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TABLE 1. P values for ANOVAs for intraobserver results from iterations 1, 2, and 3. Bold results indicate a significant difference for the same observer between iterations.

Abbreviations: NS = narrow scratches, SP = small pits, WS = wide scratches, LP = large pits.

 

 

Obs 1

Obs 2

Obs 3

Obs 4

Obs 5

NS

0.51

0.30

0.00

0.00

0.16

SP

0.48

0.12

0.00

0.16

0.70

WS

0.95

0.05

0.00

0.01

0.37

LP

0.76

0.98

0.06

0.03

0.06

WS+LP

0.91

0.10

0.00

0.00

0.14

 

TABLE 2.P values for Least Significant Difference (LSD) and Games and Howell (GH) posthoc tests of the intraobserver data comparing adjacent iterations. Significant results are in bold. Observer-variable combinations are not shown when none of the post hoc tests were significant. LSD = least significant difference test; GH = Games and Howell test.

 

 

Iteration

1 vs. 2

2 vs. 3

 

 

LSD

GH

LSD

GH

Obs 1

NS

0.28

0.53

0.37

0.67

Obs 1

SP

0.36

0.68

0.84

0.98

Obs 1

WS

0.75

0.68

0.81

0.98

Obs 1

LP

1.00

1.00

0.53

0.81

Obs 1

WS+LP

0.76

0.95

0.91

0.99

Obs 2

NS

0.79

0.94

0.15

0.41

Obs 2

SP

0.08

0.08

0.92

1.00

Obs 2

WS

0.04

0.09

0.89

0.06

Obs 2

LP

0.93

1.00

0.93

1.00

Obs 2

WS+LP

0.07

0.15

0.95

1.00

Obs 3

NS

0.29

0.57

0.02

0.05

Obs 3

SP

0.91

0.92

0.00

0.01

Obs 3

WS

0.57

0.81

0.00

0.00

Obs 3

LP

0.61

0.62

0.07

0.28

Obs 3

WS+LP

0.45

0.65

0.00

0.01

Obs 4

NS

0.82

0.84

0.00

0.03

Obs 4

SP

0.95

0.99

0.09

0.31

Obs 4

WS

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.02

Obs 4

LP

0.01

0.04

0.51

0.68

Obs 4

WS+LP

0.00

0.00

0.01

0.02

Obs 5

NS

0.07

0.16

0.14

0.25

Obs 5

SP

0.49

0.80

0.94

1.00

Obs 5

WS

0.55

0.84

0.16

0.33

Obs 5

LP

0.56

0.86

0.08

0.28

Obs 5

WS+LP

0.67

0.92

0.06

0.14

 

TABLE 3.P values for paired t-tests for intraobserver results from iterations 1 and 2 and for iterations 2 and 3. Bold results indicate a significant difference for the same observer between iterations.

 

Iteration 1 vs. 2

Obs 1

Obs 2

Obs 3

Obs 4

Obs 5

NS

0.10

0.50

0.17

0.48

0.02

SP

0.36

0.03

0.73

0.91

0.38

WS

0.57

0.00

0.38

0.00

0.24

LP

1.00

0.91

0.09

0.01

0.56

WS+LP

0.65

0.04

0.26

0.00

0.51

Iteration 2 vs. 3

 

 

 

 

 

NS

0.05

0.01

0.02

0.00

0.00

SP

0.81

0.85

0.00

0.14

0.92

WS

0.48

0.63

0.00

0.00

0.00

LP

0.13

0.83

0.04

0.25

0.03

WS+LP

0.72

0.76

0.00

0.00

0.00

 

TABLE 4. P values for Pearson correlation coefficients comparing intraobserver results from iterations 1 and 2 and for iterations 2 and 3. Bold values indicate a significant correlation (P≤0.05).

 

Iteration 1 vs. 2

Obs 1

Obs 2

Obs 3

Obs 4

Obs 5

NS

0.67

0.78

0.53

0.40

0.64

SP

0.54

0.62

0.23

0.25

0.57

WS

0.69

0.71

0.61

0.56

0.79

LP

0.88

0.39

0.78

0.60

0.42

WS+LP

0.56

0.39

0.52

0.62

0.65

Iteration 2 vs. 3

 

 

 

 

 

NS

0.86

0.90

0.21

0.88

0.90

SP

0.65

0.87

0.73

0.14

0.24

WS

0.89

0.93

0.84

0.62

0.95

LP

0.86

0.80

0.92

0.68

0.76

WS+LP

0.91

0.70

0.81

0.55

0.94

 

TABLE 5.The number of significant (P≤0.05) Least Significant Difference (LSD) and Games and Howell (GH) post hoc tests for ANOVAs performed on the interobserver data. For each cell there are 10 possible pairwise interobserver comparisons and a total of 50 possible comparisons per iteration. The percent significant comparisons out of all possible comparisons are given in parentheses.

