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Appendix 1

List of characters

1-77: The first 77 characters are taken directly from Vitek's (2011) analysis. This analysis is based off of the analysis of Joyce et al. (2009) with some revisions to character wording and scoring.

78-84: Characters 78-84 are the seven new characters that Joyce and Lyson (2011) added to Joyce et al.'s (2009) matrix, taken directly from Joyce and Lyson (2011).

Character 85: Maximum adult carapace size greater than 600 mm: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

Character 86: hyo-hypoplastral callosity, if present, lacks sculpturing on more than 90 percent of its surface: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

Character 87: xiphiplastral callosity, if present, lacks sculpturing on more than 90 percent of its surface: 0 = no; 1 = yes.

Character 88: Nuchal sutures to preneural, and/or neural 1, before it sutures to anterolateral edge of costal 1: 0 = no 1 = yes.

Appendix 2

Data matrix

a=0/1 b=1/2 c=2/3 d=1/2/3

outgroup 00000 00100 00010 00000 00000 00000 00000 00000 00001 00011 00000 00000 00000 00000 00010 ?0000 00000 000

aubryi 10103 00111 1a0b0 10000 10021 10111 03110 20000 0111- 01011 00010 00101 10100 00000 00010 10000 00000 000

bibroni 21113 00300 0a011 00110 00020 00100 11000 10002 00200 10111 00111 11000 01011 00000 00000 20000 000a0 000

cartilaginea 21113 00200 00011 02110 00000 10111 01000 10010 00100 10211 10101 00010 01001 00000 00000 20000 00010 000

elegans 1110 30041 01a0b 00011 000020 01111 02110 20000 0001- 01111 11000 00101 01110 00000 00010 10000 00000 000

euphraticus 21113 01400 010b1 00110 00000 10100 01000 20010 00000 00221 11102 00001 01101 00000 00000 20000 00a10 000

ferox 21113 01300 012b1 00110 01000 20100 01000 20000 00000 00221 11002 00000 01101 00000 0a0a0 10000 00110 0-0

formosa 11113 00300 00010 00110 00120 10111 01000 20020 00001 00211 00--1 00011 01--- 00000 000?? ?0000 00010 000

frenatum 10003 00110 1a0b0 10000 10021 00111 03110 20001 1021- 01111 10010 00101 10100 00000 00010 10000 00010 000

gangeticus 21103 00200 0a1b0 01110 00000 10111 01000 20020 00001 00111 10002 00010 01010 00000 00000 20000 00a10 000

hurum 21103 00200 0a1b0 01110 00010 20111 01000 20020 00001 10211 00000 00010 01011 00000 00000 20000 00a10 000

indica 21213 00300 00010 00110 01021 00100 01000 10001 00200 20200 00111 11001 01011 00000 00000 20000 00a11 000

leithii 21103 00200 0a010 01110 00110 10111 01000 20020 00000 00211 00001 00010 01010 ????? ????? ????? ??a10 000

mutica 31113 01100 0a2b2 00111 01110 20101 01000 20000 0001- 00122 11001 00000 01010 00000 000a0 10000 00110 000

nigricans 21103 00200 000b- 01110 00100 10111 01000 10020 00201 00211 01001 00010 01010 ????? ????? ????? ??a10 000

punctata 10002 10111 1b0b0 10000 10010 00110 01110 20000 00101 00011 00000 00101 00110 00000 00011 10000 00010 000

senegalensis 21103 10010 12-40 00000 00021 10100 02110 20000 0021- 01011 00000 00101 11100 00000 00010 20000 00--0 000

sinensis 31113 00100 0b2b1 02111 00110 20111 01101 20020 00002 00211 10001 00000 01010 00000 00000 20000 00110 000

spinifera 21113 01100 012b2 00111 01000 20100 01000 20010 0001- 00222 11002 00000 01010 00000 000a0 10000 00110 000

steindachneri 11113 00300 0a0b0 02111 00020 20111 01001 20020 0001- 20212 00--1 00000 -1--0 00000 000?? ?0000 00010 000

subplana 31113 00300 00102 02111 00010 20111 01001 21010 0000- 00112 10001 00010 01011 00000 00000 20000 00010 000

swinhoei ---13 01400 0---- 00110 00100 10100 01100 20000 00000 00221 11--- 00001 -1--1 ????? ????? ????? ??--1 000

triunguis 21113 00300 010b1 00110 00000 20011 01000 20100 00000 0011? 11001 00000 01010 00000 00000 20000 10a10 0-0

thomasii 31?0 30010 11b-c 0??00 00?00 ???01 -01111 21000 00??? ???-2 00??? ???0? ????? 00000 01110 21001 ?1--0 000

rememdium 31?03 00101 110b0 1?100 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ?10?? 11110 01120 1???? ?a010 000

arctochelys 31?03 00101 110b0 1?000 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? 10111 11121 1???? ?1010 000

foveatus 31103 00300 011b1 00110 0?000 21110 ?1??0 10?00 00??1 ?2?12 1???? ????? ????? 000?0 00000 10??0 ?0a10 000

