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TABLE 1. Summary statistics of astragali samples.

 

n

mean

std dev

S-W1

V2

V *3

SV* 4

Thousand Creek

LM

190

27.83

1.71

n.s.

0.0614

0.0615

0.0032

TD

211

13.99

1.25

n.s.

0.0893

0.0895

0.0044

TI

216

15.30

1.27

n.s.

0.0830

0.0831

0.0040

TP

212

11.06

0.97

n.s.

0.0877

0.0878

0.0043

LL

198

30.51

2.05

n.s.

0.0672

0.0673

0.0034

WD

193

18.62

1.59

0.0153

0.0854

0.0855

0.0044

WI

201

17.71

1.60

n.s.

0.0903

0.0905

0.0046

LI

215

23.88

1.58

n.s.

0.0662

0.0662

0.0032

Antilocapra americana

LM

26

34.15

1.24

n.s.

0.0363

0.0367

0.0052

TD

24

16.70

1.02

n.s.

0.0611

0.0617

0.0092

TI

25

18.81

0.84

n.s.

0.0447

0.0451

0.0066

TP

26

13.90

0.63

n.s.

0.0453

0.0458

0.0065

LL

25

36.72

1.44

0.0039

0.0392

0.0396

0.0058

WD

26

21.91

0.80

0.0428

0.0365

0.0369

0.0053

WI

26

22.39

1.04

n.s.

0.0464

0.0469

0.0067

LI

25

28.93

1.06

0.0357

0.0366

0.0370

0.0054

Texoceros guymonensis

LM

67

22.75

1.02

n.s.

0.0448

0.0450

0.0039

TD

67

11.51

0.96

n.s.

0.0834

0.0837

0.0074

TI

67

12.49

0.91

n.s.

0.0729

0.0731

0.0064

TP

67

9.39

0.65

n.s.

0.0692

0.0695

0.0061

LL

67

24.95

1.19

n.s.

0.0477

0.0479

0.0042

WD

67

15.23

0.90

n.s.

0.0591

0.0593

0.0052

WI

65

14.46

1.10

n.s.

0.0761

0.0764

0.0068

LI

65

19.92

1.08

n.s.

0.0542

0.0544

0.0048

 

1 Significance of deviation from normal distribution using a Shapiro-Wilk test.

2 Coefficient of Variation.

3 V corrected for sample size.

4 Standard Error of V*.

TABLE 2. Intra-operator error for astragalar dimensions.

 

Dimension

Difference
(mm)

Difference
(%)

LM

0.12

0.4

TD

0.65

4.5

TI

0.36

2.3

TP

0.14

1.3

LL

0.11

0.4

WD

0.15

0.8

WI

0.24

1.3

LI

0.12

0.5

 

TABLE 3. First three principal components of Thousand Creek antilocaprid astragali.

 

PC1

PC2

PC3

Size variation

Size-independent variation in shape

Eigenvalue

6.5276

0.4219

0.3504

Percent

81.5945

5.2741

4.3795

Eigenvectors

LM

0.3651

-0.3738

0.0965

TD

0.3178

0.7765

-0.2646

TI

0.3590

0.2098

0.1506

TP

0.3284

0.2069

0.7848

LL

0.3764

-0.2173

0.0021

WD

0.3631

-0.1106

-0.2944

WI

0.3450

-0.0260

-0.4419

LI

0.3692

-0.3322

-0.0120

 

TABLE 4. Summary statistics of Bovid astragali.

 

