

1.8

1.9

1.4

1.0

1.9

2.1

Average W/H ratio

2.1

3.0

2.3

2.0

2.2

3.0

3.1

2.5

1.7

Maximum circumference

12.1

14.0

18.0

14.5

17.0

11.5

10.5

16.0

11.5

Minimum circumference

10.0

11.2

6.5

9.5

10.5

6.0

8.5

9.5

10.5

Average circumference

11.2

12.7

14.5

13.1

12.2

9.4

9.0

12.3

11.3

Maximum slope

40°

10°

30°

50°

90°

30°

40°

50°

90°

Minimum slope

Average slope

20°

15°

27°

37°

15°

20°

30°

45°

Branching angles

NA

NA

NA

75

75

NA

NA

70

NA

Complexity

3

3

3

9

9

3

3

7

4

Tortuosity

1.1

1.1

9.0

1.4

1.8

1.1

3.3

1.1

1.3

Sediment Density

L

L

H

H

H

L

H

H

M

TABLE 2 (continued).

 

 

DHS10

DHS11

DHS12

DHS13

DHS14

DHS15

DHS16

DHS17

ES1

WS1

Architecture

SR

SR

SR

SR

SR

HB

SR

SR

HB

MW

Surface openings

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

4

Maximum depth

3.0

4.2

3.4

4.0

4.2

16.0

5.3

6.8

12.5

12.4

Total length

16

11

19

19

23

76

37

26

36

66

Maximum width

5.2

4.4

6.5

4.9

6.7

5.3

6.2

5.4

12.0

6.2

Minimum width

3.8

4.1

4.2

3.1

4.1

3.7

3.1

4.0

7.9

3.7

Average width

4.4

4.3

5.2

4.1

4.9

4.5

4.8

4.9

9.7

4.6

Maximum height

2.1

2.0

3.3

2.6

2.3

3.3

2.8

2.2

5.1

2.0

Minimum height

1.3

0.9

1.9

1.8

1.4

1.6

1.7

1.5

2.8

1.7

Average height

1.8

1.6

2.2

2.2

1.7

2.3

2.4

1.8

3.9

1.9

Average W/H ratio

2.4

2.7

2.4

1.9

2.9

2.0

2.0

2.7

2.5

2.4

Maximum circumference

13.6

11.2

16.5

13.0

15.5

14.0

15.0

13.0

27.0

14.5

Minimum circumference

9.7

6.8

11.5

9.9

10.5

10.0

11.0

11.5

20.5

9.0

Average circumference

11.9

10.0

13.9

11.5

12.5

17.3

12.9

12.6

23.8

11.3

Maximum slope

10°

40°

10°

20°

20°

30°

20°

20°

40°

80°

Minimum slope

Average slope

20°

10°

10°

13°

10°

20°

45°

Branching angles

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

65

NA

NA

80

Complexity

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

3

3

10

Tortuosity

1.3

1.5

1.1

1.2

1.4

3.3

1.4

1.2

1.7

1.4

Sediment Density

M

L

M

M

M

H

H

M

NA

NA

TABLE 3. Bray Curtis Similarity measure results. 1. Comparison matrix of all burrow casts. 2. Comparison matrix of subvertical ramps. 3. Comparison matrix of mazeworks. 4. Comparison matrix of helical burrows. DHS: Hadrurus arizonensis, ES: Pandinus imperator, WS: Mastigoproctus giganteus, SR: subvertical ramp, UB: U-shaped burrow, HB: helical burrow, MW: mazework (PDF format).

 

TABLE 4. Spearman's rank order analysis results comparing eight quantitative burrow properties (X) with sediment density (Y). Sediment density is ranked from 1 (0.4–0.7 kgf/cm2), 2 (1.1–1.4 kgf/cm2), and 3 (2.1–3.2 kgf/cm2).

 

1. Complexity vs. Sediment Density

 

2. Tortuosity vs. Sediment Density

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

 

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

3

3

 

6.5

14

 

9

3

 

17

14

9

3

 

16.5

14

 

1.4

3

 

11

14

9

3

 

16.5

14

 

1.8

3

 

13.5

14

3

3

 

6.5

14

 

3.3

3

 

15.5

14

7

3

 

15

14

 

1.1

3

 

3

14

3

3

 

6.5

14

 

3.3

3

 

15.5

14

4

3

 

13.5

14

 

1.4

3

 

11

14

4

2

 

13.5

7.5

 

1.3

2

 

8.5

7.5

3

2

 

6.5

7.5

 

1.3

2

 

8.5

7.5

3

2

 

6.5

7.5

 

1.1

2

 

3

7.5

3

2

 

6.5

7.5

 

1.2

2

 