 

 

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

 

I1 LSD

I1 GH

I2 LSD

I2 GH

I3 LSD

I3 GH

NS

6 (60%)

7 (70%)

4 (40%)

3 (30%)

7 (70%)

6 (60%)

SP

8 (80%)

8 (80%)

8 (80%)

8 (80%)

6 (60%)

4 (40%)

WS

7 (70%)

6 (60%)

4 (40%)

2 (20%)

9 (90%)

8 (80%)

LP

7 (70%)

3 (30%)

6 (60%)

4 (40%)

8 (80%)

5 (50%

WS+LP

4 (40%)

4 (40%)

7 (70%)

5 (50%)

10 (100%)

7 (70%)

total

32 (64%)

28 (56%)

29 (58%)

22 (44%)

40 (80%)

30 (60%)

 

TABLE 6. P values for paired t-tests comparing observers 2-5 to observer 1 for iteration 3. Significant tests are in bold.

 

 

Obs 1 vs. 2

Obs 1 vs. 3

Obs 1 vs. 4

Obs 1 vs. 5

NS

0.35

0.00

0.00

0.00

SP

0.09

0.00

0.00

0.00

WS

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.54

LP

0.00

0.14

0.00

0.00

WS+LP

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

 

TABLE 7.The number of significant pairwise interobserver comparisons using the Pearson correlation coefficient for iterations 1-3. For each cell there are 10 possible comparisons and a total of 50 possible comparisons per iteration. The percent of significant comparisons out of all possible comparisons are given in parentheses.

 

 

Iteration 1

Iteration 2

Iteration 3

NS

4 (40%)

10 (100%)

10 (100%)

SP

4 (40%)

10 (100%)

10 (100%)

WS

7 (70%)

10 (100%)

9 (90%)

LP

2 (20%)

10 (100%)

10 (100%)

WS+LP

0 (0%)

10 (100%)

10 (100%)

total

17 (34%)

50 (100%)

49 (98%)

 

TABLE 8. P values for Pearson correlation coefficients, comparing observer 1 to observers 2-5. Significant tests are in bold.

 

Iteration 1

Obs 1 vs. 2

Obs 1 vs. 3

Obs 1 vs. 4

Obs 1 vs. 5

NS

0.26

0.69

0.45

0.58

SP

0.46

0.24

0.04

0.08

WS

0.66

0.52

0.64

0.54

LP

0.13

0.60

0.26

0.26

WS+LP

0.15

0.41

0.41

0.09

average

0.33

0.49

0.36

0.31

Iteration 2

 

 

 

 

NS

0.77

0.64

0.66

0.62

SP

0.77

0.31

0.54

0.47

WS

0.87

0.73

0.76

0.65

LP

0.84

0.70

0.44

0.80

WS+LP

0.86

0.61

0.59

0.72

average

0.82

0.60

0.60

0.65

Iteration 3

 

 

 

 

NS

0.72

0.66

0.42

0.68

SP

0.77

0.57

0.55

0.85

WS

0.68

0.69

0.61

0.26

LP

0.84

0.51

0.85

0.50

WS+LP

0.67

0.29

0.65

0.69

average

0.74

0.54

0.62

0.60

 

TABLE 9. Taxon-specific P values for ANOVAs and paired t-tests, and Pearson correlation coefficients (PCC) for iteration 4, comparing observers 1 and 2. Significant results are in bold.

 

 

ANOVA

Paired t

PCC

Equus b.

 

 

 

NS

0.18

0.06

0.58

SP

0.87

0.66

0.89

WS

0.10

0.04

0.51

LP

0.01

0.00

0.41

WS+LP

0.58

0.47

0.44

Giraffa c.

 

 

 

NS

0.54

0.36

0.58

SP

0.65

0.42

0.71

WS

0.55

0.24

0.77

LP

0.31

0.03

0.86

WS+LP

0.44

0.13

0.80

Tapirus t.

 

 

 

NS

0.97

0.94

0.78

SP

0.70

0.42

0.78

WS

0.80

0.35

0.93

LP

0.26

0.01

0.90

WS+LP

0.27

0.01

0.93

Tapirus v.

 

 

 

NS

0.02

0.01

0.48

SP

0.00

0.00

0.28

WS

0.46

0.22

0.67

LP

0.31

0.00

0.92

WS+LP

0.50

0.09

0.85

Tayassu p.