Species

mean

sd

V

V*

s.e. V*

V* - 1kCr V*

p

Aepyceros melapus

LM

35.04

1.410

0.0402

0.0412

0.0103

-1.61

0.109

n=10

TD

16.53

1.036

0.0627

0.0642

0.0164

-1.49

0.138

TI

19.20

0.894

0.0466

0.0477

0.0120

-2.79

0.006

TP

13.76

0.660

0.0480

0.0492

0.0124

-2.94

0.004

LL

37.42

1.580

0.0422

0.0433

0.0109

-2.11

0.036

WD

21.78

0.900

0.0413

0.0424

0.0106

-3.75

0.000

WI

21.86

0.903

0.0413

0.0424

0.0106

-4.16

0.000

LI

28.94

1.195

0.0413

0.0423

0.0106

-2.15

0.032

Antidorcas marsupialis

LM

28.16

1.637

0.0581

0.0599

0.0174

-0.09

0.930

n=8

TD

13.58

1.193

0.0879

0.0906

0.0269

0.04

0.967

TI

15.73

1.043

0.0663

0.0684

0.0199

-0.72

0.470

TP

11.16

0.938

0.0841

0.0867

0.0256

-0.04

0.966

LL

30.25

1.739

0.0575

0.0593

0.0172

-0.46

0.647

WD

18.79

1.132

0.0602

0.0621

0.0180

-1.26

0.209

WI

18.81

1.499

0.0797

0.0822

0.0242

-0.34

0.736

LI

23.66

1.349

0.0570

0.0588

0.0170

-0.43

0.669

Gazella granti

LM

33.80

1.340

0.0396

0.0406

0.0102

-1.96

0.052

n=10

TD

17.04

0.837

0.0491

0.0503

0.0127

-2.91

0.004

TI

19.08

0.842

0.0441

0.0452

0.0114

-3.15

0.002

TP

13.33

0.943

0.0707

0.0725

0.0186

-0.80

0.424

LL

36.74

1.503

0.0409

0.0419

0.0105

-2.30

0.023

WD

21.95

0.920

0.0419

0.0430

0.0108

-3.65

0.000

WI

20.79

0.794

0.0382

0.0391

0.0098

-4.75

0.000

LI

28.65

1.154

0.0403

0.0413

0.0103

-2.30

0.022

Tragelaphus scriptus

LM

33.6

2.729

0.08122

0.08291

0.01937

1.09

0.277

n=12

TD

15.23

1.495

0.09816

0.10021

0.02373

0.44

0.658

TI

18.03

1.597

0.08857

0.09042

0.02125

0.34

0.735

TP

13.41

1.25

0.09321

0.09516

0.02244

0.32

0.748

LL

35.73

3.106

0.08693

0.08874

0.02083

1.02

0.311

WD

21.23

1.903

0.08964

0.0915

0.02152

0.27

0.785

WI

19.59

1.987

0.10143

0.10354

0.02458

0.52

0.603

LI

28.96

2.539

0.08767

0.0895

0.02102

1.10

0.274

 

TABLE 5. Comparison of V*, following Sokal and Braumann (1980).

 

V*1-V*2 1

S V*1-V*2 2

df 3

t 4

p

Thousand Creek
vs.
A. americana

LM

0.0249

0.0061

214

4.0560

<0.0001

TD

0.0277

0.0102

233

2.7131

0.0072

TI

0.0380

0.0077

239

4.9170

<0.0001

TP

0.0420

0.0078

236

5.3637

<0.0001

LL

0.0277

0.0067

221

4.1217

<0.0001

WD

0.0486

0.0069

217

7.0840

<0.0001

WI

0.0436

0.0081

225

5.3675

<0.0001

LI

0.0292

0.0063

238

4.6488

<0.0001

Thousand Creek
vs.
T. guymonensis

LM

0.0165

0.0051

255

3.2634

0.0013

TD

0.0057

0.0086

276

0.6687

n.s.

TI

0.0100

0.0076

281

1.3144

n.s.

TP

0.0183

0.0075

277

2.4535

0.0148

LL

0.0194

0.0054

263

3.5911

0.0004

WD

0.0262

0.0068

258

3.8444

0.0002

WI

0.0141

0.0082

264

1.7181

n.s.

LI

0.0118

0.0058

278

2.0317

0.0431

T. guymonensis
vs.
A. americana

LM

0.0083

0.0066

91

1.2725

n.s.

TD

0.0220

0.0118

89

1.8637

n.s.

TI

0.0280

0.0092

90

3.0462

0.0030

TP

0.0237

0.0089

91

2.6512

0.0095

LL

0.0083

0.0071

90

1.1573

n.s.

WD

0.0225

0.0074

91

3.0323

0.0032

WI

0.0295

0.0096

89

3.0813

0.0027

LI

0.0174

0.0073

88

2.4009

0.0185

 Differences in coefficients of variation.

2 Standard Error of difference.

3 Degrees of freedom.

4 V*1-V*2 / S V*1-V*2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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