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FIGURE 1. Alleged pterosaur painting at Black Dragon Canyon, Utah. 1.1. The author and the rock art panel. 1.2. Enlargement of the rock art panel, with broken black line indicating twentieth-century chalk outline. 1.3. Enlargement of the rock art panel, with solid black outlines indicating ancient paintings, broken white outline indicating areas where the pigment has bled downward, and broken black outline indicating a petroglyph.


FIGURE 2. Details of rock art panel at Black Dragon Canyon. 2.1. Small anthropomorph and forepart of horned serpent, indicated by solid black outline, and twentieth-century chalk indicated by broken black outline. 2.2. Pair of quadrupeds indicated by solid black outline, and twentieth-century chalk indicated by broken black outline. NP = areas with no pigment.


FIGURE 3. An alleged dinosaur petroglyph in Havasupai Canyon, Arizona, and interpretations of its identity. 3.1. The petroglyph (from Hubbard, 1927). 3.2. Drawing of the sauropod dinosaur Diplodocus by Charles Knight, used by Hubbard (1927) to support the interpretation that the petroglyph represents a sauropod. 3.3. Depiction of the hadrosaur Edmontosaurus, used by Taylor (1979, 1987) to support the interpretation that the petroglyph represents a hadrosaur. 3.4. The interpretation advanced here: that the petroglyph is a stylized bird (black) with a J-shaped extension (gray) on one foot.


FIGURE 4. Stylization, as illustrated by the American alligator. 4.1. Stylized alligator in the logo of the PaperGator recycling program; note its green color and the row of upright triangular plates on its back. 4.2. American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis); note that it has neither green color nor a row of upright triangular plates on its back.


FIGURE 5. Southwestern rock art images, illustrating stylistic conventions that show that the petroglyph in Figure 3.1 is not a quadruped but a bird with a foot extension. 5.1. Petroglyphs from lower on the same panel as the "dinosaur" in Figure 3.1, showing an upside-down, J-shaped crook (indicated by red arrow) and bighorn sheep with all four limbs shown (from Hubbard, 1927). 5.2. Bighorn sheep painting at Kachina Bridge, Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah, with all four limbs shown. 5.3. Petroglyphs at Pictograph Point in Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado, showing an anthropomorph with an extension on one foot (left), two anthropomorphs connected by foot extensions (middle), and another anthropomorph with an extension on one foot (right). 5.4. Bird depictions in southwestern rock art, showing that a hooked line represents the head and neck of a stylized bird and that a stylized bird may have an open ovoid shape for a body; sources (clockwise from upper left): photo by author, taken at Pictograph Point; Turner 1971, fig. 20; Turner 1971, fig. 99; Schaafsma 1986, fig. 87; six bird images from Cole 2004a, fig. 4; Cole 2009, fig. 91; Cole 2009, fig. 99; all but the one from Schaafsma (1986) are from the Pueblo II – III periods.


FIGURE 6. A second alleged dinosaur petroglyph from Havasupai Canyon (from Beierle, 1980). The animal is actually a rabbit or a bighorn sheep drawn in a style peculiar to the Pueblo III period.


FIGURE 7. Tanzanian rock art depicting giraffes, from Kohl-Larsen and Kohl-Larsen (1958). 7.1. A giraffe that Mackal (1987) considered a sauropod dinosaur. 7.2. Other giraffes from Tanzanian rock art, showing that the alleged sauropod is actually a giraffe; of these three, the one on the left is from the same panel as 7.1.


FIGURE 8. A group of three paintings of short-necked quadrupeds, probably lizards, from Clark (1959). Mackal (1987) called the animals long-necked and implied that they are sauropods.


FIGURE 9. Images of Underwater Panther, a water spirit in the traditions of tribes from near the Great Lakes. Note that this being is depicted in various forms, none of which are particularly like a dinosaur. 9.1. The Underwater Panther of Agawa Rock (from Meurger and Gagnon, 1988), which Gibbons and Hovind (1999) liken to a dinosaur. 9.2. Two other images of Underwater Panther in Great Lakes rock art (from Dewdney and Kidd, 1967); note the common presence of canoe images, suggesting that Underwater Panther was painted in appreciation for allowing safe lake crossing. 9.3. Underwater Panther and victim, carved onto an Ojibwe war club from around the year 1800. Canadian Museum of Civilization specimen III-G-834. 9.4. Underwater Panther in a quillwork depiction on an Ottawa buckskin bag, c. 1780 (Coe, 1976). 9.5. Underwater Panther, carved onto a Winnebago war club collected in 1839 (Feder, 1965). 9.6. Underwater Panther, carved onto a Mide board, used in Ojibwe rites, c. 1860-1880 (Coe, 1976). 9.7. Underwater Panther in black yarn on woolen bag from the mid-1800s, tribe of origin unknown. Canadian Museum of Civilization specimen III-X-777.


FIGURE 10. Reconstructions of an alleged pair of pterosaurs in rock art near Alton, Illinois, from p. 2 (top) and p. 25 (below) of Armstrong (1887).


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