6.5

7.5

3

2

 

6.5

7.5

 

1.4

2

 

11

7.5

3

2

 

6.5

7.5

 

1.2

2

 

6.5

7.5

3

1

 

6.5

2.5

 

1.1

1

 

3

2.5

3

1

 

6.5

2.5

 

1.1

1

 

3

2.5

3

1

 

6.5

2.5

 

1.1

1

 

3

2.5

3

1

 

6.5

2.5

 

1.5

1

 

13.5

2.5

 

Rs=0.54

 

 

 

 

 

Rs=0.58

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. Circumference vs. Sediment Density

 

4. Total Length vs. Sediment Density

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

 

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

15

3

 

16

14

 

27

3

 

11

14

13.1

3

 

14

14

 

57

3

 

16

14

12.2

3

 

8

14

 

46

3

 

15

14

9

3

 

1

14

 

13

3

 

5

14

12.3

3

 

9

14

 

31

3

 

13

14

17.3

3

 

17

14

 

76

3

 

17

14

12.9

3

 

13

14

 

37

3

 

14

14

11

2

 

4

7.5

 

30

2

 

12

7.5

11.9

2

 

7

7.5

 

16

2

 

6

7.5

13.9

2

 

15

7.5

 

19

2

 

7.5

7.5

11.5

2

 

6

7.5

 

19

2

 

7.5

7.5

12.5

2

 

10

7.5

 

23

2

 

9

7.5

12.6

2

 

11

7.5

 

26

2

 

10

7.5

11.2

1

 

5

2.5

 

11

1

 

3.5

2.5

12.7

1

 

12

2.5

 

9

1

 

2

2.5

9.4

1

 

2

2.5

 

7

1

 

1

2.5

10

1

 

3

2.5

 

11

1

 

3.5

2.5

 

Rs=0.44

 

 

 

 

 

Rs=0.82

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5. Maximum Width vs. Sediment Density

 

6. Maximum Height vs. Sediment Density

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

 

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

7.7

3

 

17

14

 

3.2

3

 

15

14

4.6

3

 

5

14

 

2.3

3

 

7.5

14

6.4

3

 

13

14

 

3.1

3

 

14

14

3.3

3

 

1

14

 

1.4

3

 

1

14

7.2

3

 

16

14

 

2.6

3

 

10.5

14

5.3

3

 

8

14

 

3.3

3

 

16.5

14

6.2

3

 

12

14

 

2.8

3

 

12.5

14

4.2

2

 

2

7.5

 

2.5

2

 

9

7.5

5.2

2

 

7

7.5

 

2.1

2

 

5

7.5

6.5

2

 

14

7.5

 

3.3

2

 

16.5

7.5

4.9

2

 

6

7.5

 

2.6

2

 

10.5

7.5

6.7

2

 

15

7.5

 

2.3

2

 

7.5

7.5

5.4

2

 

9

7.5

 

2.2

2

 

6

7.5

4.3

1

 

3

2.5

 

2.8

1

 

12.5

2.5

6

1

 

11

2.5

 

1.9

1

 

3

2.5

5.9

1

 

10

2.5

 

1.6

1

 

2

2.5

4.4

1

 

4

2.5

 

2

1

 

4

2.5

 

Rs=0.26

 

 

 

 

 

Rs=0.43

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7. Maximum Depth vs. Sediment Density

 

8. Average Slope vs. Sediment Density

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

 

Raw Score

 

 

Rank

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

 

X

Y

7.2

3

 

13

14

 

15

3

 

9.5

14

7.4

3

 

14

14

 

27

3

 

14

14

6.7

3

 

11

14

 

37

3

 

16

14

4.6

3

 

9

14

 

20

3

 

12

14

8.4

3

 

16

14

 

30

3

 

15

14

16

3

 

17

14

 

13

3

 

8

14

5.3

3

 

10

14

 

10

3

 

6

14

8

2

 

15

7.5

 

45

2

 

17

7.5

3

2

 

2

7.5

 

5

2

 

2

7.5

3.4

2

 

3

7.5

 

5

2

 

2

7.5

4

2

 

5

7.5

 

10

2

 

6

7.5

4.2

2

 

6.5

7.5

 

10

2

 

6

7.5

6.8

2

 

12

7.5

 

8

2

 

4

7.5

3.9

1

 

4

2.5

 

20

1

 

12

2.5

2.8

1

 

1

2.5

 

5

1

 

2

2.5

4.3

1

 

8

2.5

 

15

1

 

9.5

2.5

4.2

1

 

6.5

2.5

 

20

1

 

12

2.5

 

Rs=0.68

 

 

 

 

 

Rs=0.31

 

 

 

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