 

 

 

NS

0.32

0.24

0.31

SP

0.22

0.03

0.76

WS

0.34

0.20

0.52

LP

0.25

0.02

0.82

WS+LP

0.59

0.30

0.76

all data

 

 

 

NS

0.58

0.35

0.66

SP

0.08

0.00

0.71

WS

0.19

0.01

0.77

LP

0.04

0.00

0.91

WS+LP

0.22

0.01

0.82

 

TABLE 10.Calculation of mean absolute percentage differences (MAPD) for five observers, iterations one through three.

 

 

Average # microwear features recognized

Mean absolute difference

Iteration 1

Obs 1

Obs 2

Obs 3

Obs 4

Obs 5

Mean

Obs 1

Obs 2

Obs 3

Obs 4

Obs 5

Mean

NS

9.5

8.2

4.2

6.1

17.2

9.0

5.1

9.3

53.5

32.5

90.3

38.1

SP

9.7

21.4

0.7

2.0

5.1

7.8

24.7

175.1

91.0

74.3

34.5

79.9

WS

11.7

7.1

13.9

21.8

7.4

12.4

5.5

42.7

12.3

76.1

40.2

35.4

LP

3.4

5.9

0.9

6.3

3.1

3.9

13.3

50.5

77.0

60.7

20.9

44.5

WS+LP

15.2

13.0

17.8

28.1

10.6

16.9

10.3

23.3

5.1

65.9

37.4

28.4

Iteration 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NS

14.0

9.0

7.0

10.0

11.0

10.2

37.3

11.8

31.4

2.0

7.8

18.0

SP

13.0

12.0

1.0

1.0

6.0

6.6

97.0

81.8

84.9

84.9

9.1

71.5

WS

13.0

15.0

15.0

11.0

11.0

13.0

0.0

15.4

15.4

15.4

15.4

12.3

LP

6.0

8.0

3.0

2.0

4.0

4.6

30.4

73.9

34.8

56.5

13.0

41.7

WS+LP

19.0

23.0

18.0

13.0

15.0

17.6

8.0

30.7

2.3

26.1

14.8

16.4

Iteration 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NS

11.5

10.8

8.6

15.8

15.2

12.4

7.1

12.8

30.5

27.6

22.78

20.2

SP

15.8

13.9

6.0

10.4

9.3

11.1

42.6

25.5

45.9

6.1

16.06

27.2

WS

10.5

14.6

25.9

17.8

10.0

15.8

33.4

7.4

64.3

12.9

36.55

30.9

LP

9.0

12.8

7.5

5.4

2.7

7.5

20.3

71.1

0.3

27.8

63.90

36.7

WS+LP

19.5

27.4

33.4

23.2

11.8

23.1

15.4

18.8

44.8

0.6

48.83

25.7

 

TABLE 11. Calculation of mean absolute percentage differences (MAPD) for observers one and two, iterations one through four.

 

 

Average # microwear features recognized

Mean absolute difference

Iteration 1

Obs 1

Obs 2

mean

Obs 1

Obs 2

mean

NS

9.50

8.20

8.85

7.34

7.34

7.34

SP

9.70

21.40

15.55

37.62

37.62

37.62

WS

11.70

7.10

9.40

24.47

24.47

24.47

LP

3.40

5.90

4.65

26.88

26.88

26.88

WS+LP

15.20

13.00

14.10

7.80

7.80

7.80

Iteration 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

NS

14.00

9.00

11.50

21.74

21.74

21.74

SP

13.00

12.00

12.50

4.00

4.00

4.00

WS

13.00

15.00

14.00

7.14

7.14

7.14

LP

6.00

8.00

7.00

14.29

14.29

14.29

WS+LP

19.00

23.00

21.00

9.52

9.52

9.52

Iteration 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

NS

11.50

10.80

11.15

3.14

3.14

3.14

SP

15.80

13.90

14.85

6.40

6.40

6.40

WS

10.50

14.60

12.55

16.33

16.33

16.33

LP

9.00

12.80

10.90

17.43

17.43

17.43

WS+LP

19.50

27.40

23.45

16.84

16.84

16.84

Iteration 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

NS

11.30

10.60

10.95

3.20

3.20

3.20

SP

21.30

17.00

19.15

11.23

11.23

11.23

WS

14.90

13.00

13.95

6.81

6.81

6.81

LP

12.60

17.40

15.00

16.00

16.00

16.00

WS+LP

27.50

30.40

28.95

5.01

5.01

5.01

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