uintaensis 31113 01300 01?ca 00110 0?010 10100 00000 000?0 00a00 a0211 0110? ???0? 01000 -0000 00000 200?0 00a10 010

tetraneton 31?03 00?00 11010 ???01 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? 11010 01?20 ????? ??010 000

sterea 21?03 00101 11020 10001 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? 10010 01120 ????? ?1110 000

lancensis 31?03 00?02 01020 ??110 0?121 20a11 02111 2000? 0001- 20211 00??? ????? ????? 00000 00?10 211?1 100a0 000

allani 31103 00d10 0a0b1 00110 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? -00?0 ?0000 2???? ?0010 110

byssina 311?3 01c00 0??22 0?110 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???0? ????? 0???? -0?00 00000 1???? ?0??1 110

puercensis 3110 301d0 0?1?2 1??11 00??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? 00000 00??? ????? ?00a0 001

quinni 3??03 01??? ?1?22 ????0 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? 00000 0???? ????? ?0001 ??1

cerevisia 31?03 00300 00?12 00?10 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???0? ????? ???0? -0000 00000 1???? ?0001 1-1

montinsana 31103 0?300 0???a 00?10 ???0? 101?? 0??00 ?0?0? 00??? ????1 ?1?1? ???0? 01001 -000? ?0000 100?0 0???1 100

splendida 31103 00300 011b1 00110 0?000 10110 00000 b0000 00??? ??211 11??? ????? ????? 000?0 00000 b00?0 ?0aa1 000

egregius 21113 01??? ?1?2a ????0 0???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? 00-00 0???? ????? ?0010 ??0

Appendix 3

Specimen List

Apalone ferox: YPM R 10574, skeleton.

Apalone mutica: YPM R 10890, skeleton.

Axestemys byssina: USNM 4089, xiphiplastron, cervical vertebra, isolated ilium, several fragmentary appendicular elements; USNM 12589, skull fragments, partial left dentary, left hyoplastron, right hypoplastron, left and right xiphiplastron; USNM 16174, fragmentary carapace, left and right hyo- and hypoplastra, partial epiplastron; AMNH 1034, partial medial hypoplastron; AMNH 1046, partial medial hypoplastron, partial nuchal, partial costal 1, costal fragments.

Axestemys cerevisia: UW 2382, a carapace, plastron, partial pectoral and pelvic girdles, and one cervical vertebrae

Axestemys montinsana: UM 27029, a skull, partial lower jaw, partial carapace, fragmentary entoplastron, hyoplastron, and hypoplastron, xiphiplastron, five cervical vertebrae, a partial pelvic girdle, two humeri, a femur, and various disarticulated appendicular elements; PTRM 5350.88, skull fragments; PTRM 5350.23, PTM 5350.24, lower jaw; PTRM 6030.07, PTRM 6030.08, epiplastron; PTRM 6030.01, entoplastron; PTRM 6030.03, hyoplastron; PTRM 6030.04, hypoplastron; PTRM 6030.02, hyo- and hypoplastron; PTRM 6030.05, PTRM 6030.06, xiphiplastron; PTRM 5350.21, PTRM 5350.22, PTRM 5350.30, PTRM 5350.108, cervical vertebra; PTRM 5350.91, PTRM 5350.100, pectoral girdle; PTRM 5350.25, humerus; PTRM 5350.21, pelvic girdle, PTRM 5350.77,5350.78, ilium; PTRM 5350.27, ischium, PTRM 5350.75, PTRM 5350.76, pubis; PTRM 5350.28, PTRM 5350.51, PTRM 5350.130, femur; PTRM 5350.122, tibia; PTRM 5350.47, PTRM 5350.110, PTRM 5350.117, 5350.117, PTRM 5350.121, phalange; PTRM 5350.43, PTRM 5350.105, claw; UCM 49231, skull fragments; UCM 49228, partial dentary; DMNH 44623, costal and plastron fragments; UCM 37755, costal fragments and partial cervical vertebra; DMNH 45130, shell fragments and phalanges; DMNH 44622, plastron fragments and ungual phalanx; DMNH 43187, partial pectoral girdle; UCM 34134, humerus; UCM 34119, phalanx.

Axestemys quinni: FMNH P 26641, carapace.

Axestemys splendida: AMNH 3952, partial carapace; MRF 266, skull; MRF 666, lower jaw; MRF 834-835, partial carapace and complete right hyo- and hypoplastron; MRF 849, partial carapace and dentary; MRF 700, preneural; MRF 631, costal 1; MRF 654, 676, costal; MRF 567, 675, 678 hyoplastron;MRF 699, partial pectoral girdle; MRF 586, MRF 661, femur; TMP 90.50.01, partial skull and skeleton; TMP 2001.12.27, carapace, partial plastron, partial skeleton;

“Trionyx” puercensis: AMNH 1202, partial carapace, partial hyo- and hypoplastron, partial xiphiplastron.

Conchochelys admiribalis: AMNH 6090, skull